Maharashtra State Board Class 12 HSC Important Questions and Answers

Maharashtra State Board 12th HSC Important Questions and Answers

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Textbook Solutions Answers Digest

Maharashtra State Board 12th Std Textbook Solutions Answers Digest

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Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.7 Why We Travel

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.7 Why We Travel

12th English Digest Chapter 1.7 Why We Travel Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Share your views on how travelling can be a hobby:
Answer:
Students can discuss their views on travelling, both in India and in foreign countries, and how it can be a leisure time activity.

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Question 2.
Discuss in the class the benefits of travelling and complete the web:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.7 Why We Travel 1
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.7 Why We Travel 2
Make a list of your expectations when you travel to some new place:
Answer:
(a) Food should be delicious and available whenever hungry.
(b) Travelling should be easy and comfortable.
(c) Hotel accommodation should be inexpensive and clean.
(d) Weather should be sunny and pleasant.

Question 3.
Discuss in the class the various types of travels. Add your own to ones given below:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.7 Why We Travel 3
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.7 Why We Travel 4

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(A1)

Question 1.
Read the first two paragraphs and write down the reasons one needs to travel.
Answer:
One needs to travel:

  1. initially, to lose ourselves next, to find ourselves
  2. to open our hearts and eyes and learn more about the world than our newspapers tell us.
  3. to bring our ignorance and knowledge to cultures which are rich in ways different from ours.
  4. to become young fools again
  5. to slow time down and to get taken in to fall in love once more
  6. to escape into open solitudes, into aimlessness, into accepting dangers and risks
  7. to sharpen the edge of life, and to taste hardship
  8. to leave all one’s beliefs and certainties at home, and see everything in a different light

(A2)

Question (i)
Read the sentence ‘If a diploma can famously ……………. in cultural relativism.’ of this extract on page 67 of the textbook. Pick the sentence which gives the meaning of the above statement from the alternatives given below.
(a) A diploma certificate can be used as a passport and a passport can be used as a diploma certificate.
(b) If one has a diploma, he does not need a passport and if he has a passport, he does not need a diploma.
(c) One can acquire permission to travel to foreign countries for educational purposes based on one’s academic achievements, and travelling to foreign countries enriches one the most regarding the knowledge and wisdom of the world.
Answer:
(c) One can acquire permission to travel to foreign countries for educational purposes based on one’s academic achievements, and travelling to foreign countries enriches one the most regarding the knowledge and wisdom of the world.

Question (ii)
Prepare a list of the litterateurs and their quotations mentioned by the writer in the extract.
Answer:
Names of the litterateurs: Camus, Christopher Isherwood
Quotations: Camus said, “What gives value to travel is fear”- Christopher Isherwood once said, “The ideal travel book should be perhaps a little like a crime story in which you’re in search of something.”

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Question (iii)
‘The real voyage of discovery consists not in seeing new places but in seeing with new eyes.’ – Marcel Proust. Justify with the help of the text.
Answer:
This means that we don’t really have to discover new landscapes or new sights to be in the real process of discovery. Often, we simply need to change our perspective, the way we look at things, to understand them and to raise them to a new, exhilarating level.

Question (iv)
Read the third paragraph and find the difference between a tourist and a traveller as revealed through the complaints made by them.
Answer:
1. A tourist is someone who does not leave his assumptions at home and complains, ‘Nothing here is the way it is at home’.
2. A traveller is someone who leaves his assumptions at home but grumbles, ‘Everything here is the same as it is in Cairo – or Cuzco or Kathmandu.’

Question (v)
Write sentences from the extract conveying the fact that travelling brings together the various cultures of the different parts of the world.
Answer:
1. You can teach them what they have to celebrate as much as you celebrate what they have to teach.
2. This, I think, is how tourism, which so obviously destroys cultures, can also resuscitate or revive them, how it has created new “traditional” dances in Bali, and caused craftsmen in India to pay s new attention to their works.

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Question (vi)
By quoting Camus, the writer has stated that travelling emancipates us from circumstances and all the habits behind which we hide. Write in detail your views about that.
Answer:
When we are at home, we have set ideas and habits, which we are reluctant to change. We dress in a particular way and we behave in a particular way, because the people around us know us and expect that behaviour. We hide behind all this. However, when we travel, no one knows us and there are no expectations about a particular type of behaviour, dress or habits. Hence, we have a feeling of freedom and emancipation from our circumstances and habits.

(A3)

Question (i)
Read the following groups of words:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.7 Why We Travel 5

  1. crooked angle
  2. censored limits
  3. impoverished places
  4. walking video screens
  5. living newspapers
  6. searching questions

Discuss in pairs and make a list of some more adjectives like this and make sentences using them.
Answer:
1. burnt cottage
2. disturbed night
3. hidden house
4. missing necklace
5. probing questions
6. standing instructions
Sentences:
1. burnt cottage – The mystery of the burnt cottage was finally solved.
2. disturbed night – Rohan had a disturbed night because of the noise from the road construction.
3. hidden house – I could see the hidden house only after climbing a hill.
4. missing necklace – The detective was sure that the missing necklace would be soon found.
5. probing questions – The lawyer asked the witness some probing questions.
6. standing instructions – The queen had given standing instructions that she was never to be disturbed while sleeping.

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Question 1.
Read the following sentence and pick out the phrasal verb.
We travel, then, in part just to shake up our complacencies.
Answer:
shake-up

(A4)

Question 1.
Read the following sentences carefully and find out the infinitives :
(a) We travel, initially, to lose ourselves; and we travel, next, to find ourselves.
(b) We travel to bring what little we can, …………
(c) Yet one of the subtler beauties of travel is that it enables you to bring new eyes to the people you encounter.
Answer:
(a) to lose, to find
(b) to bring
(c) to bring

Question (ii)
Combine the two sentences into one using the word given in the brackets:
(a) I go to Iceland. I visit the lunar spaces within me. (to)
(b) We have the opportunity. We come into contact with more essential parts of ourselves, (of)
(c) Romantic poets inaugurated an era of travel. They were great apostles of open eyes.
(d) The travel spins us around. It shows us the sights and values ordinarily ignored, (showing)
Answer:
(a) I go to Iceland to visit the lunar spaces within me.
(b) We have the opportunity of coming into contact with more essential parts of ourselves.
(c) Romantic poets, being great apostles of open eyes, inaugurated an era of travel.
(d) The travel spins us around, showing us the sights and values ordinarily ignored.

Question (iii)
Read the sentences given below and state whether the underlined words are gerunds or present participles.
(a) As it’s a hot day, many people are swimming
(b) This is a swimming pool.
(c) It’s very bad that children are begging.
(d) Begging is a curse on humanity.
Answer:
(a) present participle
(b) present participle
(c) present participle
(d) gerund

(A5)

Question 1.
Write an email to your friends about your proposed trek. You can take help of the points given below. You can keep your parents informed about it by adding them in BCC.

  • A trek in the forest of Kodaikanal
  • Time and duration
  • Type of trek (cycle/ motorbike/ walk)
  • Facilities provided
  • Last date for registration
  • Fees

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(A6)

Question 1.
There is a boom in ‘Travel and Tourism’ career. Find information about different options in this field.

(A7)

Question (i)
Find information about:
(a) Fa Hien
(b) Huen Tsang
(c) Ibn Batuta
(d) Marco Polo
(e) Sir Richard Burton

Question (ii)
Further reading:

  • ‘Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage’ – Lord Byron
  • ‘Gulliver’s Travels’ – Jonathan Swift
  • ‘Twenty Thousand Leagues Under The Sea’ – Jules Verne
  • ‘Travelling Souls’ – Brian Bouldrey

Yuvakbharati English 12th Digest Chapter 1.7 Why We Travel Additional Important Questions and Answers

Read the extract and complete the activities given below:

Global Understanding:

Question 1.
Write the name of the litterateur and his quotation mentioned by the writer in the extract.
Answer:
Name of the litterateur – George Santayana.
Quotation:
George Santayana writes, “We need sometimes to escape into open solitudes, into aimlessness, into the moral holiday of running some pure hazard, in order to sharpen the edge of life, to taste hardship, and to be compelled to work desperately for a moment at no matter what.”

Question 2.
Based on the extract, complete the web:
(The answers are given directly and underlined.)
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.7 Why We Travel 6

Question 3.
From the extract, write the names of:
Answer:
1. 2 litterateurs : Proust, Hazlitt
2. 2 places : Bali, Tibet

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Question 4.
Pick out the false statements and write them correctly :
1. Holidays help you to appreciate your own home more.
2. Tourism can also revive cultures.
3. The writer spent many days in Bali in temples.
4. The writer finds Iceland full of chatter and routine.
Answer:
False statements:
3. The writer spent many days in Bali in temples.
4. The writer finds Iceland full of chatter and routine.

Corrected statements:
3. The writer spent many days in Tibet in temples.
4. The writer finds Iceland quiet and empty.

Question 5.
Write the name of the litterateur and his quotation mentioned by the writer in the extract.
Answer:
Name of the litterateur – Oliver Cromwell Quotation : “A man never goes so far as when he doesn’t know where he is going.”

Question 6.
Write if the following statements are True or False. Correct the false statements :
1. The posters at McDonald’s outlet in Kyoto have pictures of places in San Francisco.
2. The young people in Kyoto McDonald’s outlet look very American.
3. The writer was born in America.
4. Cities like Sydney and Toronto are a mix of many cultures.
True statements:
1. The posters at McDonald’s outlet in Kyoto have pictures of places in San Francisco.
4. Cities like Sydney and Toronto are a mix of many cultures.

False statements:
2. The young people in Kyoto McDonald’s outlet look very American.
3. The writer was born in America.

Corrected statements:
2. The young people in Kyoto McDonald’s outlet look very Japanese.
3. The writer was born in England.

Question 7.
Write from the extract:
Answer:
1. Names of 4 cities: Kyoto, Toronto, Sydney, Addis Ababa
2. Names of two food items: Teriyaki McBurgers, Bacon Potato Pies.

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Question 8.
Write the name of the litterateurs and their quotations mentioned by the writer in the extract.
Answer:
Names of the litterateurs: Sir John Mandeville, Emerson, Thoreau and Sir Thomas Browne.
Quotations: Emerson said, “Travelling is a fool’s paradise.”
Thoreau said, “I have travelled a good deal in Concord.”
Sir Thomas Browne sagely put it, “We carry within us the wonders we seek without us. There is Africa and her prodigies in us.”

Complex Factual:

Question 1.
Write sentences from the extract conveying the fact that travelling brings together the various cultures of the different parts of the world :
Answer:
1. We can become a kind of carrier pigeon in transporting back and forth what every culture needs.
2. I find that I always take Michael Jordan posters to Kyoto, and bring woven ikebana baskets back to California.
3. We become walking video screens and living newspapers, the only channels that can take people out of the censored limits of their homelands.
4. In closed or impoverished places, like Pagan or Lhasa or Havana, we are the eyes and ears of the people we meet, their only contact with the world outside and, very often, the closest, quite literally, they will ever come to Michael Jackson or Bill Clinton.
5. Not the least of the challenges of travel, therefore, is learning how to import – and export – dreams with tenderness.
6. We carry values and beliefs and news to the places we go.

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Question 2.
Complete the following:
Travel spins us round in two ways at once:
Answer:
Travel spins us round in two ways at once: It shows us the sights and values and issues that we might ordinarily ignore. It also shows us all the parts of ourselves that might otherwise grow rusty. For in travelling to a truly foreign place, we inevitably travel to moods and states of mind that we’d otherwise ignore.

Question 3.
Write sentences from the extract conveying the fact that travelling brings together the various cultures of the different parts of the world.
Answer:
1. For when we go to France, we often migrate to French, and the more childlike self, simple and polite, that speaking a foreign language educes.
2. Even when I’m not speaking pidgin English in Hanoi, I’m simplified in a positive way, and concerned not with expressing myself, but simply making sense.

Question 4.
Write sentences from the extract conveying the fact that travelling brings together the various cultures of the different parts of the world.
Answer:
1. When we go abroad we are objects of scrutiny as much as the people we scrutinize, and we are being consumed by the cultures we consume, as much on the road as when we are at home.
2. At the very least, we are objects of speculation (and even desire), who can seem as exotic to the people around us as they do to us.

Question 5.
Write the sentences from the extract conveying the fact that travelling brings together the various cultures of the different parts of the world.
Answer:
1. When you go to a McDonald’s outlet in Kyoto, you will find Teriyaki McBurgers and Bacon Potato Pies.
2. The placemats offer maps of the great temples of the city, and the posters all around broadcast the wonders of San Francisco.
3. And-most crucial of all-the young people eating their Big Macs, with baseball caps worn backwards, and tight 501 jeans, are still utterly and inalienably Japanese in the way they move, they nod, they sip their Oolong teas – and never to be mistaken for the patrons of a McDonald’s outlet in Rio, Morocco or Managua.
4. These days a whole new realm of exotica arises out of the way one culture colours and appropriates the products of another,
5. The other factor complicating and exciting all of this is people, who are, more and more, themselves as many-tongued and mongrel as cities like Sydney or Toronto or Hong Kong.
6. Besides, even those who don’t move around the world find the world moving more and more around them. Walk just six blocks, in Queens or Berkeley, and you’re travelling through several cultures in as many minutes; get into a cab outside the White House, and you’re often in a piece of Addis Ababa.

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Question 6.
Complete the following:
Answer:
1. Travel is a voyage into the imagination and is the conspiracy of perception and imagination.
2. Sir John Mandeville never visited the Far East but yet gave colourful accounts of it.
3. Emerson and Thoreau insist that reality is our creation and we invent the places we see as much as we do the books we read.

Question 7.
Complete the following, giving examples: (The answer is given directly.) The finest recent travel books are those that:
Answer:
1. undertake a parallel journey, matching the physical steps of a pilgrimage with the metaphysical steps of a questioning e.g. in Peter Matthiessen’s great “The Snow Leopard”.
2. chronicle a trip to the farthest reaches of human strangeness e.g. Oliver Sacks’ “Island of the Color-Blind,” which features a journey not just to a remote atoll in the Pacific, but to a realm where people actually see light differently).

Inference/Interpretation/Analysis:

Question 1.
Guess the difference : travel and travail:
Answer:
Travel guides us towards a better balance of wisdom and compassion, of seeing the world clearly and truly. Travail means agony, or hard toil, which will be the result of laborious travelling and hardships.

Question 2.
Describe the changes that come into us because of travels, especially to foreign countries.
Answer:
When we go abroad, we stay up late, do impulsive things and leave ourselves open to various experiences. We live for the moment, without any past or future; only the present. We may even become mysterious-to others, at first, and sometimes even to ourselves, behaving in new ways. We feel younger, as if we have been reborn.

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Question 3.
Explain in your own words how travel can be a kind of ‘monasticism’.
Answer:
‘Monasticism’ means living like monks, living a self-disciplined life that is isolated from other people. When we travel, even if we are living in a luxury hotel, we live more simply than we normally do at home. We have no more possessions than what we can carry, we surrender ourselves to chance, and to whatever may come in our way. Hence, travel can be a kind of ‘monasticism’.

Question 4.
Travelling abroad make us the object of scrutiny. Justify this statement,
Answer:
When we go abroad, the local people there are curious about us and our culture. We seem exotic and different to them and they scrutinize our ways and behaviour to learn and understand more about us.

