Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Chemistry Solutions Digest

Maharashtra State Board 11th Std Chemistry Textbook Solutions Digest

Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Textbook Solutions

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Biology Important Questions Chapter 1 Living World

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board 11th Biology Important Questions Chapter 1 Living world Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board 11th Biology Important Questions Chapter 1 Living World

Question 1.
What are the basic principles of life?
Answer:
The basic principles of life are as follows:

  1. Metabolism: Metabolism is breaking of molecules (catabolism) and making of new molecules (anabolism). An organism performs metabolism in order to obtain energy and various chemical molecules essential for survival.
  2. Growth and development: Organisms tend to grow and develop in a well-orchestrated process from birth onwards.
  3. Ageing: It is the process during which molecules, organs and systems begin to lose their effective working and become old.
  4. Reproduction: For continuity of race (species), organisms reproduce (asexually or sexually) to produce young ones like themselves. However, mules and worker bees do not reproduce, yet are living.
  5. Death: As the body loses its capacity to perform metabolism, an organism dies.
  6. Responsiveness: Living organisms respond to thermal, chemical or biological changes in their surroundings.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Biology Important Questions Chapter 1 Living World

Question 2.
Enlist the characters of living organisms.
Answer:
The basic principles of life are as follows:

  1. Metabolism: Metabolism is breaking of molecules (catabolism) and making of new molecules (anabolism). An organism performs metabolism in order to obtain energy and various chemical molecules essential for survival.
  2. Growth and development: Organisms tend to grow and develop in a well-orchestrated process from birth onwards.
  3. Ageing: It is the process during which molecules, organs and systems begin to lose their effective working and become old.
  4. Reproduction: For continuity of race (species), organisms reproduce (asexually or sexually) to produce young ones like themselves. However, mules and worker bees do not reproduce, yet are living.
  5. Death: As the body loses its capacity to perform metabolism, an organism dies.
  6. Responsiveness: Living organisms respond to thermal, chemical or biological changes in their surroundings.

Question 3.
What are taxonomical aids? Give examples.
Answer:
Taxonomical aids are used to study biodiversity, e.g. Herbaria, botanical gardens, museums, biodiversity parks, etc.

Question 4.
What is a herbarium?
Answer:
Herbarium is a dried plant specimen that is pressed, treated and mounted on a standard size sheet in order to preserve it.
[Note: Herbarium is a collection of dried, pressed and labelled plant specimens arranged by a classification system.]

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Biology Important Questions Chapter 1 Living World

Question 5.
What information is mentioned in the label of a plant specimen preserved in herbarium?
Answer:
It is also essential to record the date, place of collection along with detailed classification and highlighting with its ecological peculiarities, characters of the plant on a sheet. Local names of plant specimens and name of the collector may be added. This information is given at lower right comer of sheet and is called ‘label’.

Question 6.
What are botanical gardens?
Answer:
Botanical gardens are places where plants of different varieties collected from different parts of the world are grown in vivo in a scientific and systematic manner.

Question 7.
Define biodiversity.
Answer:
Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life forms in an ecosystem.

Question 8.
Define conservation.
Answer:
Conservation involves attempting to slow down, stop or even reverse the loss in the natural habitat of an organism.

Question 9.
What is a museum? What are the various specimens found in a museum?
Answer:
1. Museums are places where collections of preserved plant and animal specimens are kept.
2. The different types of specimens found in a museum include;
(a) Plant and animal specimens preserved in formalin (10% to 40% formaldehyde) in transparent jars.
(b) Larger animals like birds and mammals, usually stuffed and preserved.
(c) Certain specimens in dried forms are also kept in a museum.
(d) Systematic collections of shells, skeletons of animals and insect boxes are also found in museums.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Biology Important Questions Chapter 1 Living World

Question 10.
What is taxidermy?
Answer:
Taxidermy is a science in which larger animals like birds and mammals are usually stuffed and preserved.

Question 11.
Write a note on zoological park.
Answer:

  1. Zoological park (zoo) is a place where wild animals are kept in captivity.
  2. Wild animals are kept in a protected environment and care is taken to provide conditions similar to their natural habitat.
  3. It is a form of ex situ conservation of species i.e. away from their natural habitat.
  4. A naturalist can study the food habits and behaviour of animals in a zoological park.

Question 12.
Mention some tools of maintaining biodiversity records.
Answer:
Flora, manuals, monographs and catalogues are some tools of maintaining biodiversity records.

Question 13.
Explain the different tools used for maintaining biodiversity records.
Answer:
The different tools used for maintaining biodiversity records are as follows:

  • Flora: It is the plant life occurring in a particular area at a particular time.
  • Monograph: It describes any one selected biological group.
  • Manual: It provides information and keys about identification of species found in a particular area.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Biology Important Questions Chapter 1 Living World

Question 14.
Define biodiversity park.
Answer:
Biodiversity park is an ecological assemblage of species that form self-sustaining communities on degraded/ barren landscape, e.g. Uttamrao Patil Biodiversity Park, Gureghar, Mahabaleshwar.

Question 15.
Write a note on ‘key’ used as a taxonomical aid.
Answer:

  1. Key is a taxonomical aid used in the classification of plants and animals.
  2. Keys are based on contrasting characters. One of the contrasting characters gets accepted and the other gets rejected.
  3. The statement in a key is called a lead.
  4. Normally keys are analytical in nature.

Question 16.
Name the following.

  1. A collection of dried plant specimen that are pressed, treated and mounted on a standard size sheet in order to preserve it.
  2. Places where collections of preserved plant and animal specimens are kept.
  3. Taxonomical aid used for classification of plants and animals which is based on contrasting characters.

Answer:

  1. Herbarium
  2. Museum
  3. Key

Question 17.
Fill in the blanks:

  1. The extent of complexity and density of ________ can be regarded as a measure of health of an ecosystem.
  2. In a museum, plant and animal specimens are preserved in _________ in transparent jars.
  3. A naturalist can study food habits and behaviour of animals in a ___________.
  4. Study of _________ is a must, to understand interrelations between organisms and maintain harmony on planet earth.
  5. The statement in a key is called a _________.

Answer:

  1. biodiversity
  2. formalin
  3. zoo/ zoological park
  4. biodiversity
  5. lead

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Biology Important Questions Chapter 1 Living World

Question 18.
Rakesh went for a study tour to the nearest national park. There he found some different plant species. He was not aware about their names and family. He wanted to bring that plants to his college and keep them for longer period of time, so that he can study them thoroughly. What should he do in such a situation?
Answer:
1. Rakesh can press and mount the plant specimen on the herbarium sheet and can preserve the dried plant material.
2. He can also write any information he knows about the plant on herbarium sheet, which can be used for further studies.

Question 19.
While doing his Ph.D. in Plant Taxonomy your friend has come across a plant, which he feels is a new species. How can he confirm the same?
Answer:
1. The newly discovered plant can be identified with the help of taxonomic keys, monographs, floras, herbaria and preserved plant specimens.
2. A separate taxonomic key is available for each taxonomic category.
3. The individual would have to study the morphological and anatomical features of the plant and compare it with the existing information available in the scientific literature.
Conservation of Biodiversity

Question 20.
Quick Review:
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 11 Biology Important Questions Chapter 1 Living World 1
Maharashtra Board Class 11 Biology Important Questions Chapter 1 Living World 2

Question 21.
Multiple Choice Questions:

Question 1.
Which one of the following aspects is an inclusive characteristic of living things?
(A) Isolated metabolic reactions occurring in vitro
(B) Reproduction
(C) Irritability
(D) Increase in mass by accumulation of material on surface
Answer:
(C) Irritability

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Biology Important Questions Chapter 1 Living World

Question 2.
Which of the following property is shown by both living and non-living things?
(A) Growth
(B) Consciousness
(C) Ageing
(D) Metabolism
Answer:
(A) Growth

Question 3.
Herbarium is
(A) a collection of living plants which are medicinally important
(B) a place where plants collected from different parts of the world are grown
(C) a garden where herbs are cultivated
(D) a collection of dried and preserved plants
Answer:
(D) a collection of dried and preserved plants

Question 4.
A zoological park does not
(A) have wild animals in captivity under human care.
(B) provide conditions similar to their natural habitat of animals.
(C) have a systematic collection of shells and skeletons of animals
(D) enable naturalists to study the food habits and behaviour of wild animals.
Answer:
(C) have a systematic collection of shells and skeletons of animals

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Biology Important Questions Chapter 1 Living World

