Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 8 Geography: Nature and Scope

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 8 Geography: Nature and Scope Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 8 Geography: Nature and Scope

1. Identify the correct group.

Question 1.

A B C D
Geomorphology Cartography Tourism Political Geography
Climatology Survey  Forest Conservation Physical Geography
Biogeography Data collection Wildlife Conservation Population Geography
Historical Geography GIS/GPS Culture Conservation Economic Geography

Answer:
B

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 8 Geography: Nature and Scope

Question 2.

A B C D
History Economics Biogeography Geomorphology
Sociology Geology Population Geography GIS
Demography Remote sensing Cartography Demography
Political Science Climatology Psychology Pedology

Answer:
A

2. Give geographical reasons.

Question 1.
Human Geography is multidisciplinary in nature.
Answer:

  • Human geography is the branch of geography dealing with human activities and their influence on culture, communities and economies.
  • In human geography every social science studies separately has interface with branch of human geography; because of their spatial attributes.
  • Social sciences like sociology, political science, economics, history and demography are very closely related with branches of human geography, such as social geography, political geography, economic geography and historical geography, respectively.
  • Since, we study varied branches of geography in human geography, it is said to be multidisciplinary in nature.

Question 2.
Geography is dynamic in nature.
Answer:

  • Most geographical phenomena whether physical or human are not static and can change overtime.
  • In economic geography, we study economic activities as well as factors affecting their distribution and changes.
  • In climatology we study changes in temperature and rainfall due to global warming. Depending upon the changes in climate, changes are made in cropping patterns.
  • Geographers study relationship between production, distribution and geographical factors.
  • For example, tea is grown on a large scale in the State of Assam due to high temperature, heavy rainfall, red soil, hilly relief, cheaper water transportation due to the Brahmaputra River and cheap and skilled labour supply from nearby States of Bihar and Orissa.
  • We study weather over a period of about 30 years and decide climate of that place or population of a country or the world over a period of time. Since, changes occur time to time.
    Thus, geography is dynamic in nature.

Question 3.
Geography is dualistic in nature.
Answer:

  • There are two contrasting approaches to study the subject of geography. They are possibilism and environmental determinism. This contrast in approaches is called as dualism in geography.
  • Some geographers are of the view that nature is more dominant than man. It is called environmental determinism. According to them, when we study geography, we study the earth. We study how natural resources have influence on economic activities, as well as food habits of people.
  • For example, in coastal areas fishing activity is more developed and fish is the main food of the people.
  • Some geographers are of opinion that man dominates the nature. It is called possibilism. According to them man can make changes in nature due to his intelligence.
  • For example, there are polyhouses even in polar areas, in which temperature is controlled artificially and vegetables are grown.
  • There are many other thinkers who have different approaches in geography.
    Thus, the study of geography is dualistic in nature.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 8 Geography: Nature and Scope

3. Write short notes on.

Question 1.
Physical Geography is related to various branches of science.
Answer:

  • Almost every discipline, under natural and social sciences is linked with geography.
  • Geomorphology, Climatology, Oceanography and Biogeography are the branches of physical geography.
  • Geomorphology studies landforms, rock types, processes of formation of rocks, landforms, etc. Therefore, it is related to geology.
  • Climatology studies elements of atmosphere such as temperature, winds, rainfall, humidity, natural disasters like cyclones, anticyclones, storms, etc. Therefore, it is related to meteorology.
  • Oceanography studies oceans and seas on the surface of the earth, ocean currents, ocean routes, etc. Therefore, it is related to Hydrology.
  • Biogeography studies the distribution of plants and animals, their species, ecosystems, etc. Therefore, it is related to biology.
  • Knowledge of mathematics is important for cartographic techniques, such as drawing of maps and diagrams. Similarly, knowledge of statistics is useful to do data analysis since various statistical techniques and hypotheses testing are used in data analysis.
  • Thus, physical geography is related to various branches of sciences.

Question 2.
Branches of Geography.
Answer:

  • There are three major branches of Geography – Physical Geography, Human Geography and Geographic Techniques.
  • Geography has various sub-branches; however, the four major sub-branches of Physical Geography are Geomorphology, Climatology, Biogeography and Oceanography.
  • Human geography comprises of six sub-branches, Historical Geography, Political Geography, Economic Geography, Behavioural Geography, Social Geography and Population Geography.
  • Geographic Techniques have four branches, namely, remote sensing, quantification methods in geography, cartography and Geographic Information System (GIS).

Question 3.
Latest trends in Geography.
Answer:

  • Currently, the explanation of all geographic phenomena depends upon the cause and effect relationship.
  • Geographers developed number of disciplines within its boundaries.
  • Number of techniques for analysis and prediction through data collection and modelling are also developed by geographers.
  • Due to the dynamic nature of geography, new things are added in the subject.
  • Use of audio-visual media and information technology has enriched the database.
  • The latest technology of software has brought about better opportunities in data collection, interpretation, analysis and presentation.
  • Presently, the Use of GIS and GPS has become essential. Therefore, maps are made by using GIS software and have proved to be more accurate.
  • Nowadays the use of mathematical modelling and computer models in applied geography has increased. They are used for prediction of weather changes or natural calamities.
  • The above mentioned are all the latest trends in Geography.

Question 4.
Skills required for studying geography.
Answer:

  • The skills required to study the methods and techniques used in geography have made the study of geography empirical and practical in nature.
  • The study of geography is based on theory and observation. It is supported by the scientific study like data collection and data analysis through number of tools and techniques.
  • The geographers developed skills for conducting surveys with the help of advanced technology. They have also acquired the skills to make use of satellite images for data collection.
  • The geographers have attained the skills for experiments, data collection, data organisation, observation patterns, data analysis, research findings, etc.
  • The geographers have learnt analytical techniques of data with the help of statistical techniques and representation of statistical data using graphs and maps.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 8 Geography: Nature and Scope

4. Answer the following questions in detail.

Question 1.
Explain how the knowledge of Geography is important in our day-to-day life. Give examples.
Answer:

  • The knowledge of geography is important in our day-to-day life because with geographical knowledge we can understand the basic physical systems that affect our everyday life.
    For example, the earth-sun relationship, water cycle, wind, ocean currents, etc.
  • For the effective functioning of different places, we learn the physical and cultural characteristics of places.
  • With the help of geography, we can understand the geography of the past, how geography had played an important role in the evolution of people, their ideas, places and environment.
  • We can prepare a map of a province or territory, country and the world, so that one can understand the location of various countries. For example, the political map of the Asian continent gives idea about location of Asian countries.
  • With the help of various distribution maps, we can understand distribution of minerals, crops, population, etc., in the world. For example, with the help of dot map we can understand spatial distribution of population in the world.
  • With the help of economic geography, we can understand the development of economic activities in different countries of the \yorld and their correlation with physical and economic factors. For example, we can study the world’s leading areas in fishing activities and their reasons.
  • With the help of climatology, we understand atmospheric phenomenon, such as cyclones, global warming, etc.
  • The study of sustainable development in geography teaches us to appreciate the earth as humankind’s homeland and provide an insight for wise management decisions about the usage of the earth’s resources.
  • With the help of geography, we can understand global inter-dependence to become a better global citizen.
  • Thus, with the help of geography, we can study physical features, economic activities, trade, people, etc., in the world.

Question 2.
Discuss the relationship between Geography and other subjects.
Answer:

  • Geography is related to almost every discipline under natural and social sciences. There are three major branches of Geography, namely, Physical Geography, Human Geography and Geographic Techniques.
  • Geography has various sub-branches; however, the four major sub-branches of Physical Geography are Geomorphology, Climatology, Biogeography and Oceanography.
  • In Geomorphology we study the formation and types of landforms, gradient, rock structure, etc. This is related to the subject of geology.
  • In Climatology we study the atmospheric elements such as temperature winds, rainfall, humidity, natural disasters like cyclones, anticyclones, storms, etc. This it is related to the subject of meteorology.
  • In Oceanography we study the ocean currents, ocean routes, coastal features, submarine relief, etc., of oceans and seas. This it is related to the subject of hydrology.
  • In geography of soil, we study the components, layers, texture, and fertility of the soil, etc. This is related to the subject of pedology.
  • Human geography comprises of six sub-branches, Historical Geography, Political Geography, Economic Geography, Behavioural Geography, Social Geography and Population Geography. In historical geography, we study the correlation of historical events with geographical factors. This is related to the subject of history.
  • In Political Geography, we study the effect of geographical factors on political events. This is related to the subject of political science.
  • In Economic Geography, we study the correlation of geographical factors and economic activities. This is related to the subject of economics.
  • Similarly, Behavioural Geography, Social Geography and Population Geography are related to the subjects of psychology, sociology and demography respectively.
  • Thus, it can be concluded by saying that geography has a strong relationship with other subjects in natural as well as human or social sciences.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 8 Geography: Nature and Scope

Question 3.
Explain the nature of Geography in detail.
Answer:

  • Geography is the study of the earth as a home of man, and various phenomena related to it.
  • Therefore, geography is the study of the physical environment in relation to man. The physical environment has direct effect on cultural and social environments.
  • The earth is dynamic in nature. Hence, we find variations in its physical and cultural/social environments.
  • In geography we study the relation between the physical environment and production, distributions and their patterns and variations.
  • Geographers study the location, geographical phenomena, whether physical or human, which are highly dynamic and its causes.
  • Since geography is the study of space and time it makes geography dynamic in nature.
  • In geographical study, the geographer tries to answer questions like what, why, where and when.

5. Differentiate between.

Question 1.
Physical Geography and Human Geography
Answer:

Physical Geography Human Geography
(i) Physical Geography is the branch of geography dealing with natural features. (i) Human Geography is the branch of geography dealing with how human activities influence the culture, communities, economies, etc.
(ii) Geomorphology, Climatology, Oceanography, Biogeography, Geography of soils, are the branches of Physical Geography. (ii) Historical Geography, Political Geography, Economic Geography, Behavioural Geography, Social Geography and Population Geography are the branches of Human Geography.
(iii) Physical geography is natural science. (iii) Human geography is a social science.

Question 2.
Possibilism and Determinism.
Answer:

Possibilism Determinism
(i) When man dominates nature, it is called possibilism. (i) When nature dominates man, it is called determinism.
(ii) Due to intelligence, man makes changes in the natural environment. (ii) Determinism asserts that development of human history, culture, society, lifestyle, etc., are shaped by their physical environment.
(iii) There are limitations to changes made by man in nature. (iii) There are no limitations on impact of physical environment on human activities.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 8 Geography: Nature and Scope

6. Draw a neat and well-labelled diagrams

Question 1.
Relationship between Geography and other subjects.
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 8 Geography Nature and Scope 1

Question 2.
Skills required to study Geography.
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 8 Geography Nature and Scope 2

Class 12 Geography Chapter 8 Geography: Nature and Scope Intext Questions and Answers

Let’s recall

Question 1.
Dear students, you have been studying geography either as a part of Environmental Studies since Standard III or as Social Studies since Standard VI and as an independent subject since Standard XI. Your journey to understand our homeland earth began with the study of the cardinal directions in Standard III. In the consecutive academic years, you learnt various geographical concepts. Now just recall the various concepts that you have learnt till now and make a list of them. Also classify them under different categories given in the table 8.3. (Textbook Page No. 75)
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 8 Geography Nature and Scope 3

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 8 Geography: Nature and Scope

Can you tell?