Question 5.
The writer calls himself ‘many-tongued’ and ‘mongrel’. Give reasons.
Answer:
‘Many-tongued’ means that he knows many languages; ‘mongrel’ here means someone who has a mixed upbringing, someone of mixed cultures. The writer knows many languages. He was born of Indian parents, in England, and he moved to America when he was 7 years old. Hence, he says that he cannot really call himself an Indian, an American or an Englishman.

Question 6.
‘Get into a cab outside the White House, and you’re often in a piece of Addis Ababa.’ Explain the meaning of this sentence.
Answer:
Addis Ababa is the capital of Ethiopia, Africa. The sentence means that the driver of the cab outside the White House was probably an African American, may be originally from Africa.

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Question 7.
“We carry within us the wonders we seek without us.” Explain.
Answer:
This means that all the wonders and emotions are within us, and if we wish to, we can tap these forces. Everything is within our own hearts and imagination. Everything is internal. Whatever we find outside has first to be inside us for us to experience it. There is no necessity for any separate outside happenings for us to feel anything.

Personal Response:

Question 1.
Name the places you would like to visit the most. Give reasons to support your answer.
Answer:
I like to travel but I have not had much opportunity yet. I love seeing new places and meeting new people. I would love to travel to the North-Eastern parts of India and to foreign countries. I am also a nature lover and would love seeing high mountains, clear lakes and green pastures.

Question 2.
‘Travel helps you to appreciate your own home more’. Justify this statement.
Answer:
Holidays, especially holidays abroad, can certainly help us to appreciate our own homes more. For example, if we go to the African desert and see the problems they have with potable water supply, we will appreciate our own water resources more. If we see the problems faced by people living in very cold climates, we will appreciate the heat in our country, and even be grateful for it.

Question 3.
Do you think that people travel more, or in a different way, as compared to people fifty years back? Explain your view.
Answer:
Yes, people certainly travel more today. They also travel for different reasons. Fifty years back, in India, people generally travelled only for religious reasons or to meet relatives and family. Travelling for sightseeing was rarer. Today, in addition to these reasons, people also travel for fun, relaxation and sight-seeing. People also go on holidays abroad, which was not done often earlier.

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Question 4.
Do you think that we must always seek new experiences and new places? Or do you feel that the best place is home, and we must never move?
Answer:
If we just stick to our own homes, we will be like the frog in the pond, which thought its small pond was the whole world. This is not advisable in the world of today. To be happy and successful, we must be broad-minded and unbiased. We must see what the world and other cultures have to offer. We must try to imbibe the best from other cultures and places.

Language Study:

Question 1.
We carry values and beliefs and news to the places we go.
(Rewrite using ‘not only but also.)
Answer:
We carry not only values and beliefs but also news to the places we go.

Question 2.
Travel is the best way we have of rescuing the humanity of places.
(Use an infinitive in place of the gerund.)
Answer:
Travel is the best way we have to rescue the humanity of places.

Question 3.
The beauty of this process was best described by George Santayana.
(Rewrite beginning George Santayana)
Answer:
George Santayana best described the beauty of this process.

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Question 4.
Yet for me the first great joy of travelling is simply the luxury of leaving all my beliefs and certainties at home. (Pick out the finite verb and say whether the sentence is simple, compound or complex.)
Answer:
finite verb-is; simple sentence

Question 5.
Pick out the phrasal verb from this sentence:
Abroad is the place where we stay up late.
Answer:
stay up

Question 6.
Travelling is a way to reverse time. (Identify the part of speech of the underlined word.)
Answer:
travelling – gerund

Question 7.
I tend to believe more abroad than I do at home. (Rewrite using as….as..)
Answer:
I tend not to believe as much at home as I do abroad.

Question 8.
Pick out the phrasal verb from these sentences:
Answer:
1. I remember, in fact, after my first trip to Southeast Asia, more than a decade ago, how I would come back to my apartment in New York.
2. All, in that sense, believed in, “being moved”
Answer:
1. come back
2. believed in

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Question 9.
Anyone witnessing this strange scene would have drawn the right conclusion.
(Rewrite using ‘who’)
Answer:
Anyone who witnessed this strange scene would have drawn the right conclusion.

Question 10.
I remember how I would come back to my apartment in New York. (Rewrite using ‘used, to’.)
Answer:
I remember how I used to come back to my apartment in New York.

Question 11.
We have to carry our sense of destination. (Rewrite beginning‘Our sense….’)
Answer:
Our sense of destination has to be carried by us.

Question 12.
The most valuable Pacifies we explore will always be the vast expanses within us.
(Rewrite using more…than..)
Answer:
We will never explore more valuable Pacifies than the vast expanses within us.

Question 13.
It keeps the mind nimble. (Rewrite using the present perfect tense of the verb.)
Answer:
It has kept the mind nimble.

Vocabulary:

Question 1.
Guess the meaning: riches are differently dispersed
Answer:
cultures that are rich in ways different from ours.

Question 2.
Find out a past/present participle from the extract that has been used as an adjective :
Answer:
crooked angle (crooked-past participle)

Question 3.
Find out two pairs of antonyms from the extract:
Answer:
1. lose × find
2. ignorance × knowledge

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Question 4.
Guess the difference between provisional and provincial.
Answer:
Provisional means temporary, whereas provincial means limited in outlook narrow.

Question 5.
Find out from the extract a few past / present participles that have been used as adjectives:
1. walking video screens
2. censored limits
3. living newspapers
4. impoverished places
Answer:
censored, impoverished – past participles used as adjectives
walking, living – present participles used as adjectives

Question 6.
Pick out four proper nouns for places from the extract.
Answer:
Kyoto, Pagan, Lhasa, Havana.

Question 7.
Find from the extract one word for the following :
1. A Japanese art of flower arrangement
2. Satisfaction of one with oneself or one’s own achievements.
Answer:
1. ikebana
2. complacencies

Question 8.
Complete the table with the words given in the brackets:
(values celebrate now deeply discovery apprehend wonderfully distant quietude foreign appreciative spins)
Answer:

Noun Verb Adjective Adverb
discovery celebrate distant wonderfully
values apprehend foreign deeply
quietude spins appreciative now

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Question 9.
Find out a past/present participle from the extract that has been used as an adjective:
Answer:
searching questions (searching – present participle)

Question 10.
Discuss the pun implied by the writer, ecstasy (ex-stasis):
Answer:
ecstasy – great joy. ex-stasis – previous period of inactivity or boredom. The words sound alike but have different meanings.

Question 11.
Guess the meaning:

  1. many-tongued
  2. mongrel
  3. inheritance
  4. notions

Answer:

  1. many-tongued – a person who speaks many languages.
  2. mongrel – (here) someone who has a mixed upbringing, someone of mixed cultures.
  3. inheritance – the acquisition of a possession, condition, or trait from past generations.
  4. notions – ideas.

Question 12.
Match the adjectives in Column A with the nouns in Column B, with reference to the extract:

A B
1. great (a) specimen
2. new (b) versions
3. typical (c) temples
4. essential (d) world
5. synthetic (e) realm
6. foreign (f) notions

Answer:

  1. great temples
  2. new realm
  3. typical specimen
  4. essential notions
  5. synthetic versions
  6. foreign world

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Question 13.
Give the adjective forms of:

  1. perception
  2. imagination
  3. friendship
  4. reality

Answer:

  1. perception – perceptive
  2. imagination – imaginative
  3. friendship – friendly
  4. reality – realistic

Question 14.
Give the verb forms of:

  1. perception
  2. imagination
  3. friendship
  4. conspiracy

Answer:

  1. perception – perceive
  2. imagination – imagine
  3. friendship – befriend
  4. conspiracy – conspire

Question 15.
Guess the meaning:

  1. atoll
  2. prejudice
  3. fosters

Answer:

  1. atoll – a coral island consisting of a reef surrounding a lagoon
  2. prejudice – bias
  3. fosters – encourages

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Question 17.
Find from the extract the antonyms of:

  1. worthless
  2. public
  3. nearest
  4. familiar
  5. outside
  6. slow

Answer:

  1. worthless × valuable
  2. public × private
  3. nearest × farthest
  4. familiar × unfamiliar
  5. outside × inside
  6. slow × quick

Do as directed:

Question 1.
The queen loved her people and looked after the affairs of her kingdom well.
(Rewrite using ‘who’.)
Answer:
The queen, who loved her people, looked after the affairs of her kingdom well.

Question 2.
But I want to test this. (Change the voice.)
Answer:
But I want this to be tested.

Question 3.
The husband had a small smile on his lips while the wife looked sad.
(Rewrite beginning with ‘Though’)
Answer:
Though the husband had a small smile on his lips, the wife looked sad.

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Spot the error in the following sentences and rewrite them correctly:

Question 1.
You must neither tell me the whole story or at least the first part of it.
Answer:
You must either tell me the whole story or at least the first part of it.

Question 2.
No sooner did the Minister begin speaking, some rogues started shouting loudly.
Answer:
No sooner did the Minister begin speaking, than some rogues started shouting loudly.

Balbharti Yuvakbharati English 12th Digest Chapter 1.7 Why We Travel Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 8 Positive Psychology

Maharashtra State Board 12th Psychology Important Questions Chapter 8 Positive Psychology

Choose the correct option and complete the following statements.

Question 1.
Life …………….. indicates a life full of stress and anxiety.
(a) below zero
(b) at zero
(c) above zero
Answer:
(a) below zero

Question 2.
………………. refers to the ability to handle adverse situations effectively.
(a) Coping
(b) Competence
(c) Confidence
Answer:
(b) Competence

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 8 Positive Psychology

Question 3.
……………….. helps us to focus on the ‘Here and Now’ effectively.
(a) Mindfulness
(b) Mindlessness
(c) Optimism
Answer:
(a) Mindfulness

Question 4.
………………. is the key to most successful relationships.
(a) Resilience
(b) Mindfulness
(c) Empathy
Answer:
(c) Empathy

Match the pairs.

Question 1.

Group A Group B
(1) Seligman (a) Broaden and Build theory
(2) Fredrickson (b) empathy
(3) Masten (c) mindfulness
(4) Baron-Cohen (d) resilience
(e) optimism

Answer:

Group A Group B
(1) Seligman (e) optimism
(2) Fredrickson (a) Broaden and Build theory
(3) Masten (d) resilience
(4) Baron-Cohen (b) empathy

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 8 Positive Psychology

State whether the following statements are true or false.

Question 1.
Negative events easily attract our attention compared to positive ones.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
Positive psychology focuses on life at and below zero.
Answer:
False

Question 3.
A positive frame of mind effectively builds our social and psychological resources.
Answer:
True

Question 4.
There are subjective differences in the experience of happiness.
Answer:
True

Question 5.
We must always choose very easy goals so we can feel happiness.
Answer:
False

Question 6.
Most pessimists perceive difficulties as challenges/ opportunities.
Answer:
False

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 8 Positive Psychology

Question 7.
Empathy and sympathy are synonymous.
Answer:

Question 8.
Brain damage can diminish a person’s ability to empathize.
Answer:
True

Answer the following in one sentence each.

Question 1.
What does positive psychology focus on?
Answer:
Positive psychology focuses on building of character strengths such as courage, happiness and perseverance rather than on anxiety, conflict and avoidance.

Question 2.
What does ‘life below zero’ indicate?
Answer:
‘Life below zero’ indicates a life that is full of problems, stress, diseases, etc.

Question 3.
How does an optimist view challenges and difficulties?
Answer:
Optimists have a positive approach towards challenges and difficulties and hence view them as opportunities to progress and become strong.

Question 4.
What does mindlessness mean?
Answer:
Mindlessness means performing a task with less concentration and awareness mainly because we are absorbed in our own thoughts, worries, etc.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 8 Positive Psychology

Question 5.
What is psychological resilience?
Answer:
Psychological resilience refers to developing coping strategies that enable one to adapt to uncertainty, challenges and adversity and to move on without prolonged negative consequences.

Explain the concepts in 25 – 30 words each.

Question 1.
Broaden and Build theory.
Answer:
The ‘Broaden and Build theory of positive emotions’ by Barbara Fredrickson explains that when we experience positive emotions, we have more positive thoughts and also indulge in positive behaviours. Experiencing a positive emotion leads to broadening the number of actions that we can think of performing. This will increase and strengthen our psychological and social resources to lead a fulfilling life.

Question 2.
Life above zero.
Answer:
Traditional psychology focused on life at and below zero. Zero is the line that divides illness from health. Hence, life below zero indicates a life that is full of problems, stress, diseases, etc. Positive psychology emphasizes the study of life above zero. Life above zero covers a large area of positive aspects of behaviour such as mindfulness, resilience, happiness, hope, trust and empathy.

Question 3.
Mindfulness meditation
Answer:
Mindfulness means a moment-by-moment awareness of our bodily sensations, thoughts and feelings. In Buddhist philosophy, mindfulness practice is a form of meditation. Mindfulness meditation helps in developing a non-reactive state of mind which is the foundation of a peaceful mind. This helps to reduce anxiety, frustration, etc., and enhances mental well-being.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 8 Positive Psychology

Answer the following questions in 35 – 40 words each.

Question 1.
Why is positive psychology considered significant today?
Answer:
Positive psychology is a newly emerging branch of psychology. Martin Seligman officially introduced Positive Psychology as a subfield of psychology. It is the science of happiness, human strength and growth.

Negative events tend to be intense and hence easily attract our attention, e.g., outburst of anger by a person will be quickly noticed. Positive psychology believes that a person can prevent and overcome many psychological problems by adopting a positive approach. Therefore, today, positive psychology is important. Positive psychology is concerned with the “good life” and the factors that contribute the most to a fulfilling, happy life. It can help increase self esteem, improve relationships and greater chances of success.

Question 2.
What are the characteristics of optimists?
Answer:
Optimism is a mental attitude that includes feelings of hopefulness. It is a belief that the future will be positive and favourable and that negative events are merely setbacks that are temporary and can be overcome.
The characteristics of optimists are-

  1. they try to choose the best options available
  2. they tend to be high on self confidence
  3. they face difficulties positively as they view them as a challenge for a person to become strong
  4. they are hopeful about the future and do not generalize present failure to future events.

Question 3.
How can empathy be nurtured?
Answer:
Empathy is the capacity to understand and feel what another person is experiencing from within their frame of reference i.e. capacity to place oneself in another’s position. According to Simon Baron-Cohen there are three components of emotions viz. cognitive empathy emotional reactivity and social skills.

Empathy builds a sense of security and trust. It is closely related to emotional intelligence and is a key to successful relationships. Empathy can be nurtured by employing methods like-

  1. increase social interactions
  2. connecting through similarities
  3. understanding one’s own feelings
  4. challenge your self
  5. cultivate a sense of curiosity
  6. widen the social contact circle.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 8 Positive Psychology

Write short notes on the following in 50 – 60 words each.

Question 1.
Components of empathy
Answer:
Empathy is the capacity to understand and feel what another person is experiencing from within their frame of reference, i.e., capacity to place oneself in another’s position.
According to Simon Baron-Cohen, there are three components of empathy viz. cognitive empathy emotional reactivity and social skills.

  1. Cognitive empathy – This is called perspective taking, i.e., knowing how the other thinks and feels. Cognitive empathy responds to a problem using brainpower.
  2. Emotional reactivity – We feel the emotions as intensely as the other person. It involves connecting intimately with another person to form a strong bonds.
  3. Social skills – It involves being moved to help the person using our emotional person to form a strong bonds.

Answer the following questions in 80 – 100 words each.