Question 5.
A naturalist can study food habits and behaviour of animals in a
(A) museum
(B) zoological park
(C) botanical garden
(D) herbarium
Answer:
(B) zoological park

Question 6.
Which of the following is NOT a tool of maintaining biodiversity records?
(A) Flora
(B) Monograph
(C) Fauna
(D) Manual
Answer:
(C) Fauna

Question 7.
Which of the following tools provides information for identification of names of species found in a particular area?
(A) Catalogues
(B) Manuals
(C) Flora
(D) Monographs
Answer:
(B) Manuals

Question 8.
Keys are taxonomical aids that
(A) are used to identify plants and animals based on similarities and dissimilarities.
(B) contains the account of habitat and distribution of plants in a given area.
(C) provides an index to the plant species found in a particular area.
(D) provide information for identification of species found in an area.
Answer:
(A) are used to identify plants and animals based on similarities and dissimilarities.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Biology Important Questions Chapter 1 Living World

Question 22.
Competitive Corner:

Question 1.
Match the items given in Column I with those in Column II and select the correct option given below: [NEET (UG) 2018]
Answer:

Column I Column II
1. Herbarium (a) It is a place having a collection of preserved plants and animals
2. Key (b) A list that enumerates methodically all the species found in an area with brief description aiding identification
3. Museum (c) It is a place where dried and pressed plant specimens mounted on sheets are kept
4. Catalogue (d) A booklet containing a list of characters and their alternates which are helpful in identification of various taxa.

(A) i-b, ii-d, iii-c, iv-a
(B) i-c, ii-b, iii-a, iv-d
(C) i-a, ii-d, iii-c, iv-b
(D) i-c, ii-d, iii-a, iv-b
Answer:
(D) i-c, ii-d, iii-a, iv-b

Question 2.
The label of a herbarium sheet does not carry information on
(A) height of the plant
(B) date of collection
(C) name of collector
(D) local names
Answer:
(A) height of the plant

Question 3.
Which one of the following is NOT a correct statement? [NEET 2013]
(A) Herbarium houses dried, pressed and preserved plant specimens.
(B) Botanical gardens have collection of living plants for reference.
(C) A museum has collection of photographs of plants and animals.
(D) Key is a taxonomic aid for identification of specimens.
Answer:
(C) A museum has collection of photographs of plants and animals.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Biology Important Questions Chapter 1 Living World

Question 23.
Basic Principles of Life

Question 1.
Define metabolism.
Answer:
Metabolism: Metabolism is breaking of molecules (catabolism) and making of new molecules (anabolism). An organism performs metabolism in order to obtain energy and various chemical molecules essential for survival.

Question 2.
Enlist the basic principles of life.
Answer:
The basic principles of life are as follows:
(i) Metabolism: Metabolism is breaking of molecules (catabolism) and making of new molecules (anabolism). An organism performs metabolism in order to obtain energy and various chemical molecules essential for survival.
(ii) Growth and development: Organisms tend to grow and develop in a well-orchestrated process from birth onwards.
(iii) Ageing: It is the process during which molecules, organs and systems begin to lose their effective working and become old.
(iv) Reproduction: For continuity of race (species), organisms reproduce (asexually or sexually) to produce young ones like themselves. However, mules and worker bees do not reproduce, yet are living.
(v) Death: As the body loses its capacity to perform metabolism, an organism dies.
(vi) Responsiveness: Living organisms respond to thermal, chemical or biological changes in their surroundings.

Question 3.
Reproduction is not an inclusive character of life. Explain.
Answer:
No, we cannot call reproduction as an inclusive character of life. Certain organisms like mules and worker bees do not reproduce and are still living. Thus, reproduction cannot be considered as an all inclusive defining characteristic of living organisms.

Question 4.
Define taxonomical aids and give two examples
Answer:
Taxonomical aids are used to study biodiversity, e.g. Herbaria, botanical gardens, museums, biodiversity parks, etc.

Question 5.
1. Define herbarium.
2. Mention any four essentials of a good herbarium.
Answer:
1. Herbarium is a dried plant specimen that is pressed, treated and mounted on a standard size sheet in order to preserve it.
[Note: Herbarium is a collection of dried, pressed and labelled plant specimens arranged by a classification system.]

2. The essentials of a good herbarium are as follows:
(i) It is essential to identify and label the collected specimen correctly.
(ii) Specimens should be stored in a dry place.
(iii) The plants are usually pressed and mounted on the sheet of paper known as herbarium sheets. Some plants are not suitable for pressing or mounting, like succulents, seeds, cones, etc. They need to be preserved in suitable liquid like formaldehyde, acetic alcohol, etc.
(iv) In order to preserve the specimen for longer durations, acid-free paper, special glues and inks must be used to mount the specimen so that the specimen does not deteriorate.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Biology Important Questions Chapter 1 Living World

Question 6.
Shanaya found a unfamiliar plant on her visit to Tamil Nadu. She wants to study the plant thoroughly in her laboratory? How can she do so?
Answer:
1. Riya can press and mount the plant specimen on a herbarium sheet and preserve the dried plant material, until she returns back from her visit.
2. She can also write any available information regarding the collected specimen on the herbarium sheet, which can be useful for further studies with her biology teacher.
3. Various taxonomical aids can be useful to get information about this peculiar plant.
[Note: In order to conserve the local flora, Riya can collect photographs ofplant and describe it’s structure to her teacher.]

Question 7.
Manas wants to prepare a herbarium of plants.
1. What is a herbarium?
2. What are the essentials he should keep in mind to prepare a good herbarium?
3. What information should be added on the label of a herbarium?
Answer:
1. Herbarium is a dried plant specimen that is pressed, treated and mounted on a standard size sheet in order to preserve it.
[Note: Herbarium is a collection of dried, pressed and labelled plant specimens arranged by a classification system.]

2. (i) It is essential to identify and label the collected specimen correctly.
(ii) Specimens should be stored in a dry place.
(iii) The plants are usually pressed and mounted on the sheet of paper known as herbarium sheets. Some plants are not suitable for pressing or mounting, like succulents, seeds, cones, etc. They need to be preserved in suitable liquid like formaldehyde, acetic alcohol, etc.
(iv) In order to preserve the specimen for longer durations, acid-free paper, special glues and inks must be used to mount the specimen so that the specimen does not deteriorate.
(v) The specimens should be dried well before preparing a herbarium in order to prevent rotting of specimen.

3. It is also essential to record the date, place of collection along with detailed classification and highlighting with its ecological peculiarities, characters of the plant on a sheet. Local names of plant specimens and name of the collector may be added. This information is given at lower right comer of sheet and is called ‘label’.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Biology Important Questions Chapter 1 Living World

Question 8.
Can humans help in conservation of biodiversity? Explain your answer.
Answer:

  1. Due to rapid increase in human population and industrialization, humans have over utilized natural resources; leading to degradation of the environment and hence only humans can help conserve the ecosystem.
  2. Humans are capable of conserving and improving the quality of nature and thus, can play a major role in biodiversity conservation.
  3. In order to conserve biodiversity and its environmental resources, humans must use the resources rationally and avoid excessive degradation of environment.
  4. Human beings are stakeholders of the environment and need to come together to overcome pollution and improve the environment quality in order to conserve biodiversity.

E.g. Ban or limit on use of harmful products (plastic, chemicals, etc.) that are toxic to various birds, animals, etc. Human beings also play a role in conservation of biodiversity by establishment of various sites for in situ (national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and biosphere reserves) and ex situ (botanical gardens, culture collections and zoological parks) conservation.

Question 9.
Write a note on botanical gardens.
Answer:
Botanical gardens are places where plants of different varieties collected from different parts of the world are grown in vivo in a scientific and systematic manner.
The importance of botanical gardens is as follows:

  1. It is a place where there is an assemblage of living plants maintained for botanical teaching and research purpose.
  2. Botanical gardens are important for their records of local flora.
  3. Botanical gardens provide facilities for the collection of living plant materials for botanical studies.
  4. Botanical gardens also supply seeds and material for botanical investigations.
  5. The development of botanical gardens in any country is associated with its history of civilization, culture, heritage, science, art, literature and various other social and religious expressions.
  6. Botanical gardens besides possessing an outdoor garden may contain herbaria, research laboratory, greenhouses and library.
  7. Botanical gardens are not only important for botanical studies, but also to develop tourism in the country.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Biology Important Questions Chapter 1 Living World

Question 10.
Botanical gardens are important in botanical studies. Justify.
Answer:
Metabolism can be considered as an all-inclusive (defining) feature of life since it is exhibited by all living organisms and does not take place in non-living things. Another all-inclusive characteristic of life is responsiveness or irritability. This is a unique property of living beings since all living beings are conscious of their surroundings.