Discuss the following points in class with reference to its importance in the subject matter of Geography. (Textbook Page No. 77)
Question 1.
Environment vs. Man
Answer:
Man and environment are inter-related. The environment influences the life of human beings who in-turn modifies the environment as a result of their growth, dispersal, activities, death, etc. Thus, all living beings including man and their environment are mutually reactive affecting each other in a number of ways and a dynamic equilibrium is possible between the two, i.e., human beings and environment are interdependent. If the natural environment helped in the development of different structures of the society on the one hand, the existence and quality of environment now rests on the responses of these social structures to the environment on the other hand.

The burning issues like quality of environment, disruption of earth’s natural ecosystems, environmental degradation and pollution, ecological imbalances, depletion of resources, etc., can be approached and solved only after considering the value judgments which may be determined by taking into account the consequences of ‘Environmental Improvement Programme’ on the entire society and society’s response towards the programme. However, all these depend on the interest and desire of the society in improving the quality of environment.

The interaction between the environment and man depends largely on the social and political system. The differential interactions are due to the uneven distribution of natural resources, uneven economic and social development, dissimilarities of demographic factors, varying view points of the governments and individuals towards the environment, etc.

Continuous and exceedingly increasing rate of exploitation of natural resources, industrialisation, technological growth, unplanned urbanisation and profit-oriented capitalism by the developed western world are responsible for grave environmental crisis and ecological imbalance not confined to their own countries but to the whole world.

The changes in the relationship between man and environment depend upon the change in organisation and attitude of man. To improve environmental stand and to maintain ecological balance, the following remedies are important

  • Rapid growth of population
  • Rational use of non-polluted water resources
  • Use of organic fertilizers for agricultural growth
  • To check soil erosion
  • Restoration of forest resources
  • To check pollution

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 8 Geography: Nature and Scope

Question 2.
Complete study of India vs. Study of only agriculture in India.
Answer:
[Note: In India, it is not possible to provide a complete study of India and agriculture within the scope of a book.]

Try These

Question 1.
Given here are some of the concepts or subject matter we study in Geography. Write the name of subjects or disciplines you think they are also studied in. Complete the table 8.2. (Textbook Page No. 78)
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 8 Geography Nature and Scope 4
Answer:

Concepts Subject in which the concept is also studied
Calculations involved in projections, shapes of projections Cartography
Means of livelihood: agriculture, industry, trade, etc. Economics – Economic Geography
Cost of production, GDP, incomes, resources, scarcity, etc. Economics – Economic Geography
Social relations and inequalities. Sociology – Social Geography
Racial structure of humans, evolution of humans, etc. Anthropology -Human Geography
Rocks and minerals Geology – Geomorphology
Behaviour of humans in different climates and topography. Psychology – Behavioural Geography
Electoral divisions, voting patterns, types of governments Politics – Political Geography
Biomes, food chain, forests, etc. Biology – Biography
Chemical weathering, erosion, acid rain, etc. Geography – Physical Geography
Mean, variance, correlation, regression, etc. Statistics – Statistical Geography
Past of different places, their development before attaining the present-day status, etc. History – Historical Geography

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 8 Geography: Nature and Scope

Question 2.
In Fig 8.5, a newspaper item is given. A list of job opportunities is given. Go through all the entries and see which ones are suitable for a geographer as a career. (Textbook Page No. 80)
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 8 Geography Nature and Scope 5
Answer:
The following is the list of jobs opportunities suitable for a geographer as a career.
(i) National Atlas of Thematic Mapping Organisation of India.
(ii) Mumbai Mahanagar Palika, Department of Urban Planning, Mumbai, as Urban Planner
(iii) Assistant Professor in the subject of Geography
For all above posts basic qualification is minimum M.A./M.Sc. in Geography.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 1 The World Since 1991

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 1 The World Since 1991 Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 1 The World Since 1991

1. (A) Complete the following statements by selecting the appropriate option.

Question 1.
One of the important trends in the post-1989 international relations was
(a) End of bipolarity
(b) Rise of regionalism in Asia
(c) End of non-alignment
(d) Demand for a new international economic order
Answer:
(a) End of bipolarity

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 1 The World Since 1991

Question 2.
The ‘Maastricht’ Treaty is with reference to
(a) United Nations Peace Keeping Force
(b) European Union
(c) American interventions in Kuwait
(d) Creation of BRICS
Answer:
(b) European Union

1. (B) State the appropriate concept for the given statements.

Question 1.
When a State influences other States without the use of military force.
Answer:
Soft power

Question 2.
A State with a leading position in international politics with abilities to influence global politics and fulfill its own interest.
Answer:
Super power

2. (A) Complete the concept maps.

Question 1.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 1 The World Since 1991 1
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 1 The World Since 1991 2

Question 2.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 1 The World Since 1991 3
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 1 The World Since 1991 4

2. (B) Observe the maps in the textbook and answer the following questions.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 1 The World Since 1991 5
Question 1.
Name any four countries in the Schengen area.
Answer:
Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Belgium, France.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 1 The World Since 1991

Question 2.
Name any two non-European Union countries within Schengen area.
Answer:
Norway, Romania, Bulgaria, Croatia.

3. State whether the following statements are true or false with reason.

Question 1.
SAARC is important for trade in South Asia.
Answer:
This statement is True.
(i) SAARC has eight member States from South Asia. It aims to accelerate economic growth and promote the welfare of the people of South Asia.
(ii) In 1993, South Asian Association for Preferential Trade Agreement (SAPTA) came into existence. It was replaced in 2006 by South Asian Association Free Trade Area (SAFTA). This helps in trade and economic activity in the region.

Question 2.
‘Maastricht’ Treaty was signed for the defence of Europe.
Answer:
This statement is False.
(i) On 7th February 1992, the Maastricht Treaty was signed to create the European Union.
(ii) This treaty led to the expansion of spheres of cooperation in internal affairs, foreign policies and defence policies.

Question 3.
The decade of 1980s is seen as the golden age of humanitarian intervention.
Answer:
This statement is False.
(i) The 1990s are seen as the ‘golden age of humanitarian intervention.’ In 1993, the World Conference on Human Rights was held in Vienna, which led to the creation of the office of UN High Commissioner for Human Rights.
(ii) Increasing awareness about human rights and their protection in international law gave rise to the phenomenon for protection of rights in the form of ‘humanitarian intervention’.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 1 The World Since 1991

4. Express your opinion of the following.

Question 1.
Humanitarian intervention
Answer:
One of the main purposes of the UN is maintenance of international peace, security and cooperation. UN Peacekeeping Force comprises of military personnel and resources sent by member States. In the post-cold war era, the UN rationale for intervention was not just to stop ongoing wars but also to prevent reoccurrence of conflicts and protect the human rights of the affected people. The UN intervened in Cambodia, Somalia, Yugoslavia, East Timor, Eritrea, Syria, etc., for this purpose.

In 1993, over 170 nations participated in the World Conference on Human Rights, held in Vienna to reaffirm their commitment to protect human rights. The office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights was created to coordinate human rights initiatives. The increasing awareness about human rights protection in international law gave rise to humanitarian intervention especially in conflict zones. NGO’s have contributed significantly in the spread of humanitarian intervention for e.g. ICRC, Oxfam, etc. The 1990s are described as “golden age” of humanitarian intervention.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 1 The World Since 1991

Question 2.
Regionalism in international politics.
Answer:
Countries which lie in geographical proximity create or join regional organisations which are based on common political, ideological, economic and infrastructural concerns. Some nations make special agreements regarding trade and economic cooperation. This is called a trade bloc.

(i) European Union (EU) was created in 1992 by Maastricht Treaty. It led to increased spheres of cooperation between European nations e.g. foreign affairs, defense, trade and creation of Euro as a common currency. Creation of Schengen Area is one of the achievements of the EU since the Schengen visa allows eligible individuals to travel freely within the 26 nations of the Schengen area.

(ii) ASEAN created in 1967 with headquarters at Jakarta comprises of 10 South-East Asian nations such as Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, etc. It aims to promote political economic and security cooperation among it’s members.

(iii) SAARC formed in 1985 at Dhaka with 7 members. Today, it has 8 member countries of South Asia like India, Bhutan, Pakistan, etc. It aims to promote regional integration and economic development. It’s main achievement is the SAFTA.

(iv) BIMSTEC – is a regional organisation founded in 1997 comprising of 7 member countries lying around Bay of Bengal for e.g. Bangladesh, India, Thailand, Myanmar. It aims to facilitate collaboration in economic, security and other concerns between member States.

(v) Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) is an Eurasian political, economic and security organisation formed in 2001 with 6 member states. In 2016, India and Pakistan joined SCO. It’s focus is on maintaining peace and stability in the region, cooperation in trade, technology, etc.

Regional organisations play an important role in international politics. Due to this, unipolarity (US as the only superpower) ended leading to multipolarity.

5. Answer the Following.

Question 1.
Explain the term soft power with examples.
Answer:
According to American academic, Joseph Nye there are two types of power viz. hard power and soft power.
(i) Hard power is the ability to get others to act in ways that are contrary to their preferences and wills. It is the ability to coerce through threats and inducements for e.g.,Iraq invasion of Kuwait.

(ii) Soft power is when a country influences other countries without the use of military force. It is the ability to get others to want the outcomes that you want i.e. through attraction rather than coercion. Such influence is spread through economic, socio-cultural means.

Soft power was an important aspect of US domination. It implied the use of monetary aid, cooperative programmes, cultural exchanges, strong relations with allies. Examples of US soft power are cultural exports like fast food chains, movies, educational exchange programmes as well as disaster assistance programmes such as tsunami relief (Japan), flood control (Pakistan).

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 1 The World Since 1991

6. Answer the following question in detail with help of given points.

Question 1.
Discuss the European Union with help of given points.
(a) History
(b) European Commission
(c) European Parliament
(d) European Council
(e) European Court of Justice
Answer:
(a) History – The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and European Economic Community (EEC) were created to foster economic interdependence. On 7th February 1992, the Maastricht Treaty was signed to create the European Union. This led to expansion of spheres of cooperation to include internal affairs, judicial matters, foreign policy, etc. The Euro (€) is the official currency of 19 out of 28 countries of the EU. These nations are collectively called ‘Eurozone’.