Question 1.
Types of resilience
Points:
(i) Physical resilience
(ii) Psychological resilience
(iii) Emotional resilience
(iv) Community resilience
Answer:
According to the American Psychological Association, resilience is the process of adapting well in the face of adversity, trauma, tragedy, threats or significant sources of stress such as family, health, etc. It is the act of ‘bouncing back’ inspite of barriers or set backs.
There are three ways in which people face adverse situations viz.

  1. consider oneself as a ‘victim’ and hence indulge in self pity or anger
  2. get overwhelmed by negative emotions like fear, anxiety, etc., which makes them vulnerable to physiological and psychological collapse
  3. become upset about the disruption and experience a sense of loss, pain, grief, etc.

However, they understand that setbacks are a part of life. Hence, they work through these feelings in ways that foster strength and growth. Sometimes, they may emerge stronger than they were prior to the setback. Such persons are called Resilient individuals. The four types of resilience are-
(i) Physical resilience – It is the body’s ability to adapt to challenges, maintain stamina, and quickly recover when faced with illness, injury or other physical demands.

(ii) Psychological resilience – It is developing coping strategies that enable one to adapt to uncertainty, challenges and adversity and to move on without prolonged negative consequence. The person can remain calm and focused during stressful situations.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 8 Positive Psychology

(iii) Emotional resilience – It refers to the ability to manage one’s emotions by adequately using one’s resources to cope with adversity and stress. It is the ability to understand what one is feeling and why?

(iv) Community resilience – It is the ability of groups of people to respond to and recover from adverse situations such as natural disasters, epidemics, war, economic hardships and other challenges to their community. This is mainly due to strong connections or bonds that community members have with each other.

Question 2.
Empathy
Points:
(i) Meaning
(ii) Components
(iii) Nurturing empathy
Answer:
(i) Meaning – Empathy is the capacity to understand and feel what another person is experiencing from within their frame of reference, i.e., capacity to place oneself in another’s position. Empathy builds a sense of security and trust. It is closely related to emotional intelligence. It supports social corrections required for communication and shared activities. Empathy is considered the key to successful relationships. Research indicates that there is a neurological foundation of empathy. A broad range of brain areas spanning the sensory motor area, insula and cingulate cortex together form a neural network for empathy processing.

(ii) Components-

  • Cognitive empathy – This is called perspective taking, i.e., knowing how the other thinks and feels. Cognitive empathy responds to a problem using brainpower.
  • Emotional reactivity – We feel the emotions as intensely as the other person. It involves connecting intimately with another person to form a strong bonds.
  • Social skills – It involves being moved to help the person using our emotional intelligence. One should not become overwhelmed by sadness or trying to ‘fix’ things.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 8 Positive Psychology

(iii) Nurturing empathy-
A world with empathetic persons will be nurturing and supportive. The methods to nurture empathy are-

  • Increase social interactions – Especially with people who need help in order to understand their perspectives and motives.
  • Connecting through similarities with others, e.g., those having same hobbies/ work/ goals, etc.
  • Understanding what you are feeling – Those who are able to accurately judge their own motives, can empathize better.
  • Challenge yourself – Tasks that are challenging lead to the person struggling to achieve a goal. This lead to humility which enables empathy.
  • Cultivate a sense of curiosity – This leads to open-mindedness and a better understanding of those around us.
  • Widen our social circle – Contact with people of different races, cultures, viewpoints helps to increase empathy towards them at a neurological level.

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 8 Positive Psychology Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 7 First Aid in Mental Health

Maharashtra State Board 12th Psychology Important Questions Chapter 7 First Aid in Mental Health

Choose the correct option and complete the following statements.

Question 1.
According to the NIMHANS study (2014-2016) about …………………. of population suffers from common mental disorders.
(a) 10%
(b) 13%
(c) 25%
Answer:
(a) 10%

Question 2.
The Indian city that obtained an International license in 2017 to carry out standard MHFA programme across India is ………………
(a) New Delhi
(b) Bengaluru
(c) Chennai
Answer:
(c) Chennai

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 7 First Aid in Mental Health

Question 3.
If early signs of mental illness are recognized, it can assist the individual to get help. This is known as …………………
(a) diagnosis
(b) early intervention
(c) rehabilitation
Answer:
(b) early intervention

Question 4.
Imbalance of certain in the brain may be a factor in anxiety.
(a) neurotransmitters
(b) fluids
(c) organs
Answer:
(a) neurotransmitters

Match the pairs.

Question 1.

Group A Group B
(1) Anthony Jorm (a) technology related mental health issues
(2) Traumatic events (b) depression
(3) SHUT clinic in NIMHANS (c) co-founder of MHFA programme
(4) Red flag in internet usage (d) social phobia
(5) Feeling of worthlessness (e) anxiety
(f) craving and compulsion

Answer:

Group A Group B
(1) Anthony Jorm (c) co-founder of MHFA programme
(2) Traumatic events (e) anxiety
(3) SHUT clinic in NIMHANS (a) technology related mental health issues
(4) Red flag in internet usage (f) craving and compulsion
(5) Feeling of worthlessness (b) depression

State whether the following statements are true or false.

Question 1.
There is a stigma attached to mental illness.
Answer:
True

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 7 First Aid in Mental Health

Question 2.
Mental illness is caused due to supernatural forces.
Answer:
False

Question 3.
Mental illness usually does not develop ‘out of the blue’.
Answer:
True

Question 4.
Relapse prevention is important in Mental Health First Aid.
Answer:
True

Question 5.
Any anxiety experienced by a person is a cause for concern.
Answer:
False

Question 6.
DSM-5 considers behaviour addictions as a mental disorder.
Answer:
False

Answer the following in one sentence each.

Question 1.
What is the assumption of First Aid in Mental Health?
Answer:
The assumption of First Aid in Mental Health is the concept of ‘prevention is better than cure’.

Question 2.
What are some non-medical explanations for mental illness?
Answer:
Some non-medical explanations for mental illness are based on myths and superstitions that such behaviour is due to evil spirits and black magic.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 7 First Aid in Mental Health

Question 3.
Who developed the Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) programme?
Answer:
Betty Kitchener and Antony Jorm originally developed the Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) programme.

Question 4.
What is the objective of MHFA?
Answer:
MHFA is an internationally recognized training programme whose objective is to teach people how to identify the signs and symptoms of mental health problems and to provide assistance on a first aid basis.

Question 5.
What is the rationale of SHUT clinics by NIMHANS?
Answer:
NIMHANS (Bengaluru) has begun the Service for Healthy Use of Technology (SHUT) to deal exclusively with mental health issues that are technology related.

Answer the following questions in 35 – 40 words each.

Question 1.
What are the main hurdles to receiving treatment in case of mental illness?
Answer:
The main hurdles in receiving treatment for poor mental health are-

  1. Lack of knowledge and awareness.
  2. Stigma attached to mental illness due to which treatment is discontinued.
  3. High cost of treatment.
  4. Reliance on non-medical explanations for mental illness, for e.g., evil spirits.
  5. Shortage of trained mental health professionals.
  6. Slow improvement in the behaviour due to which treatment is discontinued.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 7 First Aid in Mental Health

Question 2.
What are the self help strategies in Mental Health First Aid?
Answer:
Self help strategies are tasks that help to increase our resources to deal with stress and to maintain mental health. MHFA is an internationally recognized training programme whose objective is to teach people how to identify the signs and symptoms of mental health problems and to provide assistance on a first aid basis.

  1. Physical activity and exercise like playing a sport, jogging, yoga, etc.
  2. Cultivate a hobby or engage in an enjoyable activity.
  3. Sleep hygiene, i.e., 7 to 8 hours of sleep with a proper routine.
  4. Reduce digital involvement, i.e., disconnect everyday for some time from gadgets.
  5. Build social support and spend time with friends / family.

Question 3.
Enumerate behavioural changes noticed in persons suffering from depression.
Answer:
Individuals who experience depression, commonly have a negative thinking style and feel worthless and helpless. A number of changes are noticed in their behaviour such as-

  1. Complaining of feeling tired or sleepy all the time
  2. avoiding family and friends and spending much time alone
  3. remaining sad and forgetful
  4. bunking class or performing poorly in exams and having difficulty in concentrating.

Question 4.
What are the ‘red flags’ that indicate over dependence on the internet?
Answer:
Signs that help to identify individuals who show deviance or distress and require help in mental health are called red flags.
The ‘red flags’ that indicate over dependence on internet are-

  1. Feelings of euphoria while using the internet.
  2. Physical symptoms like headache, dry eyes, etc.
  3. Inability to keep to schedules and boredom with routine tasks.
  4. Poor personal hygiene and nutrition to remain online.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 7 First Aid in Mental Health

Write short notes in 50 – 60 words each.

Question 1.
First Aid in Mental Health.
Answer:
Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) is an internationally recognized training programme designed to teach people how to identify the signs and symptoms of mental health problems and to provide assistance on a first aid basis. MHFA was originally developed by Betty Kitchener and Anthony Jorm.

First Aid in Mental Health is a concept based on the idea of ‘prevention is better than cure’. It teaches one how to identify understand and respond to signs of mental illness as well as substance use disorders. Through role playing and simulations, MHFA demonstrates how to assess a mental health crisis, select interventions, provide initial help and connect the person to self-help resources, social support or professional aid if needed.

If the early signs of mental illness are recognized, it can help in the following ways.

  1. Diagnosis – timely diagnosis at the onset of mental illness helps to prevent it from developing into a more severe form.
  2. Intervention – early intervention helps to get professional help.
  3. Relapse prevention – it prevent reoccurrence of symptom of the mental illness.

Question 2.
Self help strategies in Mental Health First Aid.
Answer:
Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) programme was developed by Betty Kitchener and Anthony Jorm. It is designed to identify the signs and symptoms of mental health and to provide assistance on a first aid basis.
Self help strategies are not luxuries but rather essential things that can be incorporated in your life.

  1. Sleep hygiene – Ensuring that you get 7 to 8 hours of sleep every night. You should try to maintain the same schedule, that is go to sleep every night at the same time and wake up at the same time every day. This will help set a routine and improve your well-being
  2. Reduce screen time and digital involvement – You should disconnect everyday for some time from your gadgets. Try to set a time limit for the number of hours you will surf the internet each day.
  3. Physical activity – Try to add some physical activity in your day to day schedule. This can be playing a sport or just going for a walk every day.
  4. Engage in activity that you enjoy doing, cultivate hobbies – This can be any activity like reading a book or listening to your favourite song.
  5. Build and maintain Social Support – Meeting and spending time with your friends and family. Participating in social gatherings.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 7 First Aid in Mental Health

Question 3.
5-4-3-2-1 relaxation technique.
Answer:
There are certain times when you feel tense or anxious. One strategy that we can use to help us calm down is the 5-4-3-2-1 technique. This is a simple technique that you can use whenever you are feeling overwhelmed by the situation and need to relax. First take a few deep breaths and then follow the below instructions.

  1. Think of 5 things that you can see around you. For example, a pen, book etc.
  2. Think of 4 things that you can touch around you. For example, your hair, the ground under your feet etc
  3. Think of 3 things that you can hear around you. For example, the sound of traffic, sound of people who are talking around you etc.
  4. Think of 2 things that you can smell around you. For example, the scent of soap from your hands, the fragrance of your deodorant etc
  5. Think of 1 thing that you can taste. For example the taste of the last meal that you had etc. Performing this exercise will help you focus on the present and stop worrying.

Question 4.
Behavioural changes in persons suffering from anxiety.
Answer:
Anxiety refers to a condition in which the person feels worried/tense and uneasy for a long time for no obvious reasons. Symptoms of anxiety include nervousness, restlessness, feelings of danger, etc.
Individuals who are anxious may-

  1. Not want to go to college or work.
  2. Complain repeatedly of various physiological problems.
  3. Get irritated while interacting with their friends or family.
  4. Spend lot of time worrying about how they look.
  5. Be extremely quiet in the class or at work and get scared of asking questions to the teachers or colleagues.
  6. Sometimes ask the same questions repeatedly.
  7. They visibly show the physical symptoms of anxiety like sweating or excessive body movements.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 7 First Aid in Mental Health

Question 5.
Four C’s to identify excessive internet usage.
Answer:
Excessive internet usage is characterised by extensive, problematic addiction to the use of computer and internet. It signifies poorly controlled preoccupations or behaviour regarding such usage. Excessive internet usage leads to personal distress and social impairment.
The four C’s to identify excessive internet usage are as follows-

  1. Craving – Do you have an intense desire to use the internet?
  2. Control – Do you have an inability to control your self using the internet?
  3. Compulsion – Do you find it difficult to stop using the internet? Even though you know you should not spend so much time on it?
  4. Consequence – Have you ever experienced any physical or psychological ill effects as a result of excessive use of the internet?

If you answer a ‘yes’ for at least three of the C’s, it can be a matter of concern.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 7 First Aid in Mental Health

Question 6.
Over-dependence on internet.
Answer:
The amount of time as well as reason for using the internet may become a matter of concern for e.g., online gambling, gaming, etc. The person may socialise more online with friends than real life socialising. Spending excess time online may cause the person to neglect family, relationships, work etc. Virtual world enables games/gambling almost continuously.

This leads to the person neglecting personal hygiene, real life relationships and become withdrawn and irresponsible. The person may feel guilty or defensive about internet use. He/she may panic in the absence of internet service. A growing dependence on internet refers to an inability to stop and down down.