Question 11.
Suggest any three measures you can take to prevent loss of biodiversity.
Answer:
The essentials of a good herbarium are as follows:

  1. It is essential to identify and label the collected specimen correctly.
  2. Specimens should be stored in a dry place.
  3. The plants are usually pressed and mounted on the sheet of paper known as herbarium sheets. Some plants are not suitable for pressing or mounting, like succulents, seeds, cones, etc. They need to be preserved in suitable liquid like formaldehyde, acetic alcohol, etc.
  4. In order to preserve the specimen for longer durations, acid-free paper, special glues and inks must be used to mount the specimen so that the specimen does not deteriorate.
  5. The specimens should be dried well before preparing a herbarium in order to prevent rotting of specimen.
  6. It is also essential to record the date, place of collection along with detailed classification and highlighting with its ecological peculiarities, characters of the plant on a sheet.

Local names of plant specimens and name of the collector may be added. This information is given at lower right comer of sheet and is called ‘label’.

Question 12.
1. Define biodiversity.
2. How does loss of biodiversity affect the ecosystem?
Answer:
1. Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life forms in an ecosystem.
2. (i) The loss of biodiversity is an moral and ethical issue.
(ii) Biodiversity helps to maintain stability in an ecosystem.
(iii) Humans share the environment with various other organisms and harm to these species can result in loss of biodiversity.
(iv) The loss of even one variety of organisms can affect the entire ecosystem.
Hence, due to all these reasons, loss of biodiversity matters.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Biology Important Questions Chapter 1 Living World

Question 13.
Define botanical garden and write a note on importance of greenhouses in botanical gardens.
Answer:
Botanical gardens are places where plants of different varieties collected from different parts of the world are grown in vivo in a scientific and systematic manner.

  1. Greenhouse is a structure with suitable walls and a roof in which plants are grown under regulated climatic conditions.
  2. Most botanical gardens exhibit ornamental plants which require stringent/ optimum climatic conditions for their growth and/or flowering.
  3. The greenhouse associated with botanical gardens are also used to grow and propagate those plants that may not survive seasonal changes.

Question 14.
Which science is used to animals at museums? preserve larger
Answer:
Taxidermy is a science in which larger animals like birds and mammals are usually stuffed and preserved.

Question 15.
What is a museum?
Answer:
Museums are places where collections of preserved plant and animal specimens are kept.

Question 16.
What chemical is used to preserve plant and animal specimens in transparent jars at museums?
Answer:
Plant and animal specimens preserved in formalin (10% to 40% formaldehyde) in transparent jars.

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Biology Important Questions Chapter 1 Living World

Question 17.
Define the following terms:
1. Flora
2. Monograph
3. Manual
Answer:
The different tools used for maintaining biodiversity records are as follows:
1. Flora: It is the plant life occurring in a particular area at a particular time.
2. Monograph: It describes any one selected biological group.
3. Manual: It provides information and keys about identification of species found in a particular area.

Question 18.
Define the following terms:

  1. Botanical garden
  2. Zoological parks
  3. Biodiversity parks
  4. Museum
  5. Herbarium

Answer:

  1. Botanical gardens are places where plants of different varieties collected from different parts of the world are grown in vivo in a scientific and systematic manner.
  2. Zoological park (zoo) is a place where wild animals are kept in captivity.
  3. Biodiversity park is an ecological assemblage of species that form self-sustaining communities on degraded/ barren landscape, e.g. Uttamrao Patil Biodiversity Park, Gureghar, Mahabaleshwar.
  4. Museums are places where collections of preserved plant and animal specimens are kept.
  5. Herbarium is a dried plant specimen that is pressed, treated and mounted on a standard size sheet in order to preserve it.

[Note: Herbarium is a collection of dried, pressed and labelled plant specimens arranged by a classification system.]

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Biology Important Questions Chapter 1 Living World

Question 19.
On what characters is the ‘key’ based on? taxonomical aid
Answer:

  1. Key is a taxonomical aid used in the classification of plants and animals.
  2. Keys are based on contrasting characters. One of the contrasting characters gets accepted and the other gets rejected.
  3. The statement in a key is called a lead.
  4. Normally keys are analytical in nature.

Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Chemistry Important Questions and Answers

Maharashtra State Board HSC 11th Chemistry Important Questions and Answers

Maharashtra Board 11th HSC Important Questions

Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Physics Important Questions and Answers

Maharashtra State Board HSC 11th Physics Important Questions and Answers

Maharashtra Board 11th HSC Important Questions

Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Physics Solutions Digest

Maharashtra State Board 11th Std Physics Textbook Solutions Digest

Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Textbook Solutions

Maharashtra Board 11th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Book Keeping and Accountancy

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Bookkeeping and Accountancy 11th Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Book Keeping and Accountancy Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Bookkeeping and Accountancy 11th Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Book Keeping and Accountancy

1. Answer in One Sentence:

Question 1.
What is Book-keeping?
Answer:
Recording the business transactions in the books of accounts systematically by considering some definite principles is called book-keeping.

Question 2.
What is meant by Goods?
Answer:
Any commodity, article, or merchandise in which trader regularly deals or carries on trade is called goods e.g. cloth is the goods for cloth merchant.

Question 3.
What is Capital?
Answer:
Amount invested by the proprietor into the business from time to time is called Capital.

Maharashtra Board 11th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Book Keeping and Accountancy

Question 4.
What are Drawings?
Answer:
The total amount of goods and services are withdrawn by the proprietor from time to time for self-use is called drawings.

Question 5.
What is Goodwill?
Answer:
The money value of business reputation earned by the business over the number of years is called Goodwill.

2. Give the word term or phrase which can substitute each of the following statements:

Question 1.
Recording of business transactions.
Answer:
Book-keeping

Question 2.
Amount invested in the business by the proprietor.
Answer:
Capital

Question 3.
A person to whom the amount is payable.
Answer:
Creditor

Maharashtra Board 11th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Book Keeping and Accountancy

Question 4.
The exchange between two persons.
Answer:
Transaction

Question 5.
Excess of expenses over income.
Answer:
Loss

Question 6.
A person whose assets are sufficient enough to meet business obligations.
Answer:
Solvent

Question 7.
Book-keeping is providing all required financial information to the businessman.
Answer:
Decision Making

Question 8.
Property of any description owned by Proprietor.
Answer:
Assets

Maharashtra Board 11th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Book Keeping and Accountancy

Question 9.
Assets that remain in the business for only for short time and can be converted into cash very easily.
Answer:
Current Assets

Question 10.
Allowance is given on catalogue price of goods.
Answer:
Trade Discount

3. Select the most appropriate alternatives from those given below and rewrite the statements.

Question 1.
Surplus of income over expenses is _____________
(a) Profit
(b) Deficit
(c) Loss
(d) Financial Statements
Answer:
(a) Profit

Question 2.
In _____________ basis of accounting, actual cash receipts and actual cash payments are recorded.
(a) Accrual
(b) Hybrid
(c) Cash
(d) Mercantile
Answer:
(c) Cash

Question 3.
Amount which is not recoverable from customer is known as _____________
(a) Bad Debts
(b) Debts
(c) Debtors
(d) Doubtful debts
Answer:
(a) Bad Debts

Maharashtra Board 11th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Book Keeping and Accountancy

Question 4.
Accounts must be honestly prepared and they must disclose all material information is known as _____________
(a) Entity Concepts
(b) Dual Aspect Concept
(c) Disclosure Concept
(d) Cost Concept
Answer:
(c) Disclosure Concept

Question 5.
A commodity in which a trader deals is known as _____________
(a) Goods
(b) Income
(c) Property
(d) Expenditure
Answer:
(a) Goods

Question 6.
_____________ means a reputation of a business valued in terms of money.
(a) Trademark
(b) Assets
(c) Patents
(d) Goodwill
Answer:
(d) Goodwill

Question 7.
According to _____________ Cash flow statement is prepared and presented for the period for which the profit and loss account is prepared.
(a) AS-3
(b) AS-10
(c) AS-6
(d) AS-2
Answer:
(a) AS-3

Question 8.
The immediate recognition of loss is supported by principle of _____________
(a) Conservatism
(b) Objective
(c) Matching
(d) Consistency
Answer:
(a) Conservatism

Maharashtra Board 11th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Book Keeping and Accountancy

Question 9.
Brief explanation of an entry is called as _____________
(a) Folio
(b) Narration
(c) Posting
(d) Journalising
Answer:
(b) Narration

Question 10.
An act of exchange of things or services between the two parties is termed as _____________
(a) Ledger
(b) Transfer
(c) Transaction
(d) Business
Answer:
(c) Transaction

4. State whether the following statements are true or false with reasons:

Question 1.
Book-keeping and accounting are one and the same thing.
Answer:
This statement is False.
Book-Keeping means recording business transactions in a separate set of books and accountancy is the process of summarising and analyzing the business transactions which are recorded in the books of accounts, so book-keeping and accounting are not one and the same thing.