(b) European Commission – The Commission is the executive bureaucratic arm of the EU. It is mainly responsible for drawing up proposals for new European legislation,and it implements the policy decisions of the European Parliament and the Council of the EU.

(c) European Parliament – The European Parliament is composed of 751 Members, who are directly elected every five years. It is a body entrusted with legislative, supervisory, and budgetary responsibilities.

(d) European Council – The structure of the European Council consists of the Presidents or Prime Ministers of each member State, accompanied by their foreign ministers, and a full¬time President of the European Council. The European Council meets four times a year and provides strategic leadership for the EU.

(e) European Court of Justice (ECJ) – The ECJ interprets, and adjudicates on, EU law and treaties. As EU law has primacy over the national law of EU member States.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 1 The World Since 1991

ACTIVITY

Find out the role played by India in BRICS (Text Book Page No. 13)
Answer:
BRICS refers to five major emerging national economies, i.e., Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. It accounts for about 40% of the world’s population and 20% of the GDP. It is an emerging investment market and global power bloc. India serves a multi faceted role on the economic and political fronts.

(i) New Development Bank (NDB) was proposed by India during the BRICS summit in New Delhi. It was established in 2014 and intends to provide non conditional financing. India has contributed $ 10 billion to the NDB to refurbish industrial bases in Brazil and South Africa. There is a regional office of NDB in India.

(ii) In 2012, India introduced “security” on the agenda, as the theme of the summit in New Delhi was BRICS Partnership for Global Stability, Security and Prosperity.

(iii) India has also highlighted climate governance at BRICS meeting.

(iv) BRICS membership elevates India’s global profile for e.g., India has assumed the role of a trade facilitator in Africa and South Asia. It aims to promote intra-BRICS trade, which means urging member nations to import goods mainly from each other.

(v) India is seen as a strong voice at BRICS and the UN against proposals and actions that could harms any member’s interests for e.g., India turned down China’s proposal to invite Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Mexico into the BRICS to focus only on development within current members.

Class 12 Political Science Chapter 1 The World Since 1991 Intext Questions and Answers

ACTIVITY (Text Book Page No. 7)

Question 1.
What is One Belt One Road and China Pakistan Economic Corridor policy of China?
Answer:
One Belt One Road also called OBOR or Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) since 2016, is a global development strategy adopted by the Chinese government in 2013 involving infrastructure development and investments in nearly 70 countries in Asia, Europe and Africa. It is an ambitious economic development and commercial project that focuses on improving cooperation among multiple countries.

BRI involves building a network of roadways, railways, power grids, maritime ports, oil and gas pipelines and associated infrastructure projects. The project covers two parts i.e., Silk Road Economic Belt (land based) and expects to connect China with Central Asia, East and West Europe to connect China with Central Asia, East and West Europe) and 21st Century Maritime Silk Road (sea based and connects China to Africa, South East Asia, Mediterranean) BRI consists of six economic corridors such as China-Pakistan corridor, China- Indochina Peninsula corridor etc.

China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) launched in 2015 is a part of the greater OBOR. It is a collection of infrastructure projects that are currently under construction throughout Pakistan for e.g., special economic zones, ports, energy projects, etc. The Gwadar Port (Balochistan province of Pakistan) which is considered the deepest seaport in the world is considered to be significant in the BRI. India has objected to the CPEC as upgrade works to the Karakoram Highway are taking place in Gilgit Baltistan (which is Indian territory) and will undermine India’s security and position in the region.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 1 The World Since 1991

Question 2.
Who are the members of the European Union? (Text Book Page No.9)
Answer:
There are 27 countries who are members of European Union. These are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden. UK was a member but left in January 2020.

The following countries are part of Eurozone.
Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain. The Eurozone is the monetary union of 19 out of 27 countries of the EU i.e., those who have Euro (€) as their common currency. The other 8 EU countries continue to use their national currencies.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 1 The World Since 1991

Question 3.
Discuss the case of Brexit. (Text Book Page No. 11)
Answer:
British Exit i.e., Brexit is the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union. In June 2016, 52% voted to leave the EU following a UK wide referendum. The UK finally left the EU on 31st January 2020.
The main reasons for Brexit were-
(i) EU threatens British sovereignty and prevents radical reforms.
(ii) The Euro has been a disaster and caused the Greek economic crisis.
(iii) UK could have a more rational immigration system outside the EU as the EU allows too many immigrants.

Brexit is a rejection of globalisation. The European Union signified a move from a single market to a single currency, a single banking system and eventually a single political entity. Many persons argue that Brexit goes against the concept of globalisation, i.e., it symbolizes a protest against the economic model that has been in place since 1992.

Many voters feel that globalisation has benefited only a small elite and hanker for a return to the security provided by the nation-States i.e., jobs, living standards, welfare facilities seemed better protected in the nation-States prior to globalisation for e.g., unemployment across the Eurozone is more than 10% and Italy, Greece, etc., are facing economic crisis.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 3 Human Settlements and Land Use

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 3 Human Settlements and Land Use Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 3 Human Settlements and Land Use

1. Identify the correct correlation.

A : Assertion R : Reasoning
Question 1.
A – Settlements can be of various types.
R – Various physical factors affect the growth of settlements.
(a) Only A is correct.
(b) Only R is correct.
(c) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.
(d) Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.
Answer:
(d) Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 3 Human Settlements and Land Use

Question 2.
A – When cities grow, their functions also grow.
R – Cities can have only one function.
(a) Only A is correct.
(b) Only R is correct.
(c) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.
(d) Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.
Answer:
(a) Only A is correct.

2. Give geographical reasons.

Question 1.
Not all rural settlements change into urban settlements.
Answer:

  • The area between rural and urban is called rural-urban fringe.
  • Villages are beyond the rural-urban fringe and cities have different land use pattern.
  • In villages, land is mainly used for agriculture and related activities such as permanent pasture, grazing land, miscellaneous tree crops and groves, fallow land etc.
  • In city areas land is mainly used for industries, residential purpose, recreation, transportation etc.
  • Since the villages are far away from the city, they maintain their distinct identity and do not change into urban settlement.

Question 2.
In rural settlements, land use is related to agriculture.
Answer:

  • Generally, the land in rural areas is used for agriculture and related activities.
  • The classification of the land use in rural areas is done according to the Land Records Department.
  • As per Land Records Department, the land in rural areas is mainly used for activities related to agriculture, such as some land is under permanent pastures and grazing lands or some under tree crops or culturable waste-land or fallow land etc.
  • Thus, all the above types of land use around the rural settlements are related to mainly agriculture.

Question 3.
Rural-urban fringe have the characteristics of both urban and rural settlements.
Answer:

  • The area between urban and rural areas is called rural-urban fringe.
  • It has the characteristics of both urban as well as rural areas, since it is a transition zone between the two.
  • Thus, in rural-urban fringe there is a mixture of urban-rural land use.
  • In some rural areas apart from the land use for agriculture, some agricultural land has been converted into residential and industrial uses.
  • The villages in rural fringe are partly affected by urbanization.
  • Thus, rural-urban fringe has the characteristics of both urban and rural settlements.

Question 4.
Growth of urban areas is linked to land use.
Answer:

  • Land use in urban areas is different from land use in rural areas.
  • In rural areas the land use is closely related to agricultural activities like cultivation of different crops, plantation of trees, permanent pastures, grazing land, cultivation of tree crops, fallow land etc.
  • On the other hand, land use in urban areas is varied and closely related to housing and economic activities.
  • As the population of the urban area increases, more and more non-agricultural activities develop in urban areas.
  • Growth of urban areas depends upon area under construction, industries, different types of institutions such as school, college, insurance companies, bank etc.
  • Recreational activities, transportation are the other urban land uses.
  • Thus, growth of urban areas is linked with land use.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 3 Human Settlements and Land Use

3. Write short notes on.

Question 1.
Interrelationship between urban and rural settlement.
Answer:

  • Settlements can be divided into urban and rural on the basis of their functions.
  • Rural settlements are smaller than urban settlements.
  • In rural areas agriculture and allied agricultural activities like livestock rearing, fishing, lumbering etc., are developed.
  • In urban areas, industries, construction and economic activities like trade, transport and communication, banking and insurance are the important activities.
  • The development industries need various raw material and services which are supplied by rural areas.
  • For example, cotton grown in rural areas is supplied to cotton textile industries in urban areas. Everyday many rural people commute to urban areas to work in different activities.
  • Thus, there is good interrelationship between urban and rural areas since they depend on each other.

Question 2.
Problems of urban settlements.
Answer:

  • Most of the urban areas have very large size of population and density of population is also very high.
  • When cities increase in size, many changes occur. These changes are related to land use and structure of the city.
  • The large size of population and high density create number of socio-economic, cultural, infrastructural, administrative and environmental problems.
  • The air, water and noise pollution, development of slums, traffic jam, overcrowding in trains and buses, waste disposal etc., are some of the serious problems in most of the urban settlements.

Question 3.
Suburbs
Answer:

  • In the outer part of the urban areas there are small towns or small cities, they are known as suburbs.
  • When big cities become overcrowded and overpopulated, the further development starts outside city area and thus suburbs develop.
  • For example, Dombivali, Kalyan, Ambarnath etc., are the suburbs of Mumbai.
  • Suburbs generally consists of residential housing and shops of low order, which act as central place for the local community.
  • Often, suburbs are the most recent growth of an urban area and their end marks the urban fringe.
  • With increase in population there is growth of suburb, the growth of suburbs may result in urban sprawl.

Question 4.
Mixed land use.
Answer:

  • Mixed land use is observed in some of the urban areas.
  • It is an area where different types of land use exist together.
  • In some cities residential, industrial, commercial, administrative functions are found in an integrated manner.
  • In many cities in developing countries one can find schools, clinics, houses, business shops at one place itself.
  • Generally mixed land use is found in cities which are growing very fast, because land in the city is not sufficient to reserve certain areas for certain land use, therefore there is mixed land use.

4. Answer the following questions in detail.

Question 1.
Explain the characteristics of rural settlement.
Answer:

  • On the basis of functions, settlements can be divided into two types – rural and urban.
  • Agriculture and allied agricultural activities like fishing, livestock rearing, lumbering etc., are most economic activities in rural areas.
  • The classification of land use in rural areas is done according to Land Records Department.
  • As per Land Records Department the land in rural areas is mainly used for activities related to agriculture, such as some land is under agriculture, some under permanent pastures and grazing lands or some under tree crops or culturable waste-land or fallow land etc.
  • Most of rural settlements are semi-clustered or fragmented and small in size.
  • Primary activities like agriculture, lumbering, fishing, livestock rearing is more developed in rural settlements.
  • In rural areas, sometimes agricultural areas are converted into residential or industrial areas.
  • Many people in rural areas daily commute to city areas for work, thus rural and urban areas are connected with each other.
  • There is an area between rural and urban area which is called rural-urban fringe, rural settlements are beyond the rural-urban fringe.