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 7 First Aid in Mental Health Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 10 Foreign Trade of India

Maharashtra State Board 12th Economics Important Questions Chapter 10 Foreign Trade of India

1. A. Choose the correct option:

Question 1.
Before independence India was exporting raw materials to –
(a) USA (b) Japan
(c) England (Britain)
(d) None of these
Options :
(1) a and b
(2) c and a
(3) d
(4) only c
Answer:
(4) only c

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 10 Foreign Trade of India

Question 2.
Internal trade also known as –
(a) Domestic trade
(b) Home trade
(c) External trade
(d) all of these
Options :
(1) a, b and c
(2) b and c
(3) a and b
(4) only d
Answer:
(3) a and b

Question 3.
International or External trade takes place between –
(a) two or more districts
(b) two or more states
(c) two or more countries
(d) none of these
Options :
(1) a and b
(2) a and c
(3) a, b and c
(4) only c
Answer:
(4) only c

Question 4.
Most important commodity in India’s import is –
(a) Petroleum, oil and lubricants
(b) Food grains .
(c) Engineering goods
(d) Readymade garments
Options :
(1) a and b
(2) b and c
(3) only a
(4) c and d
Answer:
(3) only a

Question 5.
According to Walter Krause definition of Balance of Payment, value of exchange of goods and services is considered among –
(a) the citizens and businessmen
(b) the firms
(c) the government
(d) none of these
Options :
(1) a, b and c
(2) b and c
(3) c and d
(4) only a
Answer:
(1) a, b and c

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 10 Foreign Trade of India

Question 6.
Trade surplus means –
(a) Export value > Import value
(b) Export value < Import value
(c) Export value = Import value
(d) All of these
Options :
(1) only a
(2) b and c
(3) only b
(4) only d
Answer:
(1) only a

Question 7.
Balance of trade includes –
(a) the value of imports of visible and invisible goods
(b) the value of imports of only visible goods
(c) the value of imports and exports of visible and invisible goods
(d) the value of exports of visible and invisible goods.
Options :
(1) a and d
(2) only b
(3) only c
(4) All of these
Answer:
(3) only c

Question 8.
International trade is important because –
(a) it helps in optimal utilisation of resources
(b) it brings stability in price level
(c) it helps to earn foreign exchange
(d) it encourages investment
Options :
(1) a and b
(2) b and c
(3) a and c
(4) all of these
Answer:
(4) all of these

Question 9.
The share of India’s foreign trade in Gross National Income during 2016-17 was –
(a) 25%
(b) 17.55
(c) 48.8 %
(d) None of these
Options :
(1) only a
(2) only b
(3) only c
(4) only d
Answer:
(3) only c

Question 9.
In recent years India’s leading trading partners are –
(a) USA, Germany, Japan, UK
(b) Britain
(c) Nepal, Sri Lanka, UK
(d) None of these
Options :
(1) only a
(2) b and c
(3) a and c
(4) only d
Answer:
(1) only a

Question 10.
Which of the following is not a benefit of international trade –
(a) provides multiple choices of imported goods
(b) leads to division of labour
(c) high wage levels for all domestic workers
(d) can earn reputation and goodwill in the international market
Options :
(1) a and d
(2) only c
(3) a, c and d
(4) a, b and d
Answer:
(2) only c

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 10 Foreign Trade of India

Question 11.
There is a change in the composition of India’s exports from –
(a) primary products to manufactured products
(b) manufactured products to primary products
(c) manufactured products to software
(d) All of these Options:
(1) a and b
(2) only a
(3) a, b and e
(4) only d
Answer:
(2) only a

(B) Complete the Correlation

(1) Internal trade : Home trade :: …………. : Foreign trade
Answer:
International trade

(2) Trade surplus: …………. :: Trade deficit: Export > Import
Answer:
Export > Import

(3) …………. : jute, cotton :: Manufactured goods: readymade garments
Answer:
Primary goods

(4) OECD : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development :: …………. : Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries
Answer:
OPEC

(5) Import goods : …………. :: Export goods : Engineering goods
Answer:
Gold

(6) Trade within the country : Internal trade :: Trade between two or more countries : …………..
Answer:
External trade

(7) Highest share in export: Engineering goods :: Highest share in import: ………….
Answer:
Petroleum

(8) Old ports : Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai:: …………. : Kandla, Cochin, Vishakhapatnam
Answer:
New ports

(9) International trade : External trade :: Domestic trade : …………. :
Answer:
Internal trade

(10) Foreign trade before independence : …………. :: Foreign trade after independence : USA
Answer:
Britain / England

(11) Machinery : Capital goods :: Motor vehicles : ………….
Answer:
Consumer goods

(C) Give economic terms.

(1) To purchase goods and services by one country from another country.
Answer:
Import trade

(2) To sale goods and services by one country to another country.
Answer:
Export trade

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 10 Foreign Trade of India

(3) To purchase goods and services from one country and then selling them to another country after processing.
Answer:
Entrepot trade

(4) Exchange of goods and services.
Answer:
Trade

(5) Export value is greater than the import value.
Answer:
Trade surplus

(6) Import value is greater than the export value.
Answer:
Trade deficit

(7) The trade is by sea.
Answer:
Oceanic trade

(8) This leads division of labour and specialization.
Answer:
Foreign trade

(9) We can see or touch these goods.
Answer:
Visible / tangible goods

(10) We can’t see or touch these goods.
Answer:
Invisible / intangible goods

(D) Find the odd word out.

(1) Internal trade, Domestic trade, Foreign trade, Home trade.
Answer:
Foreign trade

(2) International trade, Internal trade, External trade, Foreign trade.
Answer:
Internal trade

(3) Types of foreign trade :
Import trade, Export trade, National trade, Entrepot trade.
Answer:
National trade

(4) Need of Foreign trade :
To earn foreign exchange, To earn rupees, To encourage investment,To stabilize price ; level
Answer:
To earn rupees

(5) Important features of India’s foreign trade :
Change in the composition of exports, ; Change in composition of imports, Change in composition of internal trade
Answer:
Change in composition of internal trade

(6) Trade relation with neighbouring countries :
Nepal, Afghanistan, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, England
Answer:
England

(7) New ports for foreign trade :
Mumbai, Kandla, Cochin, Vishakhapatnam ;
Answer:
Mumbai

(8) Major imported goods :
Gold, Fertilizers, Gems and Jewellery, Petroleum
Answer:
Gems and jewellery

(9) Major exported goods :
Iron and Steel, ‘ Engineering goods, Chemicals, Textiles and readymade garments
Answer:
Iron and steel

(10) Useful concept in foreign trade :
Balance of payment, Balance of trade, Balance budget
Answer:
Balance budget

(11) Organisation related to foreign trade : OECD, OPEC, EGEPC, NABARD
Answer:
NABARD

(12) Manufactured products :
Gems and jewellery, Electronic goods, s Computer hardware and software, Food grains
Answer:
Food grains

(13) Primary products :
Jute and cotton, Readymade garments, Oil seeds, Mineral products
Answer:
Readymade garments

(14) Visible goods :
Gold, Petroleum, Fertilizers, Communication
Answer:
Communication

(15) Invisible goods (service):
Banking, Communication, Engineering goods, Transport
Answer:
Engineering goods

(16) Cloth, Machinery, Technology, Fertilizers
Answer:
Cloth

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 10 Foreign Trade of India

(E) Complete the sentences.

(1) During the British rule …………………. industries suffered set back.
Answer:
handicraft

(2) In the post World War II, …………………. trade is considered as an investment.
Answer:
Foreign trade

(3) Buying and selling of goods and services within the boundaries of a nation are known as ………………….
Answer:
Internal trade

(4) Internal trade is also known as ………………….
Answer:
Domestic / Home trade

(5) The trade between Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, etc, is known as ………………….
Answer:
Internal trade

(6) International trade is also known as ………………….
Answer:
Foreign / External trade

(7) Trade which consists of transaction between residents of different countries is called ………………….
Answer:
International trade

(8) …………………. is a remarkable factor in expanding the market and encouraging the production of goods.
Answer:
Foreign trade

(9) …………………. helps to earn goodwill and reputation in the international market.
Answer:
Export trade

(10) After independence, there was change in the composition of imports from consumer goods to ………………….
Answer:
capital goods

(11) Share of …………………. trade-in-India is around 68%.
Answer:
Oceanic trade

(12) Goods such as cloth, motor vehicles, electrical goods, etc, are known as ………………….
Answer:
consumer goods

(13) Goods and services that are made in one country but purchased and consumed in another country is called ………………….
Answer:
export

(F) Choose the wrong pair ; (1 mark each)

I.

Group‘A Group ‘B’
1. Internal trade Between two or more countries
2. Oceanic trade Trade by sea
3. Export trade Sale of goods by one country to another country

Answer:
Wrong pair : Internal trade – Between two or more countries

II.

Group ‘A’ Group ‘B’
1. Primary goods Jute, cotton, tea
2. Invisible goods Cloth, medicine, car
3. Capital goods Machinery, technology, steel

Answer:
Wrong pair : Invisible goods – Cloth, medicine, car

III.

Group ‘A’ Group ‘B’
1. Encourage investment Foreign trade
2. To earn foreign exchange Internal trade
3. International trade Multiple choices of imported goods

Answer:Wrong pair : To earn foreign exchange Internal trade

(G) Assertion and Reasoning:

Question 1.
Assertion (A): Trade is an engine of growth of an economy.
Reasoning (R) : It plays an important role for economic development.
(1) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct reason for (A).
(ii) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct reason for (A).
(iii) (A) is true but (R) is false.
(iv) (A) and (R) both are false.
Answer:
(i) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct reason for (A).

Question 2.
Assertion (A) : International trade consists of transaction between residents of different countries.
Reasoning (R): This is given by Wasserman and Hultman
(i) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct reason for (A).
(ii) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct reason for (A).
(iii) (A) is true but (R) is false.
(iv) (A) and (R) both are false.
Answer:
(ii) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct reason for (A).

Question 3.
Assertion (A) : During the British rule foreign trade did not permit industrialisation in India.
Reasoning (R) : India was a supplier of raw material to the England and importer of manufactured goods.
(i) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct reason for (A).
(ii) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct reason for (A).
(iii) (A) is true but (R) is false.
(iv) (A) and (R) both are false.
Answer:
(i) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct reason for (A).

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 10 Foreign Trade of India

Question 4.
Assertion (A): Buying and selling of goods and services across the boundaries of a nation are known as internal trade. Reasoning (R) : Goods produced in
Maharashtra are sold to West Bengal then it is known as international trade.
(i) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct reason for (A).
(ii) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct reason for (A).
(iii) (A) is true but (R) is false.
(iv) (A) and (R) both are false.
(iv) (A) and (R) both are false.

Question 5.
Assertion (A) : Due to specialization resources are channelized for the production of only those goods which would give highest ( return.
Reasoning (R): There is rational allocation and specialization.
(i) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct reason for (A).
(ii) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct reason for (A).
(iii)(A) is true but (R) is false.
(iv)(A) and (R) both are false.
Answer:
(i) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct reason for (A).

Question 6.
Assertion (A) : An increase in total investment leads to development of an economy. .
Reasoning (R) : Foreign trade creates an opportunity for the producers to reach beyond the domestic markets.
(i) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct reason for (A).
(ii) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct reason for (A).
(iii) (A) is true but (R) is false.
(iv) (A) and (R) both are false.
Answer:
(i) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct reason for (A).

Question 7.
Assertion (A) : Balance of payments is a summary statement of all the transaction between the residents of one country and the rest of the world.
Reasoning (R): This is given by Samuelson.
(i)Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the
correct reason for (A).
(ii) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct reason for (A).
(iii) (A) is true but (R) is false.
(iv)(A) and (R) both are false.
Answer:
(iii) (A) is true but (R) is false.

Question 8.
Assertion (A) : Balance of trade is the difference between the value of countries export and import for a given period. Reasoning (R) : Balance of trade is also referred to as international trade balance.
(i)Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct reason for (A).
(ii) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct reason for (A).
(iii)(A) is true but (R) is false.
(iv)(A) and (R) both are false.
Answer:
(iii) (A) is true but (R) is false.

(H) Choose the right group of pairs :

I.

Group ‘A’ Group ‘B’
1. Balance of Trade (a)International trade balance
2. OPEC (b) Oil and Petrol Export Commission
3. Trade (c) Buying and selling of goods and services
4. Invisible goods (d) Banking, insurance
5. WTO (e) World Trade Organisation

II.

Group ‘A’ Group ‘B’
1. OPEC (a) Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries
2. Trade deficit (b) Value of export < Value of import
3. Internal trade (c) Trade within the country
4. India’s imported goods (d) Petroleum, Gold, fertilizer
5. Entrepot Trade (e) Re-export

Answer:
II group is correct.

2.[A] Identify and explain the concept from given illustrations.

Question 1.
Antwerp city of Belgium imports raw diamonds and exports finished diamonds to other countries.
Answer:
Concept: Entrepot Trade
Explanation : It means purchase of goods and services from one country and selling them to another country after processing.

Question 2.
The country ‘A’ value of import was $200 billion and value of export was $150 billion.
Answer:
Concept: Trade deficit
Explanation : When value of import is greater than value of export it is called as trade deficit.

Question 3.
The country ‘X’ value of export was $500 billion and value of import was $200 billion.
Answer:
Concept: Trade Surplus
Explanation : When value of export is greater than value of import it is called as trade surplus.

Question 4.
Kashmir sold its apples to the other parts of country.
Answer:
Concept: Internal trade
Explanation : This trade is also known as home or domestic trade. It means buying and selling of goods and services within the country.

Question 5.
India is selling its spices to USA, China, Vietnam, etc.
Answer:
Concept: Export Trade
Explanation : It means selling of goods and services by one country to another country. It helps to earn foreign exchange.

Question 6.
India based Tata Consultancy Services (TCS) is selling their software and services to the USA.
Answer:
Concept: Export trade
Explanation : It means selling of goods and services by one country to another country. It helps to earn foreign exchange.

(B) Distinguish between

Question 1.
Import trade and Export trade.
Answer:
Import trade:

  1. It means to purchase of goods and services by one country from another country.
  2. E.g. India imports petroleum from Iraq, Kuwait
  3. It is inflow of goods and services.

Export trade:

  1. It means to the sale goods and services by one country to another country.
  2. E.g. India exports tea, rice, jute to China, Hong Kong, etc.
  3. It is outflow of goods and services.

Question 2.
Export trade and Entrepot trade.
Answer:
Export trade:

  1. Export trade means sale of goods by one country to another country.
  2. E.g. India selling its spices to USA, China, etc.

Entrepot trade:

  1. Entrepot trade means purchase of goods and services from one country and selling them to another country.
  2. E.g. Antwerp city of Belgium importing raw diamonds and exporting finished diamonds to other countries.

Question 3.
Trade surplus and Trade deficit.
Answer:
Trade surplus:

  1. When country’s exports are more than its imports, it is called as trade surplus.
  2. Generally, it is considered as a positive development.

Trade deficit:

  1. When country’s import are more than its exports, it is called as trade deficit.
  2. Generally, it is considered as a negative development.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 10 Foreign Trade of India

3. Answer the following:

Question 1.
Explain the concepts of Balance of Trade.
Answer:
Balance of trade is the important concept of foreign trade. Balance of trade is the difference between the values of country’s exports and imports for a given period.
Balance of trade can be positive or negative.

(i) Trade surplus : When country’s value of export is more than its value of import, it is called trade surplus. It is also known as positive balance of trade.

(ii) Trade Deficit : When country’s value of import is more than its value of export, it is called as trade deficit. It is also known as negative balance of trade.

The formula for calculating balance of trade is as follows :
BOT = Total value of Exports – Total value of Imports.

4. State with reasons whether you agree or disagree with the following statements :

Question 1.
During British rule, indigenous handicraft suffered a severe blow.
Answer:
Yes, I do agree with this statement.

  1. During the British rule India was exporting raw materials to England and was importing final goods from England.
  2. Indian handicraft was unable to face competition with imported goods from England.
  3. An imported goods were cheaper as compared to handicraft goods.
  4. The demand for machine made cheap commodity had raised in Indian market.
  5. That’s why Indian handicraft industries suffered during the British rule.

Question 2.
Trade is an engine of growth for an economy.
Answer:
Yes, I agree with this statement.

  • Trade permits a more efficient allocation of national resources.
  • Foreign trade provide foreign exchange which can be used to import modern machinery and technology from advanced countries.
  • Foreign trade encourages producers to produce more goods for export.
  • It leads to an increase in total investment in an economy.
  • Thus, we can say, trade is an engine to growth for an economy.

Question 3.
Foreign trade leads to division of labour and specialisation at world level.
Answer:
Yes, I agree with this statement.

  • Some countries have abundant natural resources.
  • These countries should export raw material and import finished goods from countries which are advanced in skilled man power,
  • Under specialisation specific work is given to the workers within a production process.
  • Specialisation can increase the productivity of a firm or economy.
  • Eg. Incase of car manufacturing company, some workers will design the cars, some workers will work on different section of assembly line, some workers will work on testing cars, some workers will work on marketing of cars.

Question 4.
Foreign trade is not playing an important role for economic development.
Answer:
No, I do not agree with this statement.