Question 2.
Conservatism means to follow the safe side.
Answer:
This statement is True.
This accounting concept suggests that while preparing accounting statements, planning, policies, strategies, and budgets, all possible or anticipated losses must be taken into consideration. While unrealized prospective or anticipated profits should be ignored. This is known as “The policy of playing a safe game” or “Principal of Prudence”.

Question 3.
The double entry system is based on the “Dual Aspect” concept.
Answer:
This statement is True.
This accounting concept explains that every business transaction has two aspects viz. (i) acquisition or increase in the asset of the business and (ii) creation or increase in claims against the business. Assets refer to the valuable things owned by the business. Capital refers to the proprietor’s contribution to the business to provide funds to undertake activities. Capital refers to the proprietor’s contribution to the business to provide funds to undertake activities. Capital is the owner’s claim against the business, e.g. a capital of ₹ 5,00,000 received in cash by the business from the proprietor has dual aspects viz. business has cash i.e. asset of ₹ 5,00,000 and the proprietor has a claim of ₹ 5,00,000 against the business entity called capital.

Maharashtra Board 11th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Book Keeping and Accountancy

Question 4.
Bank overdraft is an asset of the business.
Answer:
This statement is False.
Bank overdraft is a liability of the business. Businesses owe to the bank for the excess amount withdrawn from the bank account. It is a temporary loan from a bank.

Question 5.
A solvent person is a person whose assets are more than his liabilities.
Answer:
This statement is True.
A person who is unable to pay his debts is called insolvent. An insolvent person does not have sufficient assets to pay his debts. His business debts are much larger than his business and personal assets. He cannot settle the dues of his creditors fully. Insolvency leads to the compulsory dissolution of the business.

Question 6.
Cash discount does not appear in the books of accounts.
Answer:
This statement is False.
It is the amount deducted from the final amount due at the time of receipt. It is the concession given for encouraging prompt payment. It is given either for the spot payment or for payment within a specific period. A cash discount is calculated after deducting a trade discount, since it is a loss to the seller and gain to the buyer, a cash discount appears in the books of accounts.

Question 7.
A transaction is concerned with money or money’s worth.
Answer:
This statement is True.
In common parlance, a transaction is a dealing between two or more persons, in which one person gives something to the other and in exchange for that receives something from the other. It is an exchange of goods and services either for cash or for any other goods or services. In other words, it is a business activity that interprets in money terms what business gives and what business receives in that exchange. To complete the transaction at least two persons are required. Purchase of goods, sale of goods, receipt, and payment of cash, borrowing, and lending, depositing cash into the bank, withdrawal of cash from the bank, etc. are examples of business transactions.

Maharashtra Board 11th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Book Keeping and Accountancy

Question 8.
Accounting is the language of business.
Answer:
This statement is True.
Book-keeping is a part of Accounting. It is the primary stage in accounting. It is the process of recording transactions in accounts. Accounting is part of Accountancy. Accountancy is the practice of recording, classifying and reporting business transactions for a business. Accounting principles are the basic norms and assumptions developed and established as the basis for an accounting system. These principles are adopted by accountants universally. So accounting is the language of business.

Question 9.
In the early times of civilization, accounting was done by owners.
Answer:
This statement is False.
Booking is a part of Accounting that follows certain rules for recording transactions. It has classification, concepts, conventions, and principles which requires certain knowledge and qualifications. So it is done by an accountant.

Question 10.
Book-keeping is useful to find out all tax liabilities.
Answer:
This statement is True.
As all business transactions are recorded in the books of accounts so there is no question of hiding any income or expenses, with the help of book-keeping businessmen know their liabilities towards the government for tax payments like GST., Income tax, etc.

5. Do you agree or disagree with the following statements:

Question 1.
Accounting is useful only to the owner.
Answer:
Disagree

Question 2.
Book-keeping is an art, science, and profession.
Answer:
Agree

Maharashtra Board 11th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Book Keeping and Accountancy

Question 3.
Bills Payable is an asset of the business.
Answer:
Disagree

Question 4.
In Book-keeping and Accountancy, only non-monetary transactions are recorded.
Answer:
Disagree

Question 5.
Totalling of Journal or Ledger is called casting.
Answer:
Agree

6. Complete the following sentences:

Question 1.
Revenue arising as a result of business transactions is known as _____________
Answer:
Income

Question 2.
Excess of gross profit over operating expenses is _____________
Answer:
Operating profit

Question 3.
An expenditure which is basically revenue in nature but the benefit of which is not exhausted within one year is called as _____________
Answer:
Deferred revenue expenditure

Question 4.
The amount deducted by the seller from the list price of goods at the time of sale is _____________
Answer:
Trade Discount

Maharashtra Board 11th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Book Keeping and Accountancy

Question 5.
A person to whom the business owes money for the goods or services is known as _____________
Answer:
Creditor

Student Activity: (Textbook Page No. 9)

Collect some Advertisements relating to discounts and stick them in the notebook.
Answer:
Go through daily new paper read advertisements regarding sales like flip cart, Amazon, Big Bazar, etc.

Balbharati Solutions for Std 12, 11, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5th Class Digest Answers

Maharashtra State Board Balbharati Solutions for Class 12, 11, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5th Std Digest Answers of Maths, Science, History, Political Science, Geography, English, Hindi, Sanskrit, Marathi Pdf Download are provided to study. Go through our all Balbharati solutions to score more in your board exam.

Maharashtra State Board Balbharati Solutions for Class 12, 11, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5th Standard Digest Answers

Students can look through the class-wise and Subject-wise lists for Balbharati Solutions for Std 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th Class Pdf Download, which are available according to the latest MH Board syllabus. The Maharashtra State Board Books are available to view or download for free from this page.

Balbharati Solutions for Class 10th Std Digest Answers Maharashtra State Board

Maharashtra State Board Balbharati Solutions for 10th Std Digest Answers

Balbharati Solutions for Class 9th Std Digest Answers Maharashtra State Board

Maharashtra State Board Balbharati Solutions for 9th Std Digest Answers

Balbharati Solutions for Class 8th Std Digest Answers Maharashtra State Board

Maharashtra State Board Balbharati Solutions for 8th Std Digest Answers

Balbharati Solutions for Class 7th Std Digest Answers Maharashtra State Board

Maharashtra State Board Balbharati Solutions for 7th Std Digest Answers

Balbharati Solutions for Class 6th Std Digest Answers Maharashtra State Board

Maharashtra State Board Balbharati Solutions for 6th Std Digest Answers

Balbharati Solutions for Class 5th Std Digest Answers Maharashtra State Board

Maharashtra State Board Balbharati Solutions for 5th Std Digest Answers

The Maharashtra State Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education (MBSHSES) Balbharti Textbook Solutions are available here for students in elementary, secondary, and senior secondary school.

Hope the knowledge shared above regarding the Maharashtra State Board Balbharati Textbook Solutions for Class 12, 11, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, and 5th Std Digest Answers has helped you during your preparation.

Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board 12th Commerce Book Keeping & Accountancy Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board 12th Book Keeping & Accountancy Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts

I. Objective Questions:

A. Select the most appropriate alternatives from the following and rewrite the sentences:

Question 1.
When there is no partnership agreement between partners, the division of profits takes place in ____________ ratio.
(a) equal
(b) capital ratio
(c) initial contribution
(d) experience and tenure of partners
Answer:
(a) equal

Question 2.
To find out Net Profit or Net Loss of the business ____________ Account is prepared.
(a) Trading
(b) Capital
(c) Current
(d) Profit & Loss
Answer:
(d) Profit & Loss

Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts

Question 3.
A ____________ is an Intangible Asset.
(a) Goodwill
(b) Stock
(c) Cash
(d) Furniture
Answer:
(a) Goodwill

Question 4.
In the absence of an agreement, interest on a loan advanced by the partner to the firm is allowed at the rate of ____________
(a) 5%
(b) 6%
(c) 10%
(d) 9%
Answer:
(b) 6%

Question 5.
Liability of partners in a partnership business is ____________
(a) limited
(b) unlimited
(c) limited and unlimited
(d) none of the above
Answer:
(b) unlimited

Question 6.
The Indian Partnership Act is in force since ____________
(a) 1932
(b) 1881
(c) 1956
(d) 1984
Answer:
(a) 1932

Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts

Question 7.
Maximum number of Partners in a firm are ____________ according to Companies Act, 2013.
(a) 10
(b) 25
(c) 20
(d) 50
Answer:
(d) 50

B. Write the word/phrase/term, which can substitute each of the following statements.

Question 1.
Persons who form the partnership firm.
Answer:
Partners

Question 2.
Amount of cash or goods withdrawn by partners from the business from time to time.
Answer:
Drawings

Question 3.
An association of two or more persons according to Indian Partnership Act 1932.
Answer:
Partnership firm

Question 4.
Act under which partnership firms are regulated.
Answer:
Indian Partnership Act

Question 5.
Process of entering the name of the partnership firm in the register of the Registrar.
Answer:
Registration

Question 6.
Partnership agreement in written form.
Answer:
Partnership Deed

Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts

Question 7.
Under this method capital, balances of partners remain constant.
Answer:
Fixed Capital Method

Question 8.
Proportion in which partners share profit.
Answer:
Profit-Sharing Ratio

Question 9.
Such a capital method in which only Capital Account is maintained for each partner.
Answer:
Fluctuating Capital Method

Question 10.
The account to which all adjustments are made when capital is fixed.
Answer:
Current Account

Question 11.
Expenses that are paid before they are due.
Answer:
Prepaid expenses

Question 12.
The accounts are prepared at the end of each accounting year.
Answer:
Final Accounts

Question 13.
An asset that can be converted into cash easily.
Answer:
Current Assets or Liquid Assets

Question 14.
Order in which fixed assets are recorded first in the Balance Sheet.
Answer:
Order of liquidation

Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts

Question 15.
The account in which selling expenses of the business are recorded.
Answer:
Profit and Loss Account

Question 16.
Debit balance of Trading Account.
Answer:
Gross loss

Question 17.
The credit balance of Profit and Loss Account.
Answer:
Net profit

C. State whether the following statements are True or False with reasons:

Question 1.
A partnership firm is a Non-Trading concern.
Answer:
This statement is False.
The main aim of a partnership firm Is to earn maximum profit. The partnership is a trading concern. It undertakes either manufacturing or distributive activities with the sole aim of earning profit and distribute that profit among the partners in a specific ratio. It is never formed for charitable purposes.

Question 2.
A profit and Loss Account is a Real Account.
Answer:
This statement is False.
Account of expenses, losses, gains, and incomes is called a Nominal account. The profit and Loss Account contains all indirect expenses and indirect incomes of the firm. Therefore, a Profit and Loss Account is a Nominal Account and not a real account.

Question 3.
Carriage inward is carriage on purchase.
Answer:
This statement is True.
Total transport expenses incurred on bringing the goods from market to the place of business is called the carriage. When goods are purchased, the carriage is supposed to be borne by the firm. It is known as carriage inward. It means carriage paid on purchase.

Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts

Question 4.
Adjustments are recorded in Partners Current Account in Fixed Capital Method.
Answer:
This statement is True.
In Fixed Capital Method, as the name suggests capital balances (opening and closing) are generally remain fixed. Under this method, adjustments are not to be recorded in Capital Account. All adjustments are recorded in a separate account called Partners’ Current Accounts.

Question 5.
Prepaid expenses are treated as liabilities.
Answer:
This statement is False.
Prepaid expenses are expenses that are paid before they are due. Therefore, they are considered an asset of the business organization.

Question 6.
If the partnership deed is silent, partners share profits and losses in proportion to their capital.
Answer:
This statement is False.
As per the provisions made under the Indian Partnership Act 1932, when a partnership deed is silent about profit and loss sharing ratio, partners are supposed to share profits and losses in equal proportion, and not in their capital ratio.

Question 7.
Balance Sheet is an Account.
Answer:
This statement is False.
A financial statement showing all assets and liabilities is called a Balance sheet. It is not an account. It is a position statement that shows various assets owned by the firm and various liabilities owned by it. On the left-hand side, all liabilities are listed and on the right-hand side, all assets are recorded.

Question 8.
Wages paid for the installation of machinery is a Revenue expenditure.
Answer:
This statement is False.
Wages paid for the installation of machinery is a capital expenditure and therefore it is added to the cost of machinery. It is generally, paid once in a life of an asset. It is a long-term and capital expenditure.

Question 9.
Income received in advance is a liability.
Answer:
This statement is True.
When Income in respect to next year, it received in the current year, it is known as income received in advance. So, in next year firm will not be able to receive that amount and therefore it is considered as a liability for the current year.

Question 10.
R.D.D. is created on Creditors.
Answer:
This statement is Raise.
R.D.D. stands for Reserve for Doubtful Debts. It is created on the value of debtors. Such provision is made against profit and loss accounts. In the future, if the loss is incurred on account of bad debts, such an amount is used to run the business.

Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts

Question 11.
Depreciation is not calculated on Current Assets.
Answer:
This statement is True.
Current Assets mean liquid assets having no fixed tenure therefore depreciation cannot be calculated on it. Depreciation is calculated and charged on fixed assets for their use, wear and tear, etc.

Question 12.
Goodwill is an intangible asset.
Answer:
This statement is True.
Goodwill is a reputation of business computed in terms of money. Reputation can be experienced but can’t be seen or felt. Therefore, Goodwill is an intangible asset.

Question 13.
Indirect expenses are debited to Trading Account.
Answer:
This statement is Raise.
Indirect expenses mean expenses that are not directly related to the production of goods and services. Therefore, indirect expenses cannot be debited to Trading Account. All indirect expenses are debited to the Profit and Loss Account.

Question 14.
A bank loan is a current liability.
Answer:
This statement is Raise.
A loan usually taken for the period of more than 1 year say 5 years from the bank is called Bank Loan. It is a long term loan. It is not repaid within 1 year but paid in installments over a number of years. It might be paid in lumpsum at the expiry of the term.

Question 15.
Net profit is the debit balance of Profit and Loss Account.
Answer:
This statement is Raise.
In a Profit and Loss Account, when the credit side total i.e. a total of incomes is more than the debit side total, i.e. expenses it is known as a credit balance. When incomes exceed expenses there is profit. Therefore credit balance of the Profit and Loss Account indicates net profit.

D. Find an odd one.

Question 1.
Wages, Salary, Royalty, Import Duty
Answer:
Salary

Question 2.
Postage, Stationery, Advertising, Purchases
Answer:
Purchases

Question 3.
Capital, Bills Receivable, Reserve fund, Bank overdraft
Answer:
Bills Receivable

Question 4.
Building, Machinery, Furniture, Bills Payable
Answer:
Bill Payable

Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts

Question 5.
Discount received, Dividend received, Interest received, Depreciation
Answer:
Depreciation

E. Complete the sentences.

Question 1.
Partners share profits & losses in ____________ ratio in the absence of partnership deed.
Answer:
equal

Question 2.
Registration of partnership is ____________ in India.
Answer:
optional

Question 3.
Partnership business must be ____________
Answer:
lawful

Question 4.
Liabilities of partners in partnership firm is ____________
Answer:
unlimited

Question 5.
The balance of the Drawings Account of a partner is transferred to his ____________ account under the Fixed Capital Method.
Answer:
Current

Question 6.
The interest on capital of a partner is debited to ____________ account.
Answer:
Profit and Loss

Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts

Question 7.
Partners are ____________ liable for the debts of the firm.
Answer:
joint & several

Question 8.
Partnership Deed is an ____________ of Partnership.
Answer:
Article

Question 9.
The withdrawal by the partner for personal use from the firm is ____________ to his account.
Answer:
debited

Question 10.
Commission payable to partner is ____________ to the firm.
Answer:
liability/outstanding expense

Question 11.
When partners adopt Fixed Capital Method then they have to operate ____________ Account.
Answer:
Partner’s Current

Question 12.
If the partners Current Account shows ____________ balance it is shown to the Liability side of the Balance Sheet.
Answer:
credit

Question 13.
The expenses paid for trading purpose are known as ____________ expenses.
Answer:
trade

Question 14.
Cash receipts which are recurring in nature are called as ____________ Receipts.
Answer:
Revenue

Question 15.
Return outward are deducted from ____________
Answer:
purchase

Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts

Question 16.
Expenses which are paid before due date are called as ____________
Answer:
Prepaid Expenses

Question 17.
Assets which are held in the business for a long period are called ____________
Answer:
Fixed Assets

Question 18.
Trading Account is prepared on the basis of ____________ expenses.
Answer:
direct

Question 19.
When commission is allowed to any partner, it is ____________ of the business.
Answer:
expenditure

Question 20.
When goods are distributed as free samples, it is treated as ____________ of the business.
Answer:
advertisement expense

F. Answer in one sentence only:

Question 1.
What is Fluctuating Capital?
Answer:
When capital balances of the partners go on changing every year due to transactions of partners with the firm, it is known as Fluctuating Capital.