Question 2.
What factors are responsible for development of various patterns in settlement? Give examples.
Answer:
1. Patterns of settlements are affected by various physical factors like relief, soils, climate, availability of water supply etc.

2. Physical factors influence the type and spacing of settlements, which results into various patterns of settlements.

3. Type of soil and quality of soil are two important factors which affect rural settlements.

4. Fertile plains and valleys have thick, rich and fertile alluvial soil, which supports agriculture, so nucleated settlements develop in these areas. For example, most of the villages in Ganga plains have nucleated settlements.

5. Settlements develop as per the relief of that area. For example, Foothill settlements develop at the foot of mountain, hilltop settlements develop at the top of the hill. For example, hilltop settlement at Shimla or Manali.

6. In the areas of mountainous or hilly relief, due to inaccessibility, there are dispersed or isolated settlements. For example, dispersed or isolated settlements in Himalaya mountains.

7. Sometimes settlements develop along the coastline, canal, river, road, or railway line. They are in straight line; they are called linear settlements. For example, settlements along Konkan coastline and settlements along Mumbai-Pune road.

8. Climate also affects development of settlements. Areas of extreme climate are avoided by people. Therefore, such areas have dispersed settlements.

9. For example, due to extreme hot climate there are dispersed settlements in Rajasthan and due to extreme cold climate, there are isolated settlements in the polar regions.

10. Water is essential for human development. Therefore, many settlements develop around lakes or natural tanks, they are circular settlements.

11. Sometimes settlements develop at the confluence of two rivers, the settlements grow in all three sides, they are triangular settlements. For example, Karad town is on the confluence of Krishna and Koyna river.

12. Sometimes settlements grow around the mines, or any central object. This centre point provides source of livelihood to the people. Thus, radial pattern of settlement develops. For example, radial settlements around coal mines in the State of Bihar.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 3 Human Settlements and Land Use

5. Differentiate between.

Question 1.
Land Use and Land Cover
Answer:

Land Use Land Cover
(i) Land use describes the use of land by people for different activities, such as recreation, housing, agriculture, educational institutes etc. (i) Land cover describes the physical surface covering the land such as forest rock, ice, sand, water etc.
(ii) For example, in any city, people may use some land for housing, some for recreation, some for sports ground etc. (ii) For example, in any area land may be covered by natural factors such as vegetation, river, sand dune, snow covered mountain etc.
(iii) Land use may change from place to place depending upon type of land and need for the people. (iii) Land cover is natural factor it hardly changes unless man purposefully makes changes in it.
(iv) Land use cannot be studied by the satellite imagery alone. (iv) Land cover can be studied by satellite imagery.

Question 2.
Barren and Non-agricultural Land
Answer:

Barren Land Non-agricultural Land
(i) The land which is not used for any human activity is called barren land. In other words, it is wasteland. (i) The land which is used by man for various human activities except agricultural activity, is called as non-agricultural land.
(ii) For example, hilly or mountainous land, desert land, ravines, swampy and marshy land etc. (ii) For example, land used for housing, industries, construction of roads, railways etc.
(iii) Generally barren land cannot be used for agriculture or other activities with available technology. (iii) Due to the development of secondary or tertiary activities there is increase in the used of non-agricultural land.

Question 3.
Radial pattern and Circular Pattern
Answer:

Radial Pattern Circular Pattern
(i) In radial pattern settlements grow around certain object. (i) In circular pattern settlements grow around water body.
(ii) They develop near temple or a centre of commercial activity. (ii) They develop near lake or natural tank.
(iii) For example, settlements near Vindhyachal in Uttar Pradesh. (iii) For example, settlements around Nainital lake in Uttarakhand.

Question 4.
Nucleated and Dispersed Settlement
Answer:

Nucleated Settlement Dispersed Settlement
(i) Settlement where buildings or houses are grouped or clustered around a central point or nucleus is known as nucleated settlements. (i) Settlement where buildings or houses are scattered or dispersed, is known as dispersed settlement.
(ii) Houses or buildings are very close to each other. There may be common wall between two houses. (ii) Houses or buildings are far from each other. One house may be at a distance of half a kilometre from the other.
(iii) Geographical factors are favourable such as spring or fertile river valley. (iii) Geographical factors are not favourable such as extreme climate, barren land etc.
(iv) For example, settlements in river valleys. (vi) For example, settlements in the desert of Rajasthan.

6. Draw a neat and labelled diagram

(1) Linear settlement
(2) Radial settlement
(3) Compact settlement
(4) Dispersed settlement
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 3 Human Settlements and Land Use 1

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 3 Human Settlements and Land Use

7. Write a note in your own words about how land used in Lonar city has evolved. Refer the map on textbook page no. 30.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 3 Human Settlements and Land Use 2
Answer:

  • Two maps of Lonar city are given. One map is of the year 2005-06 and another is of 2015-16.
  • These two maps show the changes in land use that have taken place in the span of 10 years.
  • The following changes have been registered.
  • There is no change in the size of Lonar lake.
  • The area occupied by Lonar city has increased substantially.
  • Forest area around the lake has increased.
  • An area under waste land/ scrubs have increased.
  • Around the temple in the southeast, on the waste scrub land a new rural hospital, government hostel, government ITI, Tahsil office etc., has been developed. This newly developed area has been named as Krishna Nagar, which is not in 2005-06 map.
  • To the north-east of the Lonar city two more building have been constructed. One is central public school and another is civil and criminal court.
  • To the south of the temple in the heart of Lonar city built up residential area is spreading over built up residential sparse.
  • Overall built up residential sparse is increasing in all directions around Lonar lake and south-eat of the Lonar city and thus there is encroachment over agricultural land.

8. Read the given passage and answer the following questions.

Different types of human settlements include hamlets, villages, small towns, large towns, isolated places, cities and conurbations. In some systems, types of human settlements are broken up into urban, suburban and rural; for example, the U.S. Census Bureau divides settlements into urban or rural categories based on precise definitions. Small settlements, such as hamlets and villages, have low populations and restricted access to services, larger types of settlements, such as cities, have higher populations, higher densities and greater access to services.

For example, a village may have only one or two general stores, while a large metropolis may have many specialized stores and chain stores. These differences are known as low-order service settlements and high-order service settlements. Larger settlements also have a sphere of influence affecting surrounding settlements. Settlements may also be divided by the site chosen, such as sites selected based on resources, trading points, defensive sites, shelter and relationship to water resources. The functions of human settlements also differ, as settlements may be established as ports, market towns and resorts. Types of rural settlements may also be classified by function, such as proximity to farming, fishing and mining. Settlements that focus on one economic activity are called single functional settlements. Human settlements may be permanent or temporary. For example, a refugee camp is a temporary settlement, while a city is a permanent settlement.

Question 1.
Which human settlements are mentioned in the passage above?
Answer:
Hamlets, villages, small towns, large towns, isolated places, cities and conurbations are the types of settlements mentioned in the passage.

Question 2.
On what basis are urban and rural areas classified?
Answer:
Settlement are classified on the basis of the size of population, density, access to higher order and lower order services, site chosen, functions, permanent or temporary etc.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 3 Human Settlements and Land Use

Question 3.
What are the functions carried out in rural settlement?
Answer:
Functions carried out in rural settlements are farming, fishing, mining, one or two general stores, etc.

Question 4.
Explain the difference between low-order services and higher order service settlements.
Answer:

  • The hamlets and villages have low population and restricted access to lower order services.
    For example, a village may have only one or two general stores. They are called low order settlements.
  • Large metropolitan cities have higher population, higher density and greater services of higher order.
  • For example, large metropolitans may have chain stores, malls, departmental stores, super markets etc. They are called higher order settlements.

Class 12 Geography Chapter 3 Human Settlements and Land Use Intext Questions and Answers

Try These

Question 1.
Observe Fig 3.2 A to F (Textbook Page No. 22-23). They show various patterns of settlements. Try to understand the difference between them. Carefully read their characteristics in the second column. According to the applicable characteristics, write alphabet of the image settlement in the place provided below characteristics.
Answer:

Satellite image of the settlements Characteristics of settlements
Photo A C
Photo B A
Photo C F
Photo D E
Photo E D
Photo F B

Question 2.
Can you identify problems faced by your city/town/village in terms of any of the following? (Textbook Page No. 27)

Types of problems Problems / Issues
1. Economic
2. Social
3. Cultural
4. Environmental
5. Infrastructural
6. Governance and Administrative
7. Others

Answer:

Types of problems Problems / Issues
1. Economic Unemployment and poverty
2. Social Religious conflicts and tension in society
3. Cultural Commercialisation of festivals
4. Environmental Air, water and noise pollution
5. Infrastructural Inadequate roads, bridges and public transport
6. Governance and Administrative Increase in crime rate and bribery
7. Others Overcrowding, traffic jam, housing problem

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 3 Human Settlements and Land Use

Make friends with maps!

Question 1.
See map of Ichalkaranji city (Textbook Page No. 28) and observe how changes have occurred in the city over the years. Answer the questions that follow.
(i) Enlist the colours used for showing land uses in the index.
(ii) What do the blue and black lines show?
(iii) What is the name of the river in the map?
(iv) Name any two villages shown on the map.
(v) Which city is shown on the map?
(vi) Which periods do the map belongs to?
(vii) Which land covers have reduced? What are their colours?
(viii)Which landcovers seen to have increased? what are their colours?
(ix) Which land cover has been replaced by increased landcovers?
(x) Write a conclusive note comparing both the maps.
Answer:
(i)

  • Yellow for agriculture
  • Green for forest
  • Pink for residential land use
  • Dark blue for industrial land use
  • Dark green for recreation
  • Brown for mining/ quarry
  • Violet for public/semi public

(ii) Blue lines show rivers and black lines show roads.

(iii) Panchaganaga river

(iv) Jambhali and Haroli villages

(v) Ichalkaranji

(vi) 2007 and 2017

(vii) Open space-dark green colour, forest – light green colour, wasteland – light violet colour residential sparse – light orange

(viii) Following landcovers have increased landcover for residential area – colour pink, Landcover for industrial area colour dark blue

(ix) Following land cover have been replaced by increased landcovers. Residential sparse areas are replaced by residential built up land use, open space is replaced by residential built up area and wastelands are replaced by industries.

(x) Map A shows land use and land cover map of Ichalkaranji city in the year 2007.