  • It helps to earn foreign exchange which can be used for productive purpose.
  • It leads to an increase in a total investment in an economy.
  • It helps to control the changes in the price level.
  • It helps to maximum allocation and utlisation of resources at international level.
  • Due to availability of imported goods, it helps to improve standard of living of the people in the country.
  • During the natural calamities, foreign trade enables a country to import food grains and medicines from other countries to help the affected people.
  • It promotes world peace by bringing countries closer.

Question 5.
During the pre and post independence period, India’s composition of import and export is the same.
Answer:
No, I do not agree with this statement.

  • Prior to independence, India used to export primary products like Jute, Cotton, Tea, Oil-Seeds etc.
  • In the recent time India is exporting manufactured product like readymade garments, gems and jewellery, computer hardware and software, etc.
  • Prior to independence India used to import consumer goods like medicines, cloth, motor vehicles, electrical goods, etc.
  • In the recent time, India is importing capital goods like advanced technology and machinery, chemicals, fertilizers, steel, etc.

Question 6.
India is importing only petroleum from other countries.
Answer:
No, I do not agree with this statement. India is importing many commodities like :

  • Electronic goods : In the total import of country, share of electronic goods in 10.9% in the year 2016-17.
  • Pearls and Gems : In the total import, share of peals and gems was 6.2% in the year 2016-17.
  • Edible oils : India also imports edible oil from Malaysia and Indonesia and its share is 2.8% in the year 2016-17.
  • Gold : There was growing demand for gold in the Indian market. In the year 2018-19, the value of gold imported was upto $32.8 billion.
  • Fertilizers : India is importing fertilizers from China, US, Iraq, Russia. In the year 2016-17, the share of fertilizers was 1.3% in the total import of country.

Question 7.
India is exporting many commodities goods.
Answer:
Yes, I do agree with this statement. India exports many commodities like :

  • Engineering goods : It has the large share in the export of India. The share of engineering goods was 25% in the total exports in 2017-18.
  • Petroleum products : India turned as a net exporter of petroleum refinery products.
    India’s export of petroleum product was 20.1% in 2013-14.
  • Chemicals and chemical product :
    India is exporting chemicals and chemical products to many countries from last few years. In the year 2014-15 the share of chemicals was 10.4% in total exports of the country.
  • Gems and Jewellery : It is one of the major contributor which helps to earn foreign exchange. According to DGCI Kolkata, the value of Gems and Jewellery export was $38.96 billion in 2018-19.

5. Study the following table, chart, graph, passage and answer the questions.

1. India’s Merchandise Trade (US $ Billion)
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 10 Foreign Trade of India 1

Question 1.
In the above bar diagram during which year export was maximum and how much was it?
The export was maximum in the year 2018¬19. It was $331billion.

Question 2.
In which year import was maximum and how much was it?
In the year 2018-19 import was maximum and it was $507.4 billion.

Question 3.
In which year import was least and how much was it?
In the year 2015-16 import was least and it was $381 billion.

Question 4.
Find out the trade deficit in the year 2017-18?
Trade deficit = Export – Import = 303.5 – 465.6
= $162.1 billion.

Question 5.
How much is the export increase in the year 2018-19 as compared to 2014-15?
Answer:
In the year 2018-19 export has increased by $20.7 billion as compared to 2014-15.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 10 Foreign Trade of India

Question 6.
How much is the import increase in the year 2018-19 as compared to 2017-18?
Answer:
In the year 2018-19 imports has increased by $41.8 billion as compared to 2017-18.

Question 7.
Express your views on India’s merchandise trade.
Answer:
In the above bar diagram, India’s import is always greater then its export. India should take measures to reduce the imports. The Government of India should encourage the industries those are exporting goods by providing them various facilities such as availability of raw materials at cheaper rate, credit at low interest, etc.

(2) Share of top Five Commodities in India’s Export 2018-19

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 10 Foreign Trade of India 2

Question 1.
Name the second largest exported commodity in the year 2018-19.
Petroleum products are second largest exported commodity in the year 2018-19.

Question 2.
How much is the share of drug formulations, biologicals (chemical products) in total export of India.
Answer:
The share of chemical products is 4.37% in the total export of India.

Question 3.
Which commodity has least share in the total export of India and how much was it?
Answer:
Iron and Steel has least share and it is 2.96%.

Question 4.
Give your opinion on India’s export.
Answer:
India should focus on above five commodities to increase their export. The government of India should provide credit at low rate of interest, easy availability of raw materials required by above industries, as it will help to produce more goods.

3. Table A : Trade data for period 2009 – 10 to 2017 – 18

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 10 Foreign Trade of India 3

Question 1.
In which year export growth was least and how much?
Answer:
In the year 2015-16, export growth was least and it was -9.49%.

Question 2.
In which year import growth was maximum and how much?
Answer:
In the year 2011-12, import growth was maximum and it was 39.32%.

Question 3.
During which year trade balance was minimum?
Answer:
In the year 2009-10 trade balance was minimum.

Question 4.
Which concept of Balance of Trade is applicable here?
Answer:
The concept of trade deficit is applicable here, because in the above data every year India’s imports are more than its exports.

Question 5.
How much was India’s export value in the year 2017-18?
Answer:
In the year 2017-18 India’s export value was ? 19,56,515 crores.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 10 Foreign Trade of India

Question 6.
Give your opinion on India’s foreign trade.
Answer:
Above data shows that every year India’s trade balance is deficit. It means imports are more than exports. The Government should formulate such policies that increases our export and reduces our imports.

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 10 Foreign Trade of India Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

Maharashtra State Board 12th Psychology Important Questions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

Choose the correct option and complete the following statements.

Question 1.
A persistent but disproportionate and irrational fear of a specific object or situation is called ……………….
(a) anxiety
(b) mania
(c) phobia
Answer:
(c) phobia

Question 2.
A cluster of symptoms is called as ……………….
(a) therapy
(b) maladjustment
(c) syndrome
Answer:
(c) syndrome

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

Question 3.
Bipolar disorder is also called ……………… disorder.
(a) manic-depressive
(b) schizophrenia
(c) PTSD
Answer:
(a) manic-depressive

Question 4.
The DSM-5 comprises of …………….. broad categories of mental disorders along with subcategories.
(a) 19
(b) 11
(c) 22
Answer:
(c) 22

Question 5.
Ashok experiences feelings of unhappiness but has no apparent mental illness. According to Illness Wellness Continuum Model, he will be in Quadrant ……………..
(a) 1
(b) 2
(c) 3
Answer:
(b) 2

Question 6.
Mr. X tries to stop his drug usage. He experiences tremors, muscle pains, etc. This indicates, ……………. symptoms.
(a) withdrawal
(b) recovery
(c) negative
Answer:
(a) withdrawal

State whether the following statements are true or false.

Question 1.
Illness and absence of illness are distinct categories.
Answer:
False

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

Question 2.
Individual distress and impairment are criteria for psychological disorders.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
Imbalance in neurotransmitters may cause bipolar disorders.
Answer:
True

Question 4.
Extremely traumatic events may lead to the onset of Acute Stress Disorder.
Answer:
True

Question 5.
Most schizophrenics suffer from delusions and hallucinations.
Answer:
True

Question 6.
Generally, negative symptoms of schizophrenia improve much with proper treatment.
Answer:
False

Question 7.
The same therapy can be applied with equal success to all persons who exhibit similar symptoms.
Answer:
False

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

Answer the following in one sentence each.

Question 1.
What is the literal meaning of word ‘schizophrenia’.
Answer:
The word ‘schizophrenia’ is derived from the Greek words ‘schizein’ (to split) and ‘phren’ (mind). Thus, the literal meaning of the word ‘schizophrenia’ is split mind.

Question 2.
What is meant by delusion?
Answer:
Delusion refers to false belief held by the individual which cannot be shaken off in spite of clear evidence that is contrary to it.

Question 3.
What are the two states of bipolar disorder?
Answer:
The two states of bipolar disorder are mania state and depression state.

Question 4.
When is the person diagnosed with PTSD?
Answer:
The person is said to be diagnosed with PTSD when the symptoms of Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) continue for more than one month with the same intensity.

Question 5.
What are addictive disorders?
Answer:
Addictive disorders refer to the physical and psychological inability to stop consuming some substance or indulging in some activity although it is harmful.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

Question 6.
What is psychotherapy?
Answer:
Psychotherapy refers to the systematic attempt by a mental health professional to assist a person to overcome some psychological disorders.

Question 7.
What is the suggestible stage of PTSD?
Answer:
Suggestible stage of PTSD refers to a person who may seek guidance from others and may either accept these suggestions unquestioningly or may get extra sensitive.

Explain the following concepts.

Question 1.
Delusions
Answer:
Delusions is a false belief that is strongly held by an individual in spite of the presence of contrary evidence, Delusions are a symptom of mental disorders. Commonly noticed delusions are delusion of grandeur, delusions of persecution, delusion of influence or control, delusion of reference, etc.

Answer the following questions Briefly.

Question 1.
Explain Acute Stress Disorder.
Answer:
If a person (aged 6 years and above) has experienced extremely stressful situations like death of a loved one, serious disease or injury, sexual abuse, natural disasters, etc., then he/she may experience ASD.
The symptoms of ASD include-

  1. emotional numbness and instability
  2. nightmares and sleep disturbances
  3. insomnia, lack of concentration, irritability and guilt feelings
  4. depression

Question 2.
What are the red flags in identifying psychological disorders?
Answer:
Signs that help to identify individuals who require expert (professional) help in mental health are called ‘red flags’.
Symptoms, if present, in any person should satisfy three requirements-

  1. it should be present for a considerably long period of time
  2. symptom has become more severe than before
  3. it has created problems in the person’s life.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

Question 3.
What is Generalized Anxiety Disorder?
Answer:
Anxiety refers to a condition in which a person feels uneasy for a long time for no obvious reasons. The main anxiety disorders include Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Phobia, Panic attacks etc.

In Generalized Anxiety Disorder the person frequently experiences anxiety more intensely so that it starts interfering with the ability to perform daily tasks. Symptoms include irritability, headaches, insomnia, dizziness, breathlessness, etc.

Write short notes on the following.

Question 1.
Identification and treatment of psychological disorders.
Answer:
Signs that help to identify individuals who require expert (professional) help in mental health are called ‘red flags’. Symptoms, if present, in any person should satisfy three requirements

  1. it should be present for a considerably long period of time
  2. symptom has become more severe than before
  3. it has created problems in the person’s life.

The signals indicating a need for professional help are:

  1. inability to concentrate or to sleep well.
  2. severe confusion and memory loss.
  3. intense and uncontrollable negative feelings.
  4. self-neglect or even self-harm.
  5. loss of interest in friends/ family/ activities.
  6. odd statement or strange use of words.

Treatment strategies range form pharmacotherapy (administering drugs) to psychotherapy such as Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy, Interpersonal Therapy, Group/Family Therapy, etc. Mental health professionals are qualified to decide the plan of treatment.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

Answer the following questions in 150 – 200 words.

Question 1.
Discuss the red flags indicating the need for psychological help.
Answer:
Signs that help to identify individuals who require expert (professional) help in mental health are called ‘red flags’.
Symptoms, if present, in any person should satisfy three requirements

  1. it should be present for a considerably long period of time
  2. symptom has become more severe than before
  3. it has created problems in the person’s life.

Signals indicating need for professional help-

  1. Inability to concentrate
  2. Inability to sleep well
  3. Various physical complaints
  4. Uncontrollable and frequent bad thoughts
  5. Too intense uncontrollable negative feelings (fear, anger, sadness, worry, etc.)
  6. Severe confusion
  7. Memory loss
  8. Loss of interest in activities and friends
  9. Odd or irrational statements or strange use of words or way of speaking
  10. Self-harm
  11. Signs of self-neglect

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Passages Answers

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Sociology Passages Answers

Passage 1
Read the passages and answer the questions given below.

This is a real-life story of Rukmini Devi who lives in a small hut in Gaigotha Village in Wada Taluka of Palghar District in Maharashtra State. She belongs to the Warli tribe. Her husband is a marginal farmer who cultivates on two acres of land. They have two children, one daughter aged 10 years and an I son aged 6 years. Both the children walk to school and back daily (located about 3 miles away).

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Passages Answers

When cultivation season is over, (or if the rice crop is damaged due to heavy rains or pests) they face many hardships. A section of the crop is kept for their personal use, for the year. Tur Dal (lentil) is also grown in one small area, again for personal use. Ina small backyard, they grow vegetables like chilies, cucumber, and bitter gourd (karela).

During the off-season, both husband and wife go to the brick kilns (about 7 miles away) to do piece-rate work (That is, they get paid for each brick that they make.) While the men earn Rs. 300 per day, the women earn Rs. 150-200. Rukmini Devi stated that they prefer to walk the 7 miles both ways because the bus fare is Rs. 35/- per head one way. They cannot afford it.

Question 1.
Identify any three problems that the family of Rukmini Devi has to face.
Answer:
The main problem of the family of Rukmini Devi is poverty. The productivity of their economic activities is very less as they cannot use modern production techniques like fertilizers, pesticides, etc., their agriculture depends upon monsoons and there is a lack of adequate irrigation facilities. Due to the seasonal nature of agriculture, they have to face hardships and exploitation by non-tribal people. They are also being exploited by their employers who take maximum work from them and pay them minimum wages.

Question 2.
Point out and discuss briefly, gender discrimination in this setting.
Answer:
We find Rukmini Devi facing wage discrimination i.e., discrimination on the basis of sex in the payment of wages, where Rukmini Devi and her husband perform work of similar skill, effort, and responsibility for the same employer under similar working conditions but they don’t earn the same amount of money. This implies discriminative employers save on the cost by employing the tribal females. Rukmini Devi is working in, informal labour market where there is an absence of policies to safeguard gender rights.

Question 3.
Discuss the nature of the economy of the Warli tribes.
Answer:
The economy practiced by Warli Tribe is subsistence economy and simple. They use out model techniques therefore their production is insufficient. They cannot fulfill their basic needs. They try to fulfill their needs by collective efforts. Thus, the simple and collective economic life is an important characteristic of the tribal economy. The main occupation of the Warli tribe is agriculture which is in a state of backwardness. They live below the poverty line.

Passage 2
Read the passages and answer the questions given below.

Education, since the coming of the British to India, has been secular in content. By this we mean, the content of education did not include the study of sacred texts. Schools were open for all – to learn and climb the ladder of vertical mobility. The study of the English language, as well as the opportunity to study in the English medium, was available.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Passages Answers

It is true that several Indians from certain social and economic strata were the first to access an English education. Many of them later constituted the intelligentsia of our society. We refer to many of them as social reformers, such as Raja Rammohan Roy, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Pandita Ramabai, Maharshi Dhondo Keshav Karve. They worked for religious, social, and educational reform in Indian society.

Such visionaries of society continue even in the post-Independence era, to the present time.

Educational opportunities have grown by leaps and bounds in the last 73 years since Independence. One questions if the educated have merely acquired education or if the education has helped citizens become gainfully employed and more importantly, enlightened enough to transform society at the micro-level.

It is necessary for the government to consider the interests of all sections of society.

Each citizen can play a dynamic role in the development of all people in our society.

Question 1.
Explain the impact of the introduction of a new education system by the British on Indian society.
Answer:
According to the new liberal education policy introduced by the British, education was not restricted to special sections of society. The spread of secular-based education widened the minds of the people living in India. Well-educated Indians were influenced by western values. They recognized that various customs and traditions were unjust and unfair. Therefore, they started various religious and social movements to reform Indian society.