Question 2.
Why is Partnership Deed necessary?
Answer:
Partnership Deed is necessary to prevent disputes or misunderstandings among the partners in the future.

Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts

Question 3.
If the Partnership Deed is silent, in which ratio, the partners will share the profit or loss?
Answer:
If the Partnership Deed is silent, partners will share profits and losses in equal ratio.

Question 4.
What is the Fixed Capital Method?
Answer:
Fixed Capital Method is one in which capital balances of the partners remain the same at the end of every financial year unless any amount of additional capital is introduced or part of the capital is withdrawn by the partner from the business.

Question 5.
How many partners are required to form a partnership firm?
Answer:
Minimum two persons are required to form a partnership firm.

Question 6.
What is Partnership Deed?
Answer:
A partnership deed is a written agreement duly stamped and signed document containing the terms and conditions of the partnership.

Question 7.
What are the objectives of the Partnership Firm?
Answer:
To earn a maximum profit is the main objective of the partnership firm.

Question 8.
What rate of interest is allowed on a partner’s loan in the absence of an agreement?
Answer:
6 % is the rate of interest to be allowed on a partner’s loan in the absence of an agreement.

Question 9.
What is the minimum number of partners in a partnership firm according to the Indian Partnership Act 1932?
Answer:
Minimum two persons are required a number of partners in a partnership firm according to Indian Partnership Act 1932.

Question 10.
What is the liability of a partner?
Answer:
The liability of a partner (except minor partner) is unlimited.

Question 11.
In the absence of Partnership Deed, what is the rate of interest on a loan advanced by the partner to the firm is allowed?
Answer:
In the absence of Partnership Deed, 6% is the rate of interest on a loan advanced by the partner to the firm.

Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts

Question 12.
What do you mean by pre-received income?
Answer:
Income that is received by the partnership firm before it is due is called pre-received income.

Question 13.
What is the effect of the adjustment of provision for discount on debtors in the final accounts of partnership?
Answer:
The effects of the adjustment of provision for discount on debtors in the final accounts of partnership are as follows:
Debit Profit and Loss A/c and deduct the amount of provision for discount on debtors from the number of debtors.

Question 14.
When are the Partners Current Account is opened?
Answer:
When Fixed Capital Method is adopted by the firm, Partners’s Current Account is opened.

Question 15.
As per which principle of accounting, closing stock is valued at cost price or at market price whichever is less?
Answer:
As per the Conservatism principle of accounting, the closing stock is valued at cost price or at market price whichever is less.

Question 16.
What is the provision of the Indian Partnership Act with regard to Interest on Capital?
Answer:
As per the provision of the Indian Partnership Act, Interest in Capital is not to be allowed.

Question 17.
Why is the Balance Sheet prepared?
Answer:
The Balance Sheet is prepared to know the financial position of the business in the form of its assets and liabilities on a particular date.

Question 18.
Why wages paid for the installation of machinery are not shown in Trading Account?
Answer:
Wages paid for the installation of machinery is a capital expenditure and it is not to be recorded in Trading Account.

Question 19.
What do you mean by indirect incomes?
Answer:
All incomes other than direct incomes are called indirect incomes.
[e.g. Interest received on investments, Incomes like discount, commission, dividend, rent, etc. received].

Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts

Question 20.
Why partners capital is treated as a long-term liability of business?
Answer:
Partner’s Capital is not refunded during the existence of the partnership firm unless the partner is retired or expired.

G. Do you agree/disagree with the following statements:

Question 1.
When Partnership Deed is silent, partners share profits of the firm according to capital ratio.
Answer:
Disagree

Question 2.
The current Account always shows a debit balance.
Answer:
Disagree

Question 3.
It is compulsory to have a partnership agreement in writing.
Answer:
Disagree

Question 4.
Partnership Firm is a trading concern.
Answer:
Agree

Question 5.
Interest in the capital is an expenditure for the partnership firm.
Answer:
Agree

Question 6.
A partnership is an association of two or more persons.
Answer:
Agree

Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts

Question 7.
Partners are entitled to get a Salary or Commission.
Answer:
Disagree

Question 8.
The balance of the Capital Account remains constant under Fixed Capital Method.
Answer:
Agree

Question 9.
The Indian Partnership Act came into existence in the year 1945.
Answer:
Disagree

Question 10.
Profit and Loss Account reflects the true financial position.
Answer:
Disagree

Question 11.
The amount borrowed by a partner from his business will be debited to the Current Account.
Answer:
Agree

Question 12.
Sold but undispatched goods must be part of the valuation of closing stock.
Answer:
Disagree

Question 13.
Carriage inward is a selling and distribution overhead.
Answer:
Disagree

Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts

Question 14.
Gross profit is an operating profit.
Answer:
Disagree

Question 15.
All financial expenditures are debited to the Profit and Loss Account.
Answer:
Agree

Question 16.
Free distribution of goods is debited to Trading Account.
Answer:
Disagree

H. Calculate the following:

Question 1.
Undervaluation of closing stock by 10%, closing stock was ₹ 30,000. Find out the value of the closing stock.
Solution:
Undervaluation of closing stock by 10 %
Revised value = \(\frac{\text { Book value }}{100-\% \text { of undervaluation }} \times 100\)
= \(\frac{30,000}{100-10} \times 100\)
= ₹ 33,333.
∴ Value of closing stock = ₹ 33,333.

Question 2.
Calculate 12.5% P.A. depreciation on Furniture:
(a) on ₹ 220,000 for 1 year
(b) on ₹ 10,000 for 6 months
Solution:
Depreciation = Amount of asset × Period × %
(a) Depreciation on furniture = 220,000 × 1 × \(\frac{12.5}{100}\) = ₹ 27,500
∴ Deprecation on furniture for 1 year = ₹ 27,500

(b) Depreciation on furniture = 10,000 × \(\frac{6}{12} \times \frac{12.5}{100}\) = ₹ 625
∴ Depreciation on furniture for 6 months = ₹ 625

Question 3.
The insurance premium is paid for the year ending on 1st September 2019 amounted to ₹ 1500. Calculate prepaid insurance assuming that the year-end is 31st March 2019.
Solution:
From 31st March to 1st September, 5 months period prepaid insurance amount we have to find.
An insurance premium paid for the 12 months = ₹ 1500
∴ for 5 months period it is 1500 × \(\frac{5}{12}\) = ₹ 625
Thus, prepaid insurance premium amount = ₹ 625.

Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts

Question 4.
Find out Gross Profit/Gross Loss: Purchases ₹ 30,000, Sales ₹ 15,000, Carriage inward ₹ 2400, Opening stock ₹ 10,000, Purchase return ₹ 1000, Closing stock ₹ 36,000.
Solution:
Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts H Q4

Question 5.
A borrowed loan from Bank of Maharashtra ₹ 2,00,000 on 1st October 2019 @15 % p.a. Calculate interest on a bank loan for the year 2019 – 20 assuming that the financial year ends on 31st March, every year.
Solution:
From 1st October to 31st March, 6 months period interest on loan is to be calculated.
Interest (I) = \(\frac{\text { PRN }}{100}\)
∴ Interest on loan = 2,00,000 × \(\frac{15}{100} \times \frac{6}{12}\) = ₹ 15,000
∴ Interest on loan on ₹ 2,00,000 for 6 months = ₹ 15,000

Practical Problems

Question 1.
Amitbhai and Narendrabhai are in Partnership Sharing Profits and Losses equally. From the following Trial Balance and Adjustments given below, you are required to prepare the Trading and Profit and Loss Account for the year ended 31st March 2019 and Balance Sheet as of that date.