  • Map B shows land use and land cover map of Ichalkaranji city in the year 2017.
  • Both the maps show that there is land use for agriculture, industries, transportation, residential purpose, recreational purpose, mining around the city, village settlements etc.
  • In both the maps there is land is covered by Forest, waterbodies, wasteland/ scrubs, Panchaganaga river etc.
  • The landcover in 2017 as compared to landcover in 2007 have been reduced for forest, residential sparse, open space and wasteland.
  • The landcover in 2017 as compared to landcover in 2007 have been increased for industries and built up residential areas.
  • Residential sparse areas are replaced by residential built up land use, open space is replaced by residential built up area and wasteland are replaced by industries.

Can you tell? (Textbook Page No. 27)

You know what is urban and what is rural. What will you call the area that lies between them?
Answer:

  • The area between urban and rural areas is called rural-urban fringe.
  • It is characterised by the urban as well as rural characteristics, since it is transition zone between the two.
  • Thus, in rural-urban fringe there is a mixture of urban-rural land use.
  • In some rural areas apart from the land use for agriculture, some agricultural land has been converted into residential and industrial uses.
  • Thus, villages in rural fringe are partly affected by urbanization.
  • Thus rural-urban and fringe have the characteristics of both urban and rural settlements.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 3 Human Settlements and Land Use

Find out (Textbook Page No. 27)

Compare the cover page of Std. XII text book with Std. XI geography text book. Discuss and write a short paragraph about changes in land use / land cover in your own words.
Answer:
Geography Cover Page (Textbook of standard XI)

  • Depicts the natural landscape.
  • There are two snow covered mountains peaks and rivers having their source in these mountains.
  • At the foot of the mountain there is fan shape deposit of silt.
  • The river has developed number of meanders and an ox-bow lake.
  • The slope of the mountains is covered with coniferous forest and on the lower ground at the foot of the mountain there is mixed forest.
  • There is a sandy beach. Along the beach there are coconut trees.

Geography Cover Page (Textbook of standard XII)

  • Depicts cultural/man made development super imposed on natural landscape.
  • A quarry is developed at the foot of mountain.
  • There is deforestation and development of two villages and a town on the right bank of the river.
  • On this bank of river there is development of industry as well.
  • Number of multi-story building have come up on the left bank of the river including a mall and hospital.
  • Power line, concrete road and railway have developed in the last 10 years.
  • On the beach hotels, rest houses, sport activities have been developed for tourists and therefore number of tourists are seen on the beach.
  • The natural landscape on cover of the textbook of Std. XI changes into cultural landscape on the cover page of geography textbook of Std. XII.

Let’s recall (Textbook Page No. 24)

Can you differentiate between urban and rural settlements?
Answer:

  • On the basis of functions, settlements are divided into two types – rural settlement and urban settlement.
  • There is difference in land use in rural and urban settlements.
  • In rural areas the land use is closely related to agricultural activities like cultivation of different crops, plantation of trees, permanent pastures, grazing land, cultivation of tree crops, fallow land etc.
  • Where as in urban areas land use is for industries, construction and economic activities like trade, transport and communication, banking and insurance etc.
  • Urban settlements are large and compact, since population is more compared to available land.
  • Rural settlements are small and dispersed, since population is less compared to available land.

Think about it (Textbook Page No. 24)

Can a town have only one function? Why do the cities become multi-functional?
Answer:
1. Towns do not have only one function.

2. Some towns have one important and major function. They are known by that function. But they have many other functions also. For example, Shirdi in Maharashtra is known for religious function but it has other functions like tourism, education, commercial etc.

3. Cities become multifunctional as they grow. With increase in population demand for various functions increases. As cities grow in size many changes occur and therefore land use also changes.

4. For example, when any city develops as industrial centre, its main function is industries. But as people start coming to that city for employment opportunities, the city grows. Then other functions like educational institutes, business centres, recreational centres, etc., functions develop to fulfil the needs of increasing population. Thus, cities become multi-functional.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 3 Human Settlements and Land Use

Question 1.
Observe Fig. (Textbook Page No. 21) and answer the following questions.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 3 Human Settlements and Land Use 3
(i) Where are humans’ settlements likely to develop: A, B, C, D or E? Why?
(ii) In the above figure in which place human settlement is not likely to develop? Why?
(iii) Looking at the figure above, what factor do you think could contribute to the development of human settlements?
(iv) Can economic factors be important along with physical factors for the development of human settlements?
(v) Do physical factors affect the economic activity of human settlements?
(vi) Make a list of factors which affect development of settlements in an area.
Answer:
(i) Human settlement is likely to develop at C and D.
The most important factor responsible for the development of settlement is river. Hence, agriculture seems to be the most important activity and development of agriculture needs fertile soil and water supply which is readily available here.

(ii) Human settlement is not likely to develop at A and B. This is because of steep slope and rugged terrain.

(iii) The most important factors that could contribute to the development of human settlements are availability of water from the river and fertile soil on the bank of river.

(iv) Yes, economic factors are equally important along with physical factors for the development of human settlements. For example, industries need development of roads to carry raw material or agriculture also needs development of roads. Many settlements are developed along roads or railway lines.

(v) Yes, physical factors affect the economic activity in the development of human settlement. For example, agriculture is’ an important activity which is affected by relief and water supply. It can be developed where fertile soil and sufficient water supply is available.

(vi) The factors which affect development of settlements are relief, terrain, climate, soil, water supply, altitude, drainage, minerals etc.

Question 2.
Visit http://censusindia.gov.in/2011-prov-results/paper2/data_files/India2/1.%20Data%20 Highlight.pdf to know how cities are divided into various types in India on the basis of their populations. Also look for examples from Maharashtra. Refer to the website and complete the table as given below : (Textbook Page No. 24)
Answer:

Classification Population
Class I 100,00 and above
Class II 50,000 to 99,999
Class III 20,000 to 49,999
Class IV 10,000 to 19,999
Class V 5,000 to 9,999
Class VI Less than 5000

Question 3.
On the basis of dominant or specialised functions, Indian cities and towns can be broadly classified as follows. Complete the following table with examples from Maharashtra and India. (Textbook Page No. 24)
Answer:

Function Name of city in Maharashtra Name of cities outside Maharashtra
Administrative Nashik Gandhinagar
Industrial Chinchwad Jamshedpur
Transport Nagpur Bengaluru
Commercial Mumbai Surat
Mining Chandrapur Balaghat
Cantonment Khadki Agra
Educational Pune Kota
Religious Pandarpur Varanasi
Tourism Matheran Ooty

 

Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.2 On Saying “Please”

Balbharti Yuvakbharati English 12th Digest Chapter 1.2 On Saying “Please” Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.2 On Saying “Please”

12th English Digest Chapter 1.2 On Saying “Please” Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
List the words of courtesy that we use in our daily life. Discuss them with your partner and explain the purpose of using each.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.2 On Saying “Please” 1
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.2 On Saying “Please” 2

Question 2.
Listed below are a few character traits of people. Some are positive traits, while others are not. Tick [✓] the ones you feel are desirable.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.2 On Saying “Please” 3
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.2 On Saying “Please” 4

Question 3.
Etiquette and manners are very important for a person to live in the society. Read the following and put them in proper columns:

  1. To receive phone calls while you are in a lecture or class.
  2. To knock before you enter your Principal’s office.
  3. To thank the person who offers you tea or coffee.
  4. To be polite and courteous to others.
  5. To leave the classroom without the teacher’s permission.
  6. To occupy the seats reserved for ladies or physically challenged or elderly people on a bus or a train.

Answer:

Appropriate Inappropriate
1. To knock before you enter your Principal’s office. 1. To receive phone calls while you are in a lecture or class.
2. To thank the person who offers you tea or coffee. 2. To leave the classroom without the teacher’s permission.
3. To be polite and courteous to others. 3. To occupy the seats reserved for ladies or physically challenged or elderly people on a bus or a train.

(A1)

Question (i)
Form groups and explain the following words with examples:
Answer:
1. Humility: being free from pride and arrogance – greatest example our former President Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam – remember that ‘pride comes before a fall’ – always realize that there are people better than you are – Socrates said ‘One thing only I know, and that is that I know nothing. ’
2. Self-esteem: self-respect; confidence in one’s own worth or abilities – accept oneself as one is – everyone is different and unique – highly positive quality – leads to achievements, success, healthy relationships – can be developed with a little effort.
3. Gratitude: thankfulness for something that you have got – ready to show appreciation for something – towards the Almighty, towards those who have helped you – strengthens relationships with others – creates positivity.
4. Courtesy: means good manners and polite behavior – means being kind and compassionate towards others – should be real, not artificial – creates good impression – one will be liked by all – human quality not present in animals.
5. Generosity: kindness; big-heartedness – the act of being kind, selfless and giving towards others – very positive trait – influences others – when one is generous, one feels good – many religions consider this a great virtue – encourage charity.
6. Sympathy: feelings of pity and sorrow for someone else’s misfortune – leads to stronger relationships – offering condolences when someone dies – helps us to bond with others-makes the other person’s distress less – beautiful emotion – should be developed.
7. Empathy: the ability to understand and share the feelings of another – putting yourself in the shoes of the other person – different from kindness or pity – listen when people talk – see things from the other person’s point of view – makes one a very humane person.

Question (ii)
Have a Group Discussion on the topic ‘The need of soft skills at the workplace’. Use the following points:
Answer:
(a) Written and verbal communication (writing notes, letters, memos, reports, instructions, speeches, presentations, etc.)
(b) Ways of interacting with others (showing courtesy, sympathy, cooperation, empathy, strictness, gratitude, humility, team work, etc.)
(c) Creative abilities (preparing reports, presentations, letters, etc.)
(d) Emotional intelligence (showing understanding, compassion, empathy, team work, motivation, self-awareness, etc.)

(A2)

Question (i)
Read the text and state whether the following statements are True or False. Correct the False statements.
(a) Bitter problems in day-to-day life can be solved by sweet words.
(b) Great wars could have been avoided by a little courtesy.
(c) Observance of etiquette in a normal situation is important but more important is their observance when the situation is adverse.
(d) Words like ‘please’ and ‘thank you’ help us in making our passage through life uneasy.
(e) The law permits anybody to use violence, if another person is discourteous.
Answer:
True statements:
(a) Bitter problems in day-to-day life can be solved by sweet words.
(b) Great wars could have been avoided by a little courtesy.
(c) Observance of etiquette in a normal situation is important but more important is their observance when the situation is adverse.

False statements:
(d) Words like ‘please’ and ‘thank you’ help us in making our passage through life uneasy.
(e) The law permits anybody to use violence, if ; another person is discourteous.

Corrected statements :
(d) Words like ‘please’ and ‘thank you’ help us in making our passage through life easy.
(e) The law does not permit anybody to use violence, if another person is discourteous.