Question 2.
Explain the role of education in the transformation of society at the micro-level.
Answer:
The role of education is effective to bring change at the individual level i.e., micro-level. The role of education as an agent or instrument of social change and social development is widely recognized today. Education can initiate social changes by bringing about a change in the outlook and attitude of man. It can bring about a change in the pattern of social relationships and thereby it may cause social changes Education has brought about phenomenal changes in every aspect of men’s life. Education is a process that brings about changes in the behaviour of society. It is a process that enables every individual to effectively participate in the activities of society and to make a positive contribution to the progress of society.

Question 3.
Discuss education as an instrument of social change.
Answer:
Education changes the outlook and traditional approach towards social and economic problems. It sharpens the skills, and knowledge of the children. Technical education helps in the process of industrialization which helps to bring a vast change in society. Education not only preserves the cultural traditions of the society but helps to transmit them from one generation to the next. Education fulfills needs of the society and propagates ideas to promote social change in all fields of life.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Passages Answers

Passage 3
Read the passages and answer the questions given below.

Indian society is a melting pot of cultures. The history of Indian society gives enough evidence of the process of accommodation. From early times migrants integrated into Indian society and influenced its culture. Our historical past is testimony to this fact of cultural diffusion.

Today, we describe our society as a composite whole that includes tribal, rural, and urban communities. The way of life in these segments have their unique characteristics. However, is it also an observation that no one segment or community can be seen in its “pure” state. On the one hand, there is interdependence between communities and on the other, this would imply a certain extent of loss of cultural elements such as language, beliefs, customary practices, etc. Have we not seen how, for example, Warli or Madhubani Art has made it to T-shirts and wall hangings in many urban households? Also, how technology has reached the remotest corners of our country?

A question that may cross your mind may be, ‘Is there anything such as ‘pure culture? What constitutes “Indian culture”? ‘Can cultural extremism be valuable in the present world? These questions are valid
as they set us thinking. Perhaps there is no single “answer”?

Question 1.
What constitutes “Indian culture”, discuss with respect to cultural diffusion in Indian society.
Answer:
Over the years, India has changed a lot in terms of living standards and lifestyles, but even then the values and traditions are still intact and remain unchanged. Another aspect of India’s culture can be seen when someone is facing deep trouble. Irrespective of the class, tribe, or religion, everyone will step forward to provide help and support. Culture in India is a dimension that has been composed by its long history and its unique way of accepting customs and traditions, right since the Indus valley civilization took birth. India is a melting pot of various religions and cultures and it is the very nature of the unity in diversity, which has largely shaped the growth of Indian culture as a whole. The property of togetherness among people of various cultures and traditions has made India, a unique country.

Question 2.
Discuss tribal art and its role in cultural identity.
Answer:
Tribal art has progressed considerably due to the constant developmental efforts of the Indian government and other organizations. Tribal art generally reflects the creative energy found in the tribal areas. Tribal art ranges through a wide range of art forms, such as wall paintings, tribal dances, tribal music, and so on. Folk art in India apparently has great potential in the international market because of its traditional aesthetic sensibility. Some of the most famous folk paintings of India are the Madhubani paintings of Bihar, Warli folk paintings of Maharashtra

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Passages Answers

Question 3.
How interdependence between communities has resulted to a certain extent loss of cultural elements?
Answer:
Though the interdependence of communities connects all the cultures of the country it has also weakened cultural bonds of tribal and rural communities and also lead to the loss of cultural identity. It also makes one forget their own values, customs, and traditions. Although it has played an immense role in the unification of our country, a great amount of cultural identity and traditional values have also been lost.

Passage 4
Read the passages and answer the questions given below.

The causes of disharmony and strife are several-fold. Resistance to social change is one among many. Problems of contemporary Indian society include domestic violence, sexual abuse, child rights, problems of senior citizens, migrants, ethnocentrism, religious fundamentalism, linguistic fanaticism, environmental degradation, substance abuse and addiction to devices, mob lynching, and so on.

Given the varied types of social problems and their changing nature, there emerges a need to examine them in a scientific manner. The applicability of Sociology in its widest sense includes the exploration of various themes that cut across fields such as Masculinity Studies, Minority Studies, Film and Media Studies, Sociology of Sports, Environmental Sociology, Forensic Sociology, Gerontology, Sociology of Music, Medical Sociology, Marketing Sociology and so on.

Various government departments and voluntary organizations include sociologists on their panels to help steer policies and programmes. As Sociology is a people-centered discipline, it tends to create awareness and dialogue regarding human relationships. This is a valuable asset in governance and conflict resolution.

Question 1.
How does sociology perceive social problems in a scientific manner?
Answer:
Sociology views social problems as problems which arise out of the functioning of systems and structures in a society, or which are the result of group influences. They are also concerned with social relationships which emerge and are sustained because of the social problems. Thus, in analyzing alcoholism, a sociologist will be concerned with its effects on social relations and roles, that is, the relations with family members, with colleagues in the office, and with neighbours and friends as well as its effect on work efficiency, status, and so on. The study of social problems in sociology aspires toward a body of valid and logically related principles to get solutions for the social problems.

Question 2.
Discuss how resistance to social change leads to disharmony in society.
Answer:
Certain resistance to change is there everywhere. In no society, all the changes are welcomed by the people without questioning and resistance. To some extent, the removal of evil practices such as child marriage, human sacrifice, animal sacrifice, untouchability, taboos on inter-caste marriages, etc., could be achieved after a long struggle in India. Due to ignorance people often oppose new changes. Habit is another obstacle to social change. Individuals are very much influenced by habits and customs. People dislike or fear the unfamiliar. They are not ready to give up a practice to which they have been habituated and adopt a new one. Hence, the new practice is looked down upon or rejected which leads to social harmony.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Passages Answers

Passage 5
Read the passages and answer the questions given below.

Given below is a make-believe scenario.
Yogini and Yogita are twins of the Patkar family who live in a small room measuring 225 sq. ft. in a
small town. Yogini is brilliant in studies and Kabbadi. Yogita is an outstanding cricketer who represents the Western India region; she also was a topper in the State-level Marathi language Competition.

Their parents come from a small village in Marathwada; they were farmers. For the sake of their daughters, they shifted to a small town to facilitate their children’s further education and sports training.

Their relatives and others in their village have heard of the Patkar girl’s success and are also encouraged to send their children to big cities with the hope that they too will become successful and famous one day.

Today, if one visits the village you will notice that in many homes, there are only the elderly folk. The youth seem to have migrated to better their prospects. Can you imagine the effect of such migration on the local village community?

Question 1.
What are the challenges faced by rural people while sending their children for higher education?
Answer:
Rural people migrate to cities for a better standard of living and better future prospects. They face lot of hardships, face all sorts of exploitations for survival and to shape the lives of their children. They work hard to meet the needs of their children and try to give them better education so that they have a decent life. Patkar’s family come from a small village in Marathwada, live in a small. For the sake of their daughters, they shifted to a small town to facilitate their children’s further education and sports training.

Question 2.
What makes rural people migrate to cities?
Answer:
Rural people are plagued with various problems of agriculture, the ownership of land, lack of cottage industries, lack of educational facilities like schools and colleges, lack of health care centers, unemployment, traditionalism, and conservatism all these factors force rural people to migrate to cities. Cites attract rural people with better job opportunities, education, and a better lifestyle. Cities are centers of opportunities for the rural people so they migrate in hope of having a better standard of livings.

Question 3.
What are the effects of migration on rural communities?
Answer:
When rural people migrate to urban areas for better prospects leaving behind everything. The negative impact of migration on rural communities are there is labour shortage in farms, only senior citizens, women and children are left behind, increase in child labour, children’s are forced, to work in fields, increased workload for women’s decreased population, disorganization of family, customs and in this way rural culture slowly fades away.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Passages Answers

Passage 6
Read the passages and answer the questions given below.

Social movements arise generally from needs felt by one or more members of any given society. Through social interactions, these needs and concerns are communicated to many more persons. A network of people who share these concerns becomes the driving force for change in that particular society. Movements are usually guided by some underlying philosophies and goals. Indeed, several movements are associated with a founder or a core group. It can take several years, or even decades for a social movement to become very wide and expansive, across vast geographical territories.

Social movements such as the Social Reform Movement, Trade Union Movement, Tribal Movement, Dalit Movement, Women’s Movement, Chipko Movement, LGBT Movement, Civil Rights Movement, Rationalist Movement and so many more have emerged and grown.

As a social movement gains momentum, greater awareness is created in society. In fact, the study of several movements has found its way into the academic curriculum as well as research. For example, courses on Labour Studies, Gender Studies, minority’ Studies, and Environmental Studies. Social movements can stimulate critical thinking about social issues in the wider society of which we are apart. Some of these concerns lead to the passing of legislation. Every era or generation has its share of concerns from which may emerge new social movements.

Question 1.
What do you understand by social movement and discuss how it functions?
Answer:
Social Movement is a collection of a large group of people, who come with the desired objective to create a change or resist change. Through social interactions, individuals communicate and show their concern on various issues where they feel it necessary to change. Social movements arise generally from needs felt by one or more members of any given society. A network of people who share these concerns becomes the driving force for change in that particular society. Movements are usually guided by some underlying philosophies and goals. Indeed, several movements are associated with a founder. It can take several years, or even decades for a social movement to become very wide and expansive, across vast geographical territories.

Question 2.
How does the social movement arise in Society?
Answer:
Social movements arise in the society when certain issues bring unrest and discontent like unwanted social order and outdated norms like early child marriage, women emancipation, human rights, LGBT rights, etc., in the society. At this junction groups of people organize themselves, raise their voices and feelings and opinions set to influence the opinion and emotions of others, and prepare for reform. The need of society to bring changes in the existing system leads to a social movement.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Passages Answers

Question 3.
Discuss any three social movements in the given passage.
Answer:
The three types of social movements are Social Reform Movements, Trade Union Movement, and Chipko Movement.
The social Reform Movement started in the 19th century. The movement promoted to change the traditional and conservative Indian society. Issues of main concern were religion, untouchability, early child marriage, sati, widowhood, exploitation of poor, etc. With the help of various social reformers and British legislative systems, changes took place.

Trade Union Movement was organized to fight against the exploitation of workers like they worked for long hours and were paid less, poor working conditions, lack of promotions, management disputes, strikes, etc.

Chipko movement took place in Uttarakhand, where Sunderlal Bahuguna and villagers came together and hugged the trees protected them from being chopped by the contractors. This was a protest to save forests and preserve the environment. The government set up a committee to look into the matter eventually ruled in favour of the villagers.

Question 4.
In what ways do you think the social movement is beneficial for society?
Answer:
Through social movements, various issues have been raised, which has brought changes. It has changed the mindset, attitudes and, behaviour patterns for instance women’s education, acceptance of transgender, etc. As a social movement gains momentum, greater awareness is created in society. The study of several movements has found its way into the academic curriculum as well as research.

For example, courses on Labour Studies, Gender Studies, minority’ Studies, and Environmental Studies. Social movements can stimulate critical thinking about social issues in the wider society of which we are apart. Some of these concerns lead to the passing of legislation like the untouchability removal act 1955, the sati act of 1829, the marriage act of 1954, the factory act of 1948, the child labour act 1986, and many more to go.

Passage 7
Read the passages and answer the questions given below.

Can human societies be flawless? What is considered acceptable, desirable, valuable varies from time to time, place to place, and in different contexts.

There is sometimes a tendency to encourage excessive ethnocentric attitudes about one’s culture or group to which one belongs. Ethnocentrism in its extreme form is an obstacle to social harmony. For the sake of social solidarity, respect of other cultures, self-criticism, critical appraisal, reflection, and introspection is necessary. This may help to develop a pluralist way of appreciating the diversities within which we live. The life stories of people are a useful means to understand underlying feelings, beliefs, threats, and so on.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Passages Answers

Civil society can play a part in this process to eliminate or minimize factors that hinder progress, or those which divide us.

Question 1.
Explain the term Ethnocentrism. How it is an obstacle to social harmony?
Answer:
Ethnocentrism makes one feel that one’s own culture and way of life are superior to all others. Ethnocentrism can lead to a biased understanding of other cultures. The ethnocentric group feels their culture is superior, this creates a negative outlook which can lead to arrogance and hatred for others. Ethnocentrism in its extreme form is an obstacle to social harmony as there is sometimes a tendency to encourage excessive ethnocentric attitudes about one’s culture or group to which one belongs leading to antagonism and hatred among various religions and cultures.

Question 2.
What can one do to bring social solidarity to society?
Answer:
The term social solidarity means various social groups bind together as one in society.

We need to throw away prejudices, self-interest, self-criticism, learn to respect other’s cultures, reducing inequality and injustice in society. Solidarity can be cultivated through education. Promote new policies or initiatives to eradicate poverty, volunteering and practicing in charity events, donating money, food, clothes, etc. This brings empathy towards others encourages people to bring equality, justice, and peace.

For the sake of social solidarity, respect for other cultures, self-criticism, critical appraisal, reflection, and introspection is necessary. This may help to develop a pluralist way of appreciating the diversities within which we live. The life stories of people are a useful means to understand underlying feelings, beliefs, and threats, and so on.

Question 3.
What are the divisive forces that hinder the progress of Indian society?
Answer:
India is a secular, multilingual, and multicultural country. These diversities become at times challenges that hinder the progress of society. Various divisive forces like regional disputes, language problems, discrimination on the basis of caste, communal conflicts, terrorism, unequal distribution of wealth, poverty, etc. This divisive force obstructs progress and disturbs the peace and harmony in society.

Passage 8
Read the passages and answer the questions given below.

All of you have been studying Sociology for over a year. Sociology is the scientific study of human social behaviour. However, it is not the only discipline that studies human behaviour. The study of human behaviour is of interest to historians, psychologists, sociologists, economists, political scientists, etc. Surely, this question may have crossed your mind, or your family or friends might have asked you – ‘What is the use of studying Sociology? What work will you do with a degree in Sociology? Perhaps you too have wondered about the same.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Passages Answers

As a start, you could surely consider a career in teaching. However, you must be prepared to read extensively, be creative and develop a learner-centric personality. Indeed, you would have to be passionate about teaching and interacting with learners. For some, a career in research is another possibility, though that route is a long journey to attain the status of ‘sociologist’. Many sociology students and others too, choose to offer Sociology as their subject of special study for Civil Service Examinations like UPSC (Central Services) and MPSC (in Maharashtra). To clear these highly ‘ competitive examinations, it is necessary to read widely and be well aware of the totality of Indian society – its past, present; goals, and plans for the future.

Then, of course, there are many allied occupations where a degree in Sociology can provide insights that are useful to take on other people-oriented professions such as Policy and Programme Development, Social Work with specialization in Family and Child Welfare, Community Development, Medical and Psychiatric Social Work, School Social Work, etc.

The fact remains: it is not merely an obtaining degree in sociology that matters today, but the skill sets, sensitivity, and personality that you develop; your ability to modify and adapt to new needs and challenging situations of even daily living. Also, your ability to have a humanistic perspective whether dealing with research or creating empowerment programmes, or programmes for social change.

Question 1.
What is the scope of sociology?
Answer:
Sociology is the scientific study of human social behaviour. The scope of sociology is wide they are: It studies social relationships, social institution patterns of human behaviour in society. Sociology deals with social changes, development, and analysis of various social problems like poverty, crime, suicide. Gender inequality population etc., and suggest various measures to solve them. One can surely consider a career in teaching; however, one must be passionate about teaching and interacting with learners.