Trial Balance as of 31st March 2019
Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts Practical Problems Q1
Adjustments:
1. Stock on hand on 31st March 2019 was valued at ₹ 43,000.
2. Uninsured goods worth ₹ 8,000 were stolen.
3. Create R.D.D. at 2 % on sundry debtors.
4. Mr. Patil, our customer becomes insolvent and could not pay his debts of ₹ 500.
5. Outstanding Expenses – Rent ₹ 800 and salaries ₹ 300.
6. Depreciate Factory Building by ₹ 2,500 and Furniture by ₹ 1,800.
Solution:
In the books of Amitbhai and Narendrabhai
Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts Practical Problems Q1.1
Balance Sheet as of 31st March 2019
Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts Practical Problems Q1.2
Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts Practical Problems Q1.3
Notes:
1. Import duty, Motive power, and Depreciation on Factory building are recorded in the Trading A/c.

2. 10% govt, the bond is an investment. It was purchased on 1 – 10 – 2018.
∴ Interest is calculated for six months.
Interest on Govt. Bond = \(\frac{40,000}{1} \times \frac{6}{12} \times \frac{10}{100}\) = ₹ 2,000

3. Adv. exp. paid for 2 years from 01 – 01 – 2019. Upto 31 – 3 – 2019, 3 months adv. exp. is written off to Profit and Loss A/c. It is calculated as below:
= 10,000 × \(\frac{3}{24}\) = ₹ 1,250
∴ Prepaid adv. exp. = 10,000 – 1,250 = ₹ 8,750

Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts

Question 2.
From the following Trial Balance of M/s Mitesh and Mangesh, you are required to prepare Trading and Profit and Loss Account for the year ended 31st March 2019 and Balance Sheet as of that date.

Trial Balance as of 31st March 2019
Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts Practical Problems Q2
Adjustments:
1. Mitesh and Mangesh are sharing profit and losses in the ratio 3 : 1.
2. Partners are entitled to get commission @ 1% each on gross profit.
3. The closing stock is valued at ₹ 23,700.
4. Outstanding Expenses – Audit fees ₹ 400; Carriage ₹ 600.
5. Building is valued at ₹ 46,500.
6. Furniture is depreciated by 5%.
7. Provide interest on partner’s capital at 2.5% p.a.
8. Goods of ₹ 900 were taken by Mangesh for his personal use.
9. Write off ₹ 1,000 as Bad debts and maintain R.D.D. at 3 % on Sundry Debtors.
Solution:
In the books of M/s Mitesh and Mangesh
Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts Practical Problems Q2.1
Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts Practical Problems Q2.2
Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts Practical Problems Q2.3
Balance Sheet as of 31st March 2019
Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts Practical Problems Q2.4
Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts Practical Problems Q2.5
Working Notes:
1. In this problem, Current Account balances are given. So, the total amount of fixed capital is directly shown in the Liabilities side of the Balance Sheet. Effects of adjustments related to commission to partners, interest on capital, goods are withdrawn by Mangesh are given in the Current Account. Closing balances of the Current Account are shown separately on the Liability side of the Balance Sheet.

2. Building is valued at ₹ 46,500 whereas the opening balance of Building given is ₹ 48,500. Therefore, a difference of the amount of ₹ 2,000 (48,500 – 46,500) is nothing but Depreciation charged on Building.

3. Return Inward ⇒ Sales Return
Return Outward ⇒ Purchase Return

4. Commission payable to partners:
Mitesh = 1% on Gross Profit = \(\frac{1}{100} \times \frac{99,000}{1}\) = ₹ 990/-
Mangesh = 1% on Gross Profit = \(\frac{1}{100}\) × 99,000 = ₹ 990/-

Question 3.
From the following Trial Balance and Adjustments given below of Reena and Aarti, you are required to prepare Trading and Profit and Loss Account for the year ended 31st March 2019 and Balance Sheet as of that date.
Trial Balance as of 31st March 2019
Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts Practical Problems Q3
Adjustments:
1. Closing stock valued at ₹ 22,000.
2. Write off ₹ 900 for bad & doubtful debts and create a provision for reserve for doubtful debts ₹ 1,000.
3. Create a provision for discount on debtors @ 3 % and on creditors @ 5%.
4. Outstanding Expenses – Wages ₹ 700 and Salaries ₹ 800.
5. Insurance is paid for 15 months, w.e.f. 1st April 2018.
6. Depreciate land and building @ 5%.
7. Reena & Aarti are sharing Profits & Losses in their Capital Ratio.
Solution:
In the books of Reena and Aarti
Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts Practical Problems Q3.1
Balance Sheet as of 31st March 2019
Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts Practical Problems Q3.2
Working Notes:
1. Insurance premium ₹ 1,500 is paid for 15 months, i.e. prepaid insurance premium for 3 months = ₹ 300.

2. Reserve for Discount on Debtors = 3% on (Debtors – New Bad debts – New Reserve)
= \(\frac{3}{100}\) × (40,000 – 900 – 1,000)
= \(\frac{3}{100}\) × (40,000 – 1,900)
= \(\frac{3}{100}\) × 38,100
= ₹ 1,143

3. Reserve for Discount on Creditors = 5% on (Value of Creditors)
= \(\frac{5}{100}\) × 25,700
= ₹ 1,285

4. Profit and Loss ratio = Capital ratio = 50,000 : 30,000 = 5 : 3

Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts

Question 4.
From the following Trial Balance of M/s Meera and Madhav. Prepare Trading and Profit and Loss Account for the year ended 31st March 2019 and Balance Sheet as on that date.
Trial Balance as of 31st March, 2019
Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts Practical Problems Q4
Adjustments:
1. Closing stock is valued at ₹ 32,000.
2. Provide provision for doubtful debts ₹ 2,000.
3. Create a reserve for a discount on debtors @ 3%.
4. Value of leasehold premises on 31st March 2019 ₹ 1,00,000.
5. Outstanding Expenses: Printing & stationery ₹ 500.
Solution:
In the books of M/s Meera and Madhav
Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts Practical Problems Q4.1
Balance Sheet as of 31st March 2019
Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts Practical Problems Q4.2
Working Notes:
1. Advertisement expenses written off to Profit and Loss account during the year 2018-19 for six months i.e. from 1/10/18 to 31/03/19.
Advertisement expenses W/off = (Advertisement bill paid) × \(\frac{1}{3} \times \frac{6}{12}\)
= 4,800 × \(\frac{1}{3} \times \frac{6}{12}\)
= ₹ 800.
Prepaid advertisement = 4,800 – 800 = ₹ 4,000.

2. Reserve for Discount on Debtors = 3% (Balance in debtors)
= \(\frac{3}{100}\) × (80,500 – 2,000)
= \(\frac{3}{100}\) × 78,500
= ₹ 2,355.

3. Difference between the opening balance (₹ 1,10,000) and the closing balance (₹ 1,00,000) for leasehold premises is to be considered as written off on leasehold premises.

Question 5.
Sucheta & Gayatri are partners sharing Profit and Losses in the ratio 3 : 2. From the following Trial Balance and additional information, you are required to prepare Trading and Profit and Loss Account for the year ended 31st March 2019 and Balance Sheet as of that date.
Trial Balance as of 31st March 2019
Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts Practical Problems Q5
Adjustments:
1. Stock on 31st March 2019 was valued at ₹ 19,700.
2. Goods costing ₹ 3,000 distributed as a free sample.
3. Motive power includes ₹ 500 paid for deposit of Power Meter.
4. Depreciate building @ 5 %.
5. Write off ₹ 2000 for bad debts and maintain R.D.D. at 3% on debtors.
6. Bills receivable included dishonored of Bill of ₹ 4,000.
Solution:
In the books of Sucheta and Gayatri
Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts Practical Problems Q5.1
Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts Practical Problems Q5.2
Balance Sheet as of 31st March, 2019
Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts Practical Problems Q5.3
Working Notes:
1. Rate of interest on the partner’s loan is not mentioned, therefore interest on the loan is calculated at 6% p.a.
∴ Interest on Sucheta’s Loan = 6,150 × 1 × \(\frac{6}{100}\) = ₹ 369
2. Add dishonored bill amount to debtors amount and then calculate B.D. and R.D.D.
3. Subtract dishonored bill amount from bills receivable amount.

Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts

Question 6.
Archana and Prerana are partners, sharing Profits and Losses in the ratio 2 : 1 with the help of the following Trial Balance and Adjustments given below. You are required to prepare a Trading and Profit and Loss Account for the year ended 31st March 2019 and a Balance Sheet as of that date.
Trial Balance as of 31st March, 2019
Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts Practical Problems Q6
Adjustments:
1. Stock on 31st March 2019 is valued at Cost Price ₹ 12,000 and Market Price ₹ 17,000.
2. Our customer Mr. Shekhar failed to pay his dues of ₹ 800.
3. 1/8th of Patents are to be written off.
4. A part of Furniture ₹ 5,000 is purchased on 1st Oct. 2018.
5. Depreciation on Land & Building 10% and on Furniture 5%.
6. Outstanding Expenses Wages ₹ 300 and Electricity Charges ₹ 200.
7. Allow Interest on Capital 3%.
Solution:
In the books of Archana and Prema
Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts Practical Problems Q6.1
Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts Practical Problems Q6.2
Balance Sheet as of 31st March 2019
Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts Practical Problems Q6.3
Working Notes:
1. Stationery stock is an asset.
2. Depreciation of furniture:
Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts Practical Problems Q6.4
∴ Total Depreciation = 400 + 125 = ₹ 525
3. \(\frac{1}{8}\) patents to be written off = 2,000 × \(\frac{1}{8}\) = ₹ 250.
4. As no other expenses are given, Trade Expense is recorded in Profit and Loss Account.

Question 7.
Satish and Pramod are partners. Prepare Trading Account and Profit and Loss Account for the year 31st March 2019. You have to find out Gross Profit and Net Profit only.
Trial Balance as of 31st March 2019
Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts Practical Problems Q7
Adjustments:
1. The Closing stock is valued at ₹ 15,400.
2. Outstanding wages ₹ 500.
3. Create provision for Bad debts ₹ 800 and maintain R.D.D. 3 % on Sundry Debtors.
4. Goods of ₹ 1,800 distributed as a free sample.
5. Goods of ₹ 2,000 were sold and delivered on 31st March 2019 but no entry is passed in the Books of Account.
Solution:
In the books of Satish and Pramod
Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts Practical Problems Q7.1
Working Notes :
1. Here only gross profit and net profit is to find out. Therefore, the Balance Sheet is not prepared.

2. Interest on a 10% bank loan is calculated for 9 months (From 1/7/2018 to 31/3/2019)
I = \(\frac{\mathrm{PRN}}{100}\) = 8,000 × \(\frac{10}{100} \times \frac{9}{12}\) = ₹ 600

3. Goods distributed as free samples is an advertisement expense for business.

4. Sundry Debtors = 40,000
Add: Unrecorded Sales = 2,000
Less: Provision for Bad Debts = 800
Total = 41,200
Less: R.D.D. (New) (3% of 41,200 = 1,236) = 39,964

Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts

Question 8.
Nana and Nani are partners in a Partnership Firm sharing Profits and Losses equally. You are required to give effects of Adjustments in Profit & Loss A/c and Balance Sheet with the help of the following information.
Trial Balance as of 31st March 2019
Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts Practical Problems Q8
Adjustments:
1. Gross profit amounted to ₹ 34,500.
2. Insurance paid for 15 months w.e.f. 1-4-2018.
3. Depreciate Land and Building at 10 % p.a. and Furniture at 5% p.a.
4. Write off ₹ 1,000 for Bad debts and maintain R.D.D. at 5 % on Sundry debtors.
5. Closing stock is valued at ₹ 34,500.
Solution:
In the books of Nana and Nani
Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts Practical Problems Q8.1
Balance Sheet as of 31st March 2019
Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts Practical Problems Q8.2
Working Notes:
1. Here, the Profit and Loss Account and Balance Sheet are to be prepared. Therefore, Trading Account is not prepared. Gross profit (given) is recorded on the Credit side of the Profit and Loss Account.

2. Land and Building
Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts Practical Problems Q8.3
Total Depreciation = ₹ 4,500

3. Interest on 10% bank loan is calculated for 6 months. (From 1/10/2018 to 31/3/2019)
I = \(\frac{\text { PRN }}{100}\)
= 30,000 × \(\frac{10}{100} \times \frac{6}{12}\)
= ₹ 1,500

4. Prepaid insurance = \(\frac{3}{15}\) × (Insurance Amount)
= \(\frac{3}{15}\) × 15,000
= ₹ 3,000

5. RDD = 5% on (Debtors – New Bad debts)
= \(\frac{5}{100}\) × (26,000 – 1,000)
= \(\frac{5}{100}\) × 25,000
= ₹ 1,250

Question 9.
Sun and Moon are partners in a Partnership Firm sharing Profits and Losses equally. You are required to give effects of Adjustments with the help of the following information:
Trial Balance as of 31st March 2019
Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts Practical Problems Q9
Adjustments:
1. Partners are entitled to get a salary of ₹ 6,000 p.a. in addition to their profit & loss sharing.
2. Depreciation on Land & Building, Furniture and Machinery @ 10%, 5% and 3% respectively.
3. Interest in Capital 5% p.a.
4. Closing stock ₹ 60,743.
5. Wages included ₹ 1,000 as advance is given to workers.
6. Interest due but not paid ₹ 800.
7. Total net profit amounted to ₹ 38,113.
You are required to prepare the Balance Sheet and Partners Current A/c only.
Solution:
In the books of Sun and Moon
Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts Practical Problems Q9.1
Balance Sheet as of 31st March 2019
Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts Practical Problems Q9.2
Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts Practical Problems Q9.3
Working Notes:
1. Depreciation on machinery is calculated for 9 months. (i.e. from 1/7/18 to 31/3/19)
Depreciation = 40,000 × \(\frac{3}{100} \times \frac{9}{12}\) = ₹ 900

2. Interest on 8% debentures, calculated for 6 months. (i.e. from 1/10/18 to 31/3/19)
I = \(\frac{\text { PRN }}{100}\)
= 8,000 × \(\frac{8}{100} \times \frac{6}{12}\)
= ₹ 320

3. Advance given to workers (by firm) ₹ 1,000 is an asset for the firm, so, it is shown on the Assets side.

4. Interest due but not paid is a liability for the firm, so, it is shown on the Liabilities side.

Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts

Question 10.
Kshipra and Manisha are partners sharing Profit and Losses in their Capital ratio. You are required to prepare Trading Account and Profit and Loss Account for the year ended 31st March 2019 and a Balance Sheet as of that date.
Trial Balance as of 31st March 2019
Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts Practical Problems Q10
Adjustments:
1. Stock on 31st March 2019 was at ₹ 37,000.
2. Sales include the sale of machinery of ₹ 2,000, which is sold on 1st April 2018.
3. Depreciation on fixed assets @ 5%
4. Each partner is entitled to get a commission at 1% of Gross profit and interest on Capital 5% p.a.
5. Outstanding Expenses wages ₹ 200 & Salaries ₹ 500.
6. Create provision for Doubtful debts @ 3% on Sundry debtors.
Solution:
In the books of Kshipra and Manisha
Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts Practical Problems Q10.1
Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts Practical Problems Q10.2
Balance Sheet as of 31st March 2019
Maharashtra Board 12th BK Textbook Solutions Chapter 1 Introduction to Partnership and Partnership Final Accounts Practical Problems Q10.3
Working Notes:
1. Depreciation on fixed assets means depreciation on Furniture, Plant & Machinery, and Building.

2. Sales includes the sale of Machinery of ₹ 2,000 is subtracted from sales and from Plant & Machinery.
On balance amount of Plant & Machinery ₹ 58,000, calculate 5 % depreciation i.e. 60,000 – 2,000 = ₹ 58,000 × 5% = ₹ 2,900

3. Here on gross profit calculate 1% commission for partners and record it to Profit and Loss A/c and in Current A/cs. Commission payable to each partner = \(\frac{1}{100}\) × Gross profit
= \(\frac{1}{100}\) × 81,700
= ₹ 817.

Maharashtra State Board 11th Book Keeping & Accountancy Important Questions and Answers

Maharashtra State Board HSC 11th Commerce Book Keeping & Accountancy Important Questions and Answers

Maharashtra Board 11th HSC Important Questions

Maharashtra State Board Book Keeping and Accountancy 11th Solutions Digest | 11th Class Accounts Book Solution

Maharashtra State Board Std 11th Commerce Book Keeping & Accountancy Textbook Solutions Digest | Class 11 Accounts Solutions

Bookkeeping and Accountancy 11th Solutions | Accounts Class 11 Solutions

Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Textbook Solutions