Question (ii)
Select the most appropriate sentences which suggest the theme of the essay.
(a) The essay tells us about courtesy, civility, morality, responsibility and control.
(b) The essay explores the difficulties that can be incurred by an individual when dealing with the public.
(c) One can keep one’s peace of mind without having to lower themselves to the level of the perceived offender.
(d) People with low self-esteem are generally difficult to work with and they look down upon others to get a feeling of superiority.
Answer:
(a) The essay tells us about courtesy, civility, morality, responsibility and control.
(c) One can keep one’s peace of mind without having to lower themselves to the level of the
perceived offender.

(iii)

Question (a)
Find the reasons for the liftman’s uncivilized behaviour.
Answer:
Reasons for the liftman’s uncivilized behaviour when the passenger was rude and ill-mannered towards him:

  1. he was acutely hurt by the slur cast by the passenger on his social status
  2. the passenger’s discourtesy was a wound to his self-respect
  3. he felt insulted by the passenger’s discourtesy.

Question (b)
List the people and their behaviour that made the passenger rude and ill- mannered.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.2 On Saying “Please” 5
Answer:
The people who made the passenger rude and ill-mannered:
[housemaid] → [cook] → [employer’s wife] → [employer] → [passenger] → [lift-man]

Question (iv)
Good manners are required in our daily life for making our social contacts more cooperative and friendly. Illustrate the behaviour of the polite conductor with different people in various situations.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.2 On Saying “Please” 6
Answer:

Situation Behaviour
1. The writer’s sensitive toe was trampled on The conductor said sorry with an apology and courtesy.
2. In the rainy season dealing with people He would run up the stairs to give someone the tip that there was “room inside”.
3. Dealing with old people He was as considerate as a son.
4. Dealing with children He was as solicitous as a father.
5. Dealing with young people He always indulged in some merry jest with them.
6. Dealing with a blind man He set him down safely on the pavement and then took him wherever he wanted to go, after telling the driver to wait for a while.

Question (v)
Discuss and Write the impact of good temper and kindliness on society in the light of the good-mannered conductor.
Answer:
The conductor was always cheerful and kind-hearted to everyone in the bus. This spread to his passengers and they too became cheerful and good-humored. They would naturally pass on this feeling after getting off the bus. Thus, in society, if people are good-tempered, cheerful and kind, it will spread to others and they too will start behaving in a similar manner. This will lead to a happy and compassionate society.

Question (vi)
‘A modest calling can be made dignified by good temper and kindly feeling’. Explain the statement with examples.
Answer:
This means that whatever career or job one has, however simple or modest, it can be made more dignified by behaving in a good- tempered and cheerful manner and with kindliness towards the people one comes in contact with. For example, even a simple job like that of a security guard at a mall can be made pleasant and dignified if the guard smiles and says ‘Thank you’ or ‘Good morning’ every time he/she checks a person.

A sweeper’s job can also be made more dignified if he/she just nods and smiles at passers-by or helps them if they are in need.

Question (vii)
The service of the police is necessary for the implementation of law in our society. Do you think you require this service for a good social environment? Discuss and write.
Answer:
No, we cannot have the police monitoring us for social and moral offences. For example, one cannot be punished if one refuses to smile at an acquaintance or say Thank you’. One cannot be punished if one doesn’t hold the door open for the person who is following.

These are good manners, or courtesy, and they have to be taught right from childhood, and they will change in different cultures and different circumstances. Whether a person follows them or not depends on the individual. However, if these little courtesies are followed, life will become much simpler and more pleasant for everyone.

(A3)

Question (a)
Find out the words in Column B which collocate with the words in Column A:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.2 On Saying “Please” 7
Answer:

A B Answer
regular meal regular exercise
mid day concept mid-day meal
key food key concept
fast exercise fast food
try decorated try hard
richly hard richly decorated
free jam free time
traffic time traffic jam
social animal social justice
wild justice wild animal

Question (b)
Learning collocations is essential for making your English sound fluent and natural. Make the following collocations and use them in your own sentences.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.2 On Saying “Please” 8
Sentences:
(1) BIG:

  1. It was a big mistake to hold a party on a rainy day.
  2. “Did you get a big surprise when you saw me?” asked the little girl to her mother.
  3. There was a big welcome waiting for the winning team.
  4. The hungry beggar prayed that he would get a big meal at the rich man’s home.
  5. Writing the difficult exam was no big deal for the intelligent boy.
  6. Rohan realized that it would be a big challenge for him to win the match.
  7. The discovery of a new element was big news in the scientific community.
  8. Losing the beauty contest was a big shock for the arrogant girl.

(2) WELL :

  1. The well-dressed man jumped over the puddle carefully.
  2. The advice the teacher gave Rita was well-meant, but Rita did not like it.
  3. The cook was happy to see the well-stocked cupboard.
  4. Little Naina was well-pleased with her birthday gift.

Question (ii)
Sometimes while using a word in a sentence, we have to change its word class. we can make several more words from the root word.
we can make several new words from the root word.
I asked Sumit to ……………. my pencil for me. (sharp).
I asked Sumit to sharpen my pencil for me.

Question 1.
Now read the following sentences and use the words given in the brackets. Change the word class and rewrite the sentences.
(a) Leena was eating a very …………. apple and obviously enjoying it. (crunch)
(b) This picture looks …………… (colour)
(c) I’m afraid that your behaviour is just not ……………. (accept)
(d) I like my elder brother. He is very ……………. (help)
Answer:
(a) Leena was eating a very crunchy apple and obviously enjoying it.
(b) This picture looks colourful.
(c) I’m afraid that your behaviour is just not acceptable.
(d) I like my elder brother. He is very helpful.

Complete the following table. Put a cross if a word class does not exist.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.2 On Saying “Please” 9

Question (iii)
Write appropriate expressions and words you have to use while facing an interview :
Answer:
(a) May I come in?
(b) May I have a seat?
(c) Thank you.
(d) I’m sorry, but I did not catch what you said.
(5) Please let me know

Question (b)
You are writing a letter of complaint. List the proper expressions that you would like to write.
Answer:

  1. I disagree.
  2. I’m sorry to say that….
  3. I would like to suggest….
  4. This was not expected from a company like yours.
  5. Please replace the defective piece as soon as possible.

Question (iv)
Distinguish between a legal offence and a moral offence on the basis of the extract.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.2 On Saying “Please” 10
Answer:

Legal offence Moral offence
Burglary Rude behaviour
Assault Discourtesy
Battery Haughtiness
Laceration of one’s feelings

Question (v)
Find out the meaning of the phrase ‘give and take’ and use it in your own sentence.
Answer:
give-and-take – Meaning: exchange of ideas Sentence – The TV stars engaged in an interesting give-and-take which was enjoyed by the audience.

Question (vi)
Complete the table with polite expressions that we must use in our day-to-day life:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.2 On Saying “Please” 11
Answer:

Don’ts Dos
I want a cup of tea. I would like to have a cup of tea.
Send me the mail. Please send me the mail.
Go away or leave me alone. Please let me be by myself.
You are wrong. Are you sure you’re right?
That’s a bad idea. That is not a very good idea, is it?
Your work isn’t good. Your work can do with some improvement

(A4)

Question (i)
Edit the given paragraph using a/ an/the wherever necessary:
Rakesh is a/an ideal son who remains devoted to his father as he grows professionally to become a/the famous doctor. As his father grows old, he takes care to spend time with his father, bringing him tea in a/the morning and taking him out for a/the walk in an/the evening.
Answer:
Rakesh is an ideal son who remains devoted to his father as he grows professionally to become a famous doctor. As his father grows old, he takes care to spend time with his father, bringing him tea in the morning and taking him out for a walk in the evening.

Question (ii)
Spot the errors in each of the following sentences and correct the incorrect ones:

Question (a)
Radha brought pens and distributed them between her five children.
Answer:
Radha bought pens and distributed them among her five children.

Question (b)
Jayshree and Sujata sat besides each other in complete silence.
Answer:
Jayshree and Sujata sat beside each other in complete silence.

Question (c)
His best friend Vijay was blind within one eye.
Answer:
His best friend Vijay was blind in one eye.

Question (d)
One could dare to encroach on his rights.
Answer:
One could not dare to encroach on his rights.

Question (e)
She was taken with surprise when she saw the famous Taj Mahal.
Answer:
She was taken by surprise when she saw the famous Taj Mahal.

Question (f)
It is not possible to exchange the goods once the sale has been completed.
Answer:
It is not possible to exchange goods once the sale has been completed, (‘the’ is deleted.)

Question (g)
Dr. Sengupta has been trying to master the craft for the last five years.
Answer:
No error in this sentence.

Question (h)
The top-ranking candidates will be appointed in senior jobs in banks.
Answer:
The top-ranking candidates will be appointed | to senior jobs in banks.

Question (i)
She knows very well what is expected from her but she is unable to perform.
Answer:
She knows very well what is expected of her but she is unable to perform.

Question (j)
They will put on a note in this regard for your consideration.
Answer:
They will put up a note in this regard for your consideration.

Question (iii)
Read the following.
Santosh purchased a computer. He read the operating manual and followed the instructions.
(a) He linked the monitor, keyboard and printer.
(b) He plugged in the main cable.
(c) He switched on the monitor at the back.
(d) When the light appeared on the screen, he placed the Day Disk in Drive A.
(e) He pushed in the disk until the button clicked out.
(It took about 30 seconds for the computer to load the program.)
(f) He pressed the Drive button and the disk shot out.
(g) He replaced the Day Disk with the Document Disk.
(h) He pressed function key 7.
Convert these sentences into passive voice by filling in the blanks.

Firstly the monitor, keyboard and printer were linked up. Then the main cable was plugged in. The monitor was switched on at the back. When the light appeared on the screen, the Day Disk was placed in Drive A. The disk was pushed in until the button clicked out. It took the computer 30 seconds to load the program. The drive button was pressed and the disk shot out. The Day Disk was replaced with the Document Disk. Finally, the function key 7 was pressed. The word processor was then ready to use.

(A5)

Question (i)
Write a speech on ‘Courtesy is the light of life’ with the help of the following points.
(a) People have a good impression of you.
(b) You will be acknowledged and appreciated by all.
(c) You will he happier and contented with life.
Answer:
Courtesy is the light of life
Dear friends,

Good morning. You may be surprised with the topic I have chosen for this speech, for today the word ‘Courtesy’ seems to be an old-fashioned word for us. But it is really the light of life. I, Shivam Goswami, would like to say a few words on why I think so.

First of all, what does courtesy mean? It means good manners and polite behaviour. It means being kind and compassionate towards someone. When you are courteous, people have a good impression of you; but that is not the reason for being courteous. Politeness should be real, and not artificial.

A courteous person will be appreciated by all. People will like to spend time with him/her and find pleasure in the person’s company. Someone may ask ‘What is courteous behaviour’? Saying simple words like ‘Please’, ‘Thank you’, ‘Excuse me’ and ‘Sorry’ is courteous behaviour. Helping a person who has fallen is courteous behaviour. Holding the lift door open for someone is courteous behaviour.