A career in research is another possibility, one may choose to offer Sociology as their subject of special study for Civil Service Examinations like UPSC (Central Services) and MPSC (in Maharashtra). There are many allied occupations where a degree in Sociology can provide insights that are useful to take on other people-oriented professions such as Policy and Programme Development, Social Work with specialization in Family and Child Welfare, Community Development, Medical and Psychiatric Social Work, School Social work, etc.

Question 2.
Discuss the uses of Sociology in present society?
Answer:
In today’s changing world the importance of sociology is growing day by day.
It makes a scientific study of society detects and solves various social problems.
Helps in planning and development. The knowledge of sociology, its application is increasing in the field of industry, social work, law, competitive examinations like UPSC and MPSC, management studies public relations, journalism, etc.
Present time sociology has become useful in framing policies and programme for development like family and child welfare schemes, community development, etc.

Question 3.
Discuss how studying Sociology is beyond obtaining a degree.
Answer:
Today, it is not merely obtaining a degree in sociology that matters, but the skill sets, sensitivity, and personality that you develop; your ability to modify and adapt to new needs and challenging situations of even daily living. Also, your ability to have a humanistic perspective whether dealing with research or creating empowerment programmes or programmes for social change plays an important role.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Passages Answers

Passage 9
Read the passages and answer the questions given below.

Read the make-believe speech made by a representative of the Governing Body to its Executive Committee meeting, in a well-known international firm located in Pune.

“Good morning. The Board of Directors has asked me to communicate with you all a policy decision that has been taken by the higher management. Two policies have been taken by our company. One, there shall be a confidential, two-way appraisal of all employees from the coming financial year. Every employee will be assessed by one’s immediate senior, one’s team members, and by oneself through self-appraisal. Juniors will also assess the seniors to whom they report. There are specific criteria on which assessment will take place. A second policy decision is for the company to make every effort to Go Green’s keeping with the international commitment towards a cleaner and greener environment. You may please share this decision with members of your respective departments today, through our e-portal systems. Feedback from all employees is welcome but they must be made within a week from today to the Human Resource Department, via the e-portal. ”

Question 1.
Explain the 1st policy decision that has been taken by the higher management.
Answer:
Two policies have been taken by the higher management. One, there shall be a confidential, two-way appraisal of all employees from the coming financial year. Every employee will be assessed by one’s immediate senior, one’s team members, and by oneself through self-appraisal. Juniors will also assess the seniors to whom they report. There are specific criteria on which assessment will take place.

Question 2.
Discuss the action to be taken by the employee with respect to ‘Go Green’.
Answer:
A second policy decision is for the company to make every effort to ‘Go Green’ in keeping with the international commitment towards a cleaner and greener environment which they can share with members of their respective departments, through the company’s e-portal systems.

Question 3.
Explain the advantages of appraisal.
Answer:
It is said that performance appraisal is an investment for the company. Performance appraisal helps the supervisors to chalk out the promotion programmes for efficient employees.

Passage 10
Read the passages and answer the questions given below.

Indian films have a history of their emergence, growth, and development. There were the days of silent films where viewers interpreted visuals on screen and constructed their own understanding of what the films may have tried to communicate. Then came the days of audio-visual films, black and white films, and later, colour films.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Passages Answers

People who can afford to watch films at theatres and those who can do so on their television screens at home are entertained by the stories that films tell us. There are all kinds of ideas, ideologies, tragedies, themes, and values that films communicate. Today one can watch films on the internet on one’s mobile phone. Sometimes the explicit and implicit messages are received by viewers, but they can also be lost on them.

Besides actors’ abilities to ‘play varied roles or characters, there are a whole lot of persons involved with the production process as well as its marketing. This may include the film director, screenplay writers, designers, sound engineers, make-up artists and stylists, casting experts, musicians and so on.

Fields like Visual Sociology, Sociology of Mass Communication, and Marketing Sociology have a role to play in the study of these varied dimensions. Films as a source of knowledge play multiple roles even today. The storylines and types of films are ever-increasing. Films are not limited to nor bound by standard themes, love stories, or gender stereotyping. Films can cause much upheaval on the one hand and generate much interest on the other. Regional films and international films have been added to the list of viewing possibilities and multiple interests.

Question 1.
Write an account of the popularity of Indian cinema.
Answer:
Indian cinema was always enjoyed, whether it was the days of silent films where viewers interpreted visuals on screen and constructed their own understanding of what the films may have tried to communicate. Then came the days of audio-visual films, black and white films, and later, colour films. People entertained themselves by the stories that films conveyed either by watching films at theatres or on their television screens at home. The Hindi language film industry of Mumbai also known as Bollywood, it is the largest and most popular branch of Indian cinema. Hindi cinema initially explored issues of caste and culture in films such as Achhut Kanya (1936) and Sujata (1959). The audience’s reaction towards Hindi cinema is distinctive with involvement in the films by the audience’s clapping, singing, reciting familiar dialogue with the actors.

Question 2.
What do you understand by explicit and implicit messages of films?
Answer:
The film’s main message is loud and clear through the majority of films is known as an explicit message. It also has underlying morals for its audience known as implicit messages which are not so obvious. For example, morals such as, it’s not what’s on the outside, it’s on the inside that counts.

Question 3.
Discuss types of movie genres.
Answer:
Movies consist of many genres and categories like drama, comedy, action, thriller, horror, romance, experimental, documentaries, etc. The producers, directors try to create new genres experimenting with their creativity. The storylines and types of films are ever-increasing. There is no limitation to the subject matter of the films.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Passages Answers

Question 4.
Discuss the impact of Indian cinema on society.
Answer:
Indian cinema is no longer restricted to India and is now being well appreciated by international audiences. The contribution of the overseas market to Bollywood box office collections is quite remarkable. Indian cinema has become a part and parcel of our daily life whether it is a regional or a Bollywood movie. It has a major role to play in our society. Though entertainment is the keyword of Indian cinema it has far more responsibility as it impacts the mind of the audiences.

Passage 11
Read the passages and answer the questions given below.

How does one tackle social problems? How do societies deal with the social problems that they have to confront? Why do social problems arise? These are some questions that learners of Sociology need to address.

Societies have culture; both of these are created by people, cumulatively, through the network of relationships over thousands of years. Every society has its normative system – customs, folkways, fashions, mores, taboos, fads, laws. Social norms are guidelines for human behaviour. They tell us what is expected of us and at the same time, what to expect from others.

Are these expectations permanent and unchanging? When can they change? Who changes them? Why must they change? Again, these are questions that one might ask. Social problems can arise when the expectations are not communicated effectively, or when individuals or groups choose to disagree with the expectation. This can lead to situations of conflict – not just ideological but also a conflict that leads to hurting others’ sentiments, abuse, violence, injustice, upheavals, normlessness, and even war.

Question 1.
What do you understand by normative aspects of culture, are these expectations permanent? When do they change?
Answer:
The normative aspects of culture consist of customs, folkways, fashions, mores, taboos, fads, laws. Social norms are guidelines for human behaviour. They tell us what is expected of us and at the same time, what to expect from others. These expectations are not permanent as appropriate and inappropriate behaviour often changes dramatically from one generation to the next. Norms can and do change over time. Karl Marx believed that norms are used to promote the creation of roles in society which allows people of different levels of social class structure to be able to function properly, hence any change in social structure may lead to change in the normative aspect of culture.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Passages Answers

Question 2.
How does the social problems arise in society?
Answer:
Although not considered to be formal laws within society, norms still work to promote a great deal of control. Norms are more specific and they are rules of conduct that guide people’s behaviour. Therefore, when an individual or a group of people behave and act in a certain way that is in contradiction to society’s values or norms, it can create a social problem. Social problems can arise when the expectations are not communicated effectively, or when individuals or groups choose to disagree with the expectation. This can lead to situations of conflict – not just ideological but also a conflict that leads to hurting others’ sentiments, abuse, violence, injustice, upheavals, normlessness, and even war.

Passage 12
Read the passages and answer the questions given below.

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is a Government of India programme that makes education for children between the ages 6-14 free and compulsory. This programme was pioneered by the former Indian Prime Minister Shri Atal Behari Vajpayee in 1993-94. It became totally operational from 2000-2001. This programme made education a Fundamental Right.

Along with this, the Government of India also launched the National Programme of Nutritional Support to Primary Education (NP-NSPE) on 15th August 1995. From here emerged the concept of free ‘Midday Meal’for for children going to schools which were managed by local bodies like Gram Panchayats and Municipal Corporations. The Midday Meal is mandatory. It is taken for granted that the children should be given good, nutritious food on a daily basis. A lot of organisation goes into the cooking and delivering of these meals to the schools on time.

Universal Education goes hand in hand with Nutrition. Children of the village and municipal schools look forward to this meal. For several of them, it is perhaps the main meal of the day.

Question 1.
Discuss the various child welfare programmes launched by the government of India.
Answer:
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is a Government of India programme that makes education for children between the ages 6-14 free and compulsory. This programme was pioneered by the former Indian Prime Minister Shri. Atal Behari Vajpayee in 1993-94. It became totally operational from 2000-2001. This programme made education a Fundamental Right.

The Government of India also launched the National Programme of Nutritional Support to Primary Education (NP-NSPE) on 15th August 1995.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Passages Answers

Free ‘Midday Meal’ for children going to schools which were managed by local bodies like Gram Panchayats and Municipal Corporations was also launched later. The Midday Meal is mandatory. It is based on the fact that the children should be given good, nutritious food on a daily basis.

Question 2.
What is the objective of the Midday Meal Scheme? Where does the responsibility of implementation of midday meal scheme lie?
Answer:
The Midday Meal Scheme is a school meal programme of the government of India designed to improve the nutritional status of school children nation wise. The objective of the Midday Meal Scheme is to provide a cooked meal to the children as should be given good, nutritious on a daily basis. The meal is mandatory.

A lot of organisation goes into the cooking and delivering of these meals to the schools on time. Universal Education goes hand in hand with nutrition. Children of the village and municipal schools look forward to this meal. For several of them, it is perhaps the main meal of the day.

The responsibility of implementation of the Midday Meal Scheme lies with local bodies like Gram Panchayats and Municipal Corporations.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Passages Answers

Question 3.
How effective are the children’s welfare programmes in India?
Answer:
Keeping in view the problems and challenges faced by children various programmes and policies are implemented for the welfare of children in India. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is a Government of India programme that makes education for children between the ages 6-14 free and compulsory. As a result, the enrolment percentage of school children has gone up. Similarly, Mid-day Meal is mandatory. A lot of organisations goes into the cooking and delivering of these meals to the schools on time. Universal Education goes hand in hand with Nutrition. Children of the village and municipal schools look forward to this meal. For several of them, it is perhaps the main meal of the day.

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Sociology Solutions Passages Answers.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 5 Emotions

Maharashtra State Board 12th Psychology Important Questions Chapter 5 Emotions

Choose the correct option and complete the following statements.

Question 1.
According to the theory, we experience physiological arousal and feelings simultaneously and independently.
(a) James-Lange
(b) Cannon-Bard
(c) Schachter-Singer
Answer:
(b) Cannon-Bard

Question 2.
According to Ekman, there are basic emotions.
(a) 2
(b) 5
(c) 6
Answer:
(c) 6

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 5 Emotions

Question 3.
is an emotion that is in response to some threat.
(a) Sadness
(b) Fear
(c) Disgust
Answer:
(b) Fear

Question 4.
Plutchik’s model explains that there are primary emotions.
(a) 8
(b) 6
(c) 12
Answer:
(b) 6

Question 5.
is not a primary/ basic emotion according to Plutchik.
(a) Trust
(b) Anticipation
(c) Jealousy
Answer:
(c) Jealousy

Question 6.
Emotions are controlled by the ……………….. in the brain.
(a) cerebral cortex
(b) limbic system
(c) RAS
Answer:
(b) limbic system

Question 7.
Aniket shows creativity and has meaningful relationships. He has …………. emotional well-being.
(a) high
(b) low
(c) moderate
Answer:
(a) high

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 5 Emotions

State whether the following statements are true or false.

Question 1.
“I feel sad because I cry”, This is the premise of the Schachter – Singer theory.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
Pride and guilt are considered as higher cognitive emotions.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
The fight or flight reaction is a reaction to sadness.
Answer:
False

Question 4.
Low serotonin levels are associated with clinical depression.
Answer:
True

Answer the following in one sentence each.

Question 1.
What is the premise of the facial feedback hypothesis?
Answer:
According to the facial feedback hypothesis, our facial expressions provide feedback to our brain about our emotions.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 5 Emotions

Question 2.
What are complex emotions?
Answer:
Complex emotions are emotions which result form the combination of basic emotions for e.g., surprise and sadness lead to disappointment.

Question 3.
According to Ekman, which are the basic emotions?
Answer:
According to Ekman, there are six basic (universal) types of emotions, i.e., happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, disgust.

Question 4.
When does a person experience disgust?
Answer:
A person usually experiences disgust as a response to some unwanted stimulus.

Question 5.
According to Plutchik, how do emotions result?
Answer:
According to Plutchik, emotions result due to evolving over a period of time for increasing our chances of survival.

Question 6.
Why is Plutchik’s model important?
Answer:
Plutchik’s model is important from the perspective of emotional literacy, i.e., understanding emotional levels, complexity and change as well as appropriate emotional labelling.

Question 7.
What does emotional well-being mean?
Answer:
Emotional well-being means managing both positive and negative emotions, so that we can lead a healthy and productive life.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 5 Emotions

Question 8.
What does anger management mean?
Answer:
Anger management is an intervention programme to prevent anger from turning into a habit or obstacle by creating awareness of and responsibility for our emotions.

Explain the concepts in 25 – 30 words each.

Question 1.
Emotions
Answer:
The word emotion is derived from the latin word ‘emovere’, which means to stir up or to move. An emotion refers to an involuntary, aroused state of an organism involving physical, cognitive and behavioural components. It is described as a combination of bodily arousal, e.g., increased heartrate, thoughts and feelings, i.e. emotional tone and expressive behaviour i.e. facial expression.

Question 2.
Emotional well-being.
Answer:
Emotional well-being means managing our emotions, both positive and negative ones, so that we can lead a healthy and productive life. Persons who have high emotional well-being experience benefits such as-

  1. better able to deal with stress
  2. better self-regulation
  3. increased productivity in tasks undertaken
  4. increased creativity and openness to new experiences
  5. life satisfaction due to meaningful activities and relationship.

Question 3.
Emotional Abuse.
Answer:
Emotional abuse is any kind of abuse that is emotional rather than physical in nature. It occurs when one person subjects or exposes another person to intentionally harmful behaviour that may result in anxiety, depression and psychological trauma in the victim.
The types of emotional abuse may be-

  1. verbal abuse such as blaming, insulting, labeling, threatening, swearing, etc.
  2. nonverbal abuse such as ignoring, rejection, bullying, spying, etc.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 5 Emotions

Question 4.
Anger Management.
Answer:
Anger management is an intervention programme to prevent anger from turning into a habit or obstacle. It enables the person to create awareness of and responsibility for his/her emotions. Anger management involves two aspects (i) managing one’s own anger (ii) learning to respond effectively to anger in others. The three R’s in anger management are Relax, Reassess and Respond.

Answer the following questions in 35 – 40 words each.