When a person is courteous, people are automatically courteous in return. This leads to a more polite and happier society. As I conclude, I would like to ask all of you to do something for a week: Be courteous. Then you will see the returns and realize the truth of what I am saying. Thank you for listening to me so patiently. Bye.

Question (ii)
‘Manners maketh man’ – Expand the idea in your own words with proper examples.
Answer:
Manners maketh man

‘Manners maketh Man’ : so goes a famous saying. In the world of today, people are judged by their manners and conduct. Manners distinguish us from animals, and make us human. A person who is courteous and considerate towards others is said to possess good manners. Such a person is respectful to his superiors, courteous to his equals and sympathetic towards his subordinates. He always shows concern for the well-being and comfort of others. He uses words like ‘Please’, ‘Thank you’ and ‘Sorry’ while talking to others; he helps senior citizens and those in need.

Everyone likes a person who speaks and behaves politely and treats others respectfully. Good manners cost practically nothing but can buy everything. They win us friends and help us influence people. They make the world a happier place to live in by reducing friction and avoiding tension.

When we meet a person for the first time, it is the person’s courtesy which impresses us deeply. Good manners are generally taught by parents at home, and by teachers in school. Manners that are learnt during childhood generally remain with us throughout our lives. They become a part of our personality. Hence, it is desirable that good manners are instilled in children when they are very young, so that they grow up to become courteous, considerate adults.

(A6)

Question (i)
Read A. G. Gardiner’s essay “The Open Window’ and compare its theme with the essay ‘On Saying “Please.”

Question (ii)
‘Nothing clears up my spirits like a fine day’ – Keats. Collect information of the poet Keats and write it in your notebook.

(A7)

Question (i)
Soft skills are required in all walks of life including careers and industries. They are increasingly becoming the essential skills of today’s workforce. Soft skills are an integral part of finding, attracting and retaining clients also. Highly developed presentation skills, networking abilities, and etiquette awareness can help you win new clients and gain more work. The following are considered the most important soft skills.
image

Question (ii)
Following are some of the institutions where you will get the courses related to soft skills.
(a) Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, Gujarat
(b) Indian School of Business Management, Hyderabad
(c) XLRI – Xavier School of Management, Jamshedpur
(d) Indian Institute of Foreign Trade, New Delhi
Jobs available at –

  • Customer service centre
  • Management schools
  • Hotel industry, etc.

Yuvakbharati English 12th Digest Chapter 1.2 On Saying “Please” Additional Important Questions and Answers

Read the extract and complete the activities given below.:

Global Understanding:

Question 1.
Read the following sentences and find out True and False sentences. Correct the false sentences:
1. The liftman invited the passenger into the lift.
2. If you knock down a burglar, the law will acquit you.
3. There is no legislation against bad manners.
4. The complainant had to pay a fine.
Answer:
True sentences:
2. If you knock down a burglar, the law will acquit you.
3. There is no legislation against bad manners.

False sentences:
1. The liftman invited the passenger into the lift.
4. The complainant had to pay a fine,

Corrected sentences:
1. The liftman threw the passenger out of the lift.
4. The liftman had to pay a fine.

Question 2.
Explain the penalty, if any, that one has to pay if one is rude or boorish.
Answer:
There is no penalty to pay if one is rude or boorish except the penalty of being called a ill-mannered person.

Question 3.
The behaviour of the people who made the passenger rude and ill-mannered:
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.2 On Saying “Please” 12

Question 4.
Complete the following:
(The answers are given directly and underlined.)
Answer:

  1. The first requirement of civility is that we should acknowledge a service.
  2. The Underground Railway Company insists that their employees are civil.
  3. The words which make life smooth are ‘please’ and ‘thank you’.
  4. The job of a bus conductor is very difficult and sometimes painful.

Question 5.
Tick mark the correct words:
(The answers are marked directly.)
Answer:

  1. The author finally found/did not find the money for the ticket.
  2. The author thought he had left home with/ without any money.
  3. The conductor gave/did not give the author a ticket.
  4. The author was pleased/displeased with the conductor.

Question 6.
Complete the web by choosing the correct words from the brackets that describe the conductor: (mean cheerful considerate grumpy patient solicitous impatient polite irritable good-tempered haughty good-natured kind)
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.2 On Saying “Please” 13

Question 7.
Complete the following :
(The answers are given directly and underlined.)
Answer:

  1. A modest career can he made dignified by good temper and kindly feeling.
  2. The law can only protect us against material) attack.
  3. The narrator says he does not want to apologise for praising an unknown bus conductor.
  4. A man who is polite may lose material advantage but he always has the spiritual victory.

Complex Factual:

Question 1.
Explain what the liftman wanted the passenger to do, and what happened afterwards.
Answer:
The passenger, on entering the lift, said ‘Top’. The liftman wanted him to say ‘Top please’. The passenger refused to do so. The liftman, instead of taking him to the top floor, threw him out of the lift.

Question 2.
Explain the sentence: The pain of a kick on the shins soon passes away but the pain of a wound to our self-respect or our vanity may poison a whole day.
Answer:
This means that if we are physically attacked i and injured, the pain of the wounds will soon heal and be forgotten. But if our self-respect or pride is hurt, it may poison our lives and behaviour for a much longer time.

Question 3.
It is not possible for the law to become the guardian of our private manners. Explain.
Answer:
The area of moral offences is quite vast and no laws or commandments can cover this area. In addition, social civilities, speech and manners are of so many types and the interpretation of these (whether they are good or bad) is so different that no court could administer a law which governed them. Hence, it is not possible for the law to become the guardian of our private manners.

Question 4.
Mention a couple of ways to keep the machine of life oiled and running sweetly.
Answer:
We can keep the machine of life oiled and running sweetly by using courteous words like ‘Please’ and ‘Thank you’ to acknowledge a service.

Question 5.
Complete the following:
(The answer is given directly and underlined.)
Answer:
The public owes much to the Underground Railway Company because they insist on a certain standard of civility in their employees, and take care that the standard is observed.

Question 6.
Complete the table:
Answer:

The words Who said! To whom When
1. “I haven’t a copper on me.” The narrator The conductor When the conductor and the narrator found that he had left home without any money in his pocket.
2. “Oh, you’ll see me some day alright.” The conductor The narrator When the narrator address) he could send the borrowed asked where (to which money.
3. “Where shall I send the fare?” The narrator The conductor When the narrator wanted to repay the ticket money to the conductor.
4. “Where do you want to go?” The conductor The narrator When the narrator explained that he did not have any money on him, and the conductor

Question 7.
Write the narrator’s opinion about how the liftman should have dealt with the passenger’s uncivility. Give reasons for the same.
Answer:
In the opinion of the writer, the liftman, instead of throwing the passenger out of the lift, should have treated him with elaborate politeness. He would have then had the victory not only over the rude passenger, but also over himself, and that was the spiritual victory that was more important. His revenge would then have been more subtle and effective.

Inference/Interpretation/Analysis :

Question 1.
Name the ‘unpleasant specimen’ mentioned in the extract and describe his behaviour.
Answer:
The ‘unpleasant specimen’ mentioned in the extract is the type of bus conductor who regards his passengers as natural enemies whose chief purpose on the bus is to cheat him, and who can only be kept honest by using a loud voice and an aggressive manner.

Question 2.
Describe the stale old trick, according to the conductor.
Answer:
Pretending that you have forgotten your purse at home, and hence do not have the fare for the ticket is a stale old trick, according to the conductor. (The conductor does not say this the narrator only imagines that he may do so.)

Question 3.
Describe the reactions of the bus conductor.
Answer:
No, the conductor did not think that the narrator was dishonest. He cheerfully accepted what the narrator said without doubting him and offered him a free ticket.

Question 4.
Describe the experience which made the narrator comfortable in the bus.
Answer:
The conductor had trampled on the narrator’s sensitive toe, causing him pain and agony. However, the conductor had then explained matters and apologized so profusely that the narrator forgot his pain and anger. After this experience, the narrator always observed his constant good nature and cheerful behaviour with pleasure and felt comfortable in his presence.

Question 5.
Describe the narrator’s justification of his praise of the conductor.
Answer:
The narrator says that if the famous poet Wordsworth could gain wisdom from a poor leech-gatherer, he sees no reason why ordinary people should not take lessons on conduct from a bus conductor, who shows how a modest job can be made more dignified by behaving in a good-tempered and cheerful manner and with kindliness towards the people one comes in contact with.

Personal Response:

Question 1.
Describe a person you have come across who is always polite and helpful. What do you think about him/her?
Answer:
The security guard of our building is always polite and helpful. He will help senior citizens get in and out of their cars or into the lift; he will help any person who has heavy bags. He also replies politely to any question asked by anyone. We all like him very much and often share our chocolates and biscuits with him. We also give him books, stationery and toys for his little child.

Question 2.
Describe a pleasant/unpleasant experience you have had with a bus conductor.
Answer:
This is an experience I had when I was new to Mumbai. I got into a bus and asked the conductor for a ticket to Dadar. The conductor shook his head and told me that I had got into the bus going in the wrong direction. He patiently explained that I would have to get off at the next stop, cross the road, and catch a bus having the same number but going in the opposite direction. He even pointed out the bus stop to me. Though I felt a bit embarrassed, I thanked him for his kindness.

Question 3.
Give your opinion about the conductor’s behaviour.
Answer:
The conductor was really a good and kind human being who saw the best in everyone and believed everyone. He was ready to pay the fare for the narrator’s ticket himself, even though he was not sure whether it would be returned. It is difficult to find such generous and helpful people in the world today, and it leaves a very pleasant feeling in the heart when you do.

Language Study:

Question 1.
The law does not compel me to say ‘Please’.
(Rewrite as an interrogative sentence.)
Answer:
Does the law compel me to say ‘Please’?

Question 2.
It was a question of ‘Please’.
(Add a question tag.)
Answer:
It was a question of ‘Please’, wasn’t it?

Question 3.
It will permit me to retaliate with reasonable violence.
(Pick out the finite and non-finite verbs.)
Answer:
will permit – finite verb;
to retaliate – non-finite verb (infinitive)

Question 4.
The pain of a wound to our self-respect may poison a whole day.
(Pick out the auxiliary and state its function.)
Answer:
may – possibility

Question 5.
For there are few things more catching than bad temper.
(Write the part of speech of the underlined word.)
Answer:
Gerund

Question 6.
Bad manners probably do more to poison the stream of general life than all the crimes in the calendar. (Rewrite in the present perfect tense.)
Answer:
Bad manners have done probably more to poison the stream of general life than all the crimes in the calendar.

Question 7.
There is a social practice much older and much more sacred than any law which enjoins us to be civil.
(Rewrite using ‘not only … but also… ’)
Answer:
There is a social practice not only much older but also much more sacred than any law which enjoins us to be civil.