Question 1.
What are the techniques to deal with emotional abuse?
Answer:
Emotional abuse is any kind of abuse that is emotional rather than physical in nature. It occurs when one person subjects or exposes another person to intentionally harmful behaviour that may result in anxiety, depression and psychological trauma for the victim.
The techniques to deal with emotional abuse-

  1. Accept that emotional abuse is not because of you, i.e., don’t justify the actions of the abuser.
  2. Respond assertively to the abuser but seek distance from him/her.
  3. Give yourself time to heal.
  4. Prioritize your self-care, eating right, exercise, etc.
  5. Mobilise support from family and friends. If needed, seek professional help.

Question 2.
What are the benefits of emotional well-being?
Answer:
Emotional well-being means managing our emotions, both positive and negative ones, so that we can lead a healthy and productive life. Persons who have high emotional well-being experience benefits such as-

  1. better able to deal with stress
  2. better self-regulation
  3. increased productivity in tasks undertaken
  4. increased creativity and openness to new experiences
  5. life satisfaction due to meaningful activities and relationship.

Write short notes on the following in 50 – 60 words each.

Question 1
Characteristics of emotions
Answer:
The word emotion is derived from the latin word ‘emovere’, which means to stir up or to move. An emotion refers to an involuntary, aroused state of an organism involving physical, cognitive and behavioural components. It is described as a combination of bodily arousal, e.g., increased heartrate, thoughts and feelings, i.e. emotional tone and expressive behaviour i.e. facial expression.
Some characteristics of emotions are-

  1. Emotions may be positive, e.g., joy or negative, e.g., anger.
  2. Emotions may occur for a brief period or may be long lasting.
  3. Emotions may be important for our survival, e.g., fear or for our psychological well-being, e.g., love.
  4. Emotions differ in intensity in expression for e.g., annoyance-anger-rage.
  5. Complex emotions (higher cognitive level emotions) result from the combination of basic emotions, for e.g., surprise and sadness lead to disappointment.
  6. According to Ekman, there are six basic (universal) types of emotions, i.e., happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, disgust.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 5 Emotions

Question 2.
Physiological changes during emotions.
Answer:
Physiological changes refer to automatic reactions that take place in our body in response to some stimulus, for e.g., if you saw a snake, the brain at the cognitive level perceived the stimulus as dangerous. This leads to physiological arousal such as dilated pupils, increased heart rate, increased pulse rate, sweating. At the emotional level you experience fear. The Autonomic Nervous System and Glandular system signal the pituitary gland which activates the adrenal glands to secrete the cortisol hormone. This triggers “the fight or flight” response. At the behavioural level there is an action plan such as running away or calling for help, etc.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 5 Emotions 1

Answer the following questions 80 – 100 words each.

Question 1.
Theories of emotions.
Points:
(i) James-Lange theory
(ii) Cannon-Bard theory
(iii) Schachter-Singer theory
Answer:
The word emotion is derived from the latin word ‘emovere’, which means to stir up or to move. An emotion refers to an involuntary, aroused state of an organism involving physical, cognitive and behavioural components. It is described as a combination of bodily arousal, e.g., increased heartrate, thoughts and feelings, i.e. emotional tone and expressive behaviour, i.e., facial expression.
The main theories of emotions are-
(i) James-Lange theory – It was one of the earliest theories to explain emotion. According to William James and Carl Lange, physiological arousal instigates the experience of emotion. It proposes that each specific emotion is attached to a different pattern of physiological arousal. For e.g., we feel sad because we cry. The sequence of events in emotional experience is Emotion Stimulus – Physiological Response Pattern → Affective Experience.

(ii) Cannon-Bard theory – According to Walter Cannon and Philip Bard, we may experience the same physiological arousal but emotions can be different, for e.g., we don’t cry only when we are sad but we also cry when we are angry or extremely happy. We experience physiological arousal and feelings at the same time and independently. For e.g., seeing a man with a gun prompts the feeling of fear as well as a racing heartbeat.

(iii) Schachter and Singer’s Two Factor theory – According to Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer, emotion is based on two factors, i.e., physiological arousal and cognitive label, for e.g., an environmental stimuli (growling dog) elicits a physiological response (increased heart rate). We cognitively label this response (fear).
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 5 Emotions 2

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 5 Emotions

Question 2.
Emotional well-being.
Points:
(i) Meaning
(ii) Aspects
(iii) Benefits
Answer:
The word emotion is derived from the latin word ‘emovere’, which means to stir up or to move. An emotion refers to an involuntary, aroused state of an organism involving physical, cognitive and behavioural components. It is described as a combination of bodily arousal, e.g., increased heart rate, thoughts and feelings, i.e. emotional tone and expressive behaviour i.e. facial expression.

(i) Meaning – Emotional well-being means managing our emotions, both positive and negative ones, so that we can lead a healthy and productive life. Emotional well-being is not easily observable. It can be guaged on the basis of how a person rationally handles a situation involving some stressors or leading to negative emotions. Emotional well-being refers to understanding and managing one’s emotions without getting overwhelmed by negative emotions but instead encouraging positive emotions.

(ii) Aspects – The aspects of emotional well-being are at three levels viz. physical, emotional and social.

  1. Physical level, i.e., well balanced diet, exercise.
  2. Emotional level, i.e., practise mindfulness, raising levels of motivation and optimism.
  3. Social level, i.e., engaging in prosocial behaviour, meaningful relationships.

(iii) Benefits – Persons who have high emotional well-being experience benefits such as-

  1. Coping with stress – It helps to deal with stress using healthy methods such as exercise, social support, etc.
  2. Better self-regulation – It enables the person to label how they feel and accept negative emotions life fear, anger, etc.
  3. Increases productivity in tasks undertaken – The ability to focus is enhanced, the person feels positive and energized.
  4. Increases creativity – The person indulges in divergent thinking, shows curiosity is open to new experiences.
  5. Life satisfaction – The individual is able to have meaningful interactions and relationships, show empathy, altruism and engage in activities like volunteer work.

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 5 Emotions Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 4 Cognitive Processes

Maharashtra State Board 12th Psychology Important Questions Chapter 4 Cognitive Processes

Choose the correct option and complete the following statements.

Question 1.
Stimuli that are near to each other perceived as a unit, this refer to the law of……………
(a) proximity
(b) continuity
(c) similarity
Answer:
(a) proximity

Question 2.
The learning process by forming associations or connections is called ………………
(a) assimilation
(b) classical conditioning
(c) operant conditioning
Answer:
(b) classical conditioning

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 4 Cognitive Processes

Question 3.
…………… is the mental manipulation of information.
(a) Creativity
(b) Learning
(c) Thinking
Answer:
(c) Thinking

Match the pairs.

Question 1.

Group A Group B
1. Albert Bandura (a) Learning by assimilation and accommodation
2. B.F. Skinner (b) Learning by classical conditioning
3. Max Wertheimer (c) Learning by observation
4. Edward Tolman (d) Learning by operant conditioning
5. Jean Piaget (e) Learning by use of cognitive processes
(f) Laws of perception grouping

Answer:

Group A Group B
1. Albert Bandura (c) Learning by observation
2. B.F. Skinner (d) Learning by operant conditioning
3. Max Wertheimer (f) Laws of perception grouping
4. Edward Tolman (e) Learning by use of cognitive processes
5. Jean Piaget (a) Learning by assimilation and accommodation

State whether the following statements are true or false.

Question 1.
Size and intensity of the stimulus influences attention.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
It is very easy to divide our attention to two tasks simultaneously.
Answer:
False

Question 3.
Awareness of the stimuli around us is called perception.
Answer:
False

Question 4.
Top-down processing is influenced by the context in which the information occurs.
Answer:
True

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 4 Cognitive Processes

Question 5.
The tendency to fill in gaps in an incomplete stimulus so as to perceive it as a meaningful figure refers to the law of closure.
Answer:
True

Question 6.
All changes in behaviour can be attributed to learning.
Answer:
False

Answer the following in one sentence each.

Question 1.
What are cognitive process?
Answer:
Cognitive processes are those processes by which we become aware of and understand the world around us such as sensation, attention, perception, learning, memory, thinking, reasoning, problem solving, etc.

Question 2.
What is attention?
Answer:
Attention is the mental process of bringing few stimuli into the centre of awareness out of the many stimuli present.

Question 3.
What is fluctuation of attention?
Answer:
Our attention shifts from the original stimulus to another stimulus for a fraction of time and then comes back to the original stimulus.

Question 4.
What is perception?
Answer:
Perception is defined as the process of assigning meaning to information received about the environment based on the past experiences.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 4 Cognitive Processes

Question 5.
What is the perceptual law of similarity?
Answer:
Stimuli that are similar to each other are perceived together compared to stimuli that are distinct from each other.

Question 6.
What is thinking?
Answer:
Thinking is the mental activity that uses various cognitive elements and processes that involves the manipulation of information.

Question 7.
Explain the meaning of schema.
Answer:
Schema is an internal representation that organizes knowledge about related concepts and relationships among them.

Question 8.
What is learning?
Answer:
Learning is a relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs due to experience or practice.

Question 9.
According to B.F. Skinner, how does learning take place?
Answer:
According to B. F. Skinner, learning takes place to gain positive consequences or to avoid negative consequences.

Question 10.
What is Jean Piaget’s view about the learning process?
Answer:
Jean Piaget explains that we learn by forming and refining our concepts on the basis of similarities and differences between the new and existing information.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 4 Cognitive Processes

Explain the concepts in 25 – 30 words each.

Question 1.
Attention
Answer:
Attention is the selective process by which we focus on only a few stimuli from among the various stimuli that are present in our environment. According to Norman Munn, “Attention is the mental process of bringing few stimuli into the centre of awareness out of the many stimuli present”. Attention is influenced by objective factors such as intensity, size, movement, repetition of the stimuli as well as subjective factors like interest, mind-set, experiences of the individual.

Question 2.
Distraction of attention
Answer:
Distraction of attention refers to the drifting of attention from a specific stimulus to another stimulus. This is due to external factors such as intensity, novelty, movement, colour, repetition, etc., of stimuli or internal factors like physical state, lack of interest, mental set of the individual.

Question 3.
Learning
Answer:
Learning is defined as “a relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs due to experience or practice”. The characteristics of learning are:

  1. It involves some relatively permanent change in behaviour.
  2. The change in behaviour is due to experience or practice.
  3. Change in behaviour may be in knowledge or in skill or in muscular movements.
  4. Learning is an inferred process. The main processes by which learning occurs is by Classical Conditioning,
  5. Operant Conditioning, Observation, Cognitive processes, etc.

Question 4.
Learning by cognitive processes
Answer:
Learning is a relatively permanent change in behaviour as a result of past experience or practice. According to Edward Tolman, learning may take place using cognitive processes like problem solving, reasoning, concept formation, etc. and not only due to the forming of connections (classical conditioning) or due to consequences of behaviour (operant conditioning).

Answer the following questions in 35 – 40 words each.

Question 1.
What does ‘span of attention’ refer to?
Answer:
Attention is the mental process of bringing few stimuli into the centre of awareness out of the many stimuli present.
It is the total number of stimuli that we can become clearly aware of in a single glance. Span of attention refers to the total number of stimuli that we can become clearly aware of in a single . glance. Span of attention is limited i.e., it is about 7 to 8 items only. Factors like age, intelligence, motivation, practice, etc., of the person affect the span of attention.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 4 Cognitive Processes

Question 2.
Explain division of attention.
Answer:
Attention is the mental process of bringing few stimuli into the centre of awareness out of the many stimuli present.
It is not possible to divide attention to two tasks simultaneously. We can perform two tasks at the same time only if both of them are too simple or mechanical. If we try to pay attention to two tasks at the same time it may result in decreased efficiency and more confusion. Example: if a person has to read a passage from a book and thread a needle simultaneously, it wouldn’t be possible.

Answer the following question 80 – 100 words each.

Question 1.
Types of perceptual processing.
Points:
(i) Top-down processing
(ii) Bottom-up processing
Answer:
Perception is defined as the process of assigning meaning to information received about the environment based on the past experiences.
The two types of processing and Top-down processing and Bottom-up processing.

(i) Top-down processing – If we pay attention to each of our senses all the time, our senses would be overwhelmed. Therefore, many times, our brain uses the context in which it appears or existing knowledge about it while perceiving a particular stimulus. This process is called as top-down processing. When we utilize top-down processing, our ability to understand information is influenced by cognition and context.

Our brain applies what it knows or expects to perceive to understand the stimulus. Top-down processing happens when we work from the general to the specific. It helps us to quickly make sense of the environment. However, perceptual set (our fixed way of viewing stimuli based on past experience/expectations) can hinder our ability to be creative/open-minded.

(ii) Bottom-up processing – Many times our perceptual experience is based entirely on the sensory stimuli and is not influenced by the context in which it appears. In such situations, we take in energy from the environment and convert it to neural signals (sensation) and then try to interpret it (perception). This process is called as bottom-up processing. Bottom-up processing is a process that starts with an incoming stimulus and works upwards until a representation of the object is formed in our brain. Our perceptual experience is based entirely on the sensory stimuli that we piece together. It is only data based i.e., takes place as it happens and requires no previous knowledge or learning.

For e.g.,
13 may be viewed as letter B or the number 13.
This is bottom-up processing-

  1. 11, 12, 13, 14 – It is perceived as 13 in the number sequence.
  2. ‘I enjoyed the film A13CD’. It is perceived as letter B.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 4 Cognitive Processes

Question 2.
Explain the processes of learning.
Points:
(i) learning by classical conditioning
(ii) learning by operant conditioning
(iii) learning by observation
(iv) learning by assimilation and accommodation
Answer:
Learning is defined as a relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs due to past experience or practice.
The characteristics of learning are:

  1. It involves some relatively permanent change in behaviour,
  2. The change in behaviour is due to experience or practice,
  3. Change in behaviour may be in knowledge, e.g. learning a new formula, or in skill, e.g. learning to ride a cycle, or in muscular movements.
  4. Learning is an inferred process.

The processes of learning are:
(i) Learning by classical conditioning – Classical conditioning was first explained by Ivan Pavlov. It is learning by forming associations and by stimulus substitution. In daily life, we learn many things this way. Example: a child is given an injection by the doctor and begins to cry in pain. He soon makes the connection between ‘doctor’, ‘injection’ and ‘pain’ and begins crying as soon as he is taken to a doctor. Many of our fears, phobias and superstitions are learnt by classical conditioning.

(ii) Learning by operant conditioning – Learning by operant conditioning was first explained by B. F. Skinner. He said that learning takes place to gain positive consequences or to avoid negative consequences. Example: in Skinner’s experiment a rat was put in a special box that had a lever. When the rat pressed the lever, it received a food pellet. Gradually it learnt to press the lever to receive the pellet of food. In daily life, we tend to learn some behaviour either because we are rewarded for it or because we are not punished for it.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 4 Cognitive Processes

(iii) Learning by observation – According to Albert Bandura, we learn by observation and imitation of the of behaviour of others, etc. Both desirable behaviour and for e.g., empathy, and undesirable behaviour for e.g., bullying, can be learned this way. This occurs, in respect to skills, for e.g., eating with a fork/spoon as well as in our thinking, decision making, etc.

(iv) Learning by assimilation and accommodation – Jean Piaget explains that we learn by forming and refining our concepts on the basis of similarities and differences between new and existing information. Example: A child forms a concept of cow by extracting some characteristics of the cow. When the child encounters a buffalo he/she notices the differences between cow and buffalo and forms a new concept of buffalo.

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Psychology Important Questions Chapter 4 Cognitive Processes Important Questions and Answers.