Question 8.
Most people will have a certain sympathy with him. (Rewrite using the verb form of the underlined word.)
Answer:
Most people will sympathize with him.

Question 9.
Here and there you will meet an unpleasant specimen who regards the passengers as his natural enemies. (Replace the verb in the future tense with a modal auxiliary showing possibility.)
Answer:
Here and there you might meet an unpleasant specimen who regards the passengers as his natural enemies.

Question 10.
I had left home without any money in my pocket. (Pick out the verb and state the tense.)
Answer:
had left-past perfect tense.

Question 11.
I know that stale old trick.
(Rewrite beginning ‘That stale old trick ’.)
Answer:
That stale old trick is known to me.

Question 12.
I said it was very kind of him.
(Identify the clauses.)
Answer:
I said – main clause
it was very kind of him – subordinate noun clause

Question 13.
I began to observe him whenever I boarded his bus. (Pick out the subordinate clause and state the type.)
Answer:
subordinate clause – whenever I boarded his bus; adverb clause of time.

Question 14.
He seemed to have an inexhaustible fund of patience and a gift for making his passengers comfortable. (Rewrite using ‘as well as…’)
Answer:
He seemed to have an inexhaustible fund of patience as well as a gift for making his passengers comfortable.

Question 15.
In lightening their spirits he lightened his own task. (Rewrite using the verb form of the underlined word.)
Answer:
When he lightened their spirits he lightened his own task.

Question 16.
A very modest calling may be dignified by good temper and kindly feeling. (Rewrite as an interrogative sentence.)
Answer:
Can’t a very modest calling be dignified by good temper and kindly feeling?

Question 17.
“I never give the wall to a scoundrel,” said a man who met Chesterfield one day in the street. “I always do,” said Chesterfield, stepping with a bow into the road. (Rewrite using reported speech.)
Answer:
A man who met Chesterfield one day in the street said that he never gave the wall to a scoundrel. Chesterfield, stepping with a bow into the road, replied that he always did.

Question 18.
The polite man may lose the material advantage, but he always has the spiritual victory. (Rewrite beginning ‘Though’)
Answer:
Though the polite man may lose the material advantage, he always has the spiritual victory.

Vocabulary:

Find out the meanings of the following phrases and use them in your own sentences.

Question 1.
knock someone down –
Answer:
Meaning: to hit someone forcefully so that he/she falls down
Sentence: The young boy was so angry with the bully that he knocked him down.

Question 2.
to comply with :
Answer:
Meaning: to obey.
Sentence: We must comply with the laws of the country we live in.

Question 3.
Find out 2 words with prefixes and 2 with suffixes from the extract and write them down.
Answer:
1. Words with prefixes : discourtesy, uncivil.
2. Words with suffixes : instruction, reasonable.

Question 4.
Complete the following:
Answer:

  1. A liftman is a person who is employed to operate a lift.
  2. An assailant is a person who attacks another person.
  3. A complainant is a person who makes a formal complaint in a law court.
  4. A burglar is a person who illegally enters houses and steals things.

Question 5.
Write the meanings of the following words :

  1. redress
  2. henpecked
  3. black eye.

Answer:

  1. redress – to set right to remedy.
  2. henpecked – being controlled by and frightened of one’s wife.
  3. black eye – an area of skin around the eye that has gone dark because it has been hit.

Question 6.
Use the phrase ‘a black eye’ in your own sentence.
Answer:
When I saw my friend with a black eye, I knew that he had been in a fight with someone.

Question 7.
Find out 2 words with suffixes and 2 compound words from the extract and write them down.
Answer:
1. words with suffixes: vanity, really.
2. Compound words: breakfast, housemaid.

Question 8.
Write the meaning of the following words:

  1. endorse
  2. verdict
  3. resentment
  4. calling

Answer:

  1. endorse – express support
  2. verdict – judgement
  3. resentment – anger
  4. calling – vocation or profession.

Question 9.
Find out 2 words with suffixes from the extract and write them down.
Answer:
Words with suffixes : sympathy, requirement.

Question 10.
Find out two words with prefixes and two with suffixes from the extract and write them down.
Answer:
1. Words with prefixes: unfriendliness, inconvenience
2. Words with suffixes: existence, discovery

Question 11.
Pick out four adverbs of manner from the extract.
Answer:
coldly, cheerfully, luckily, easily.

Question 12.
Write the meanings of the followings words:

  1. countenance
  2. treading
  3. assured (someone)
  4. benediction
  5. uncouth

Answer:

  1. countenance – face.’
  2. treading – walking on.
  3. assured (someone) – made something certain to someone.
  4. benediction – a blessing.
  5. uncouth – impolite, unrefined.

Question 13.
Find out 2 words with prefixes and 2 with suffixes from the extract and write them down.
Answer:
1. words with prefixes: inexhaustible, unusually
2. words with suffixes: investment, cheerful

Question 14.
Write the meaning of ‘moral affront’.
Answer:
moral affront: a deliberate offence or insult to one’s dignity or self-respect.

Question 15.
Find out the meaning of the following phrase and use it in your own
sentence: lower than the angels
Answer:
lower than the angels – Meaning : less than perfect
Sentence: The unexpected behaviour of the religious men was somewhat lower than the angels.

Question 16.
Write four words with suffixes from the extract and write them down.
Answer:
agreement, politeness, institution, sweeten.
Note: Students can find more words on their own.

Vocabulary:

A Collocation is a combination of words in a language that often go together. They habitually occur together and hence convey some meaning by association, e.g. early morning, hot dinner, fast train.

Non-Textual Grammar:

Do as directed:

Question 1.
Hearing the sound of music from a side street, Mona had an idea.
(Rewrite as a compound sentence.)
Answer:
Mona heard the sound of music from a side-street and had an idea.

Question 2.
Siddharth could not ask his father for a cricket bat.
(Rewrite using the antonym of ‘able’.)
Answer:
Siddharth was unable to ask his father for a cricket bat.

Question 3.
“I will try,” the lady smiled.
(Rewrite in indirect speech.)
Answer:
The lady smiled and said that she would try.

Spot the error in the following sentences and rewrite them correctly:

Question 1.
I picked some of the lovely, tasty fruits and had eaten my fill of them.
Answer:
I had picked some of the lovely, tasty fruits and had eaten my fill of them.

Question 2.
I miss my friends a lots.
Answer:
I miss my friends a lot.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Solutions Chapter 9 Money Market and Capital Market in India

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Economics Solutions Chapter 9 Money Market and Capital Market in India Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Economics Solutions Chapter 9 Money Market and Capital Market in India

1. Complete the following statements:

Question 1.
Development financial institutions were established to …………………
a) provide short-term funds.
b) develop industry, agriculture, and other key sectors.
c) regulate the money market.
d) regulate the capital market.
Answer:
b) develop industry, agriculture, and other key sectors.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Solutions Chapter 9 Money Market and Capital Market in India

Question 2.
The money market faces a shortage of funds due to
a) inadequate savings.
b) growing demand for cash.
c) presence of unorganized sector.
d) financial mismanagement.
Answer:
a) inadequate savings.

Question 3.
Individual investors have lost confidence in the
capital market due to
a) lack of financial instruments.
b) high transaction costs.
c) low returns.
d) financial scams.
Answer:
d) financial scams.

Question 4.
Commercial banks act as intermediaries in the financial system to
a) make profits
b) accelerate the country’s economic growth.
c) mobilize the savings and allocating them to various sectors of the economy.
d) control the credit.
Answer:
c) mobilize the savings and allocating them to various sectors of the economy.

2. Complete the correlation:

1) Money market : Short term funds :: …………….. : Long term funds
2) …………….. : Central Bank:: SBI : Commercial Bank
3) Co-operative banks : Organized sector :: Indigenous bankers : ……………..
4) Primary market : …………….. :: Secondary market : Old issues
Answers:

  1. Capital market
  2. RBI
  3. Unorganised sector
  4. New issue

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Solutions Chapter 9 Money Market and Capital Market in India

3. Find the odd word:

Question 1.
Types of Bank Accounts:
Answer:
Saving A/c, D-mat A/c, Recurring A/c, Current A/c.

Question 2.
Unregulated Financial Intermediates:
Answer:
Mutual fund, Nidhi, Chit fund, Loan Companies.

Question 3.
Financial Assets:
Answer:
Bonds, Land, Government Securities,
Derivatives.

Question 4.
Quantitative Tools:
Answer:
Bank Rate, Open Market Operation, Foreign Exchange Rate, Variable Reserve Ratio.

4. Assertion and Reasoning:

Question 1.
Assertion (A) : Money market economizes use of cash
Reasoning (R) : Money market deals with financial instruments that are close substitutes of money
Options: 1) (A) is True, but (R) is False
2) (A) is False, but (R) is True
3) Both (A) and (R) are True and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
4) Both (A) and (R) are True and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
Answer:
3) Both (A) and (R) are True and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Solutions Chapter 9 Money Market and Capital Market in India

Question 2.
Assertion (A) : Regional stock exchanges have witnessed a sharp decline in the volume of trade.
Reasoning (R) : Investors prefer to trade in securities listed in premier stock exchanges like BSE, NSE etc.
Options:
1) (A) is True, but (R) is False
2) (A) is False, but (R) is True
3) Both (A) and (R) are True and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
4) Both (A) and (R) are True and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
Answer:
3) Both (A) and (R) are True and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

Question 3.
Assertion (A) : The unorganized sector of the money market lacks transparency.
Reasoning (R) : Activities of the unorganized sector are largely confined to rural areas.
Options:
1) (A) is True, but (R) is False
2) (A) is False, but (R) is True
3) Both (A) and (R) are True and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
4) Both (A) and (R) are True and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
Answer:
4) Both (A) and (R) are True and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)

Question 4.
Assertion (A) : Foreign exchange management and control is undertaken by commercial banks.
Reasoning (R) : RBI has to maintain the official rate of exchange of rupee and ensure its stability.
Options:
1) (A) is True, but (R) is False
2) (A) is False, but (R) is True
3) Both (A) and (R) are True and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
4) Both (A) and (R) are True and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
Answer:
3) Both (A) and (R) are True and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Solutions Chapter 9 Money Market and Capital Market in India

5. Identify and explain the concepts from the given illustrations:

Question 1.
Raghu’s father regularly invests his money in stocks and bonds.
Answer:
Concept: Financial Market
Explanation : Financial Market refers to a market where financial assets such as bonds, stocks, derivatives, government securities foreign currency, etc. are sold and purchased.

Question 2.
Sara makes a monthly contribution to a fund jointly created by her friends. The collected fund is then given to a chosen member through lucky draw.
Answer:
Concept: Chit fund
Explanation : Under chit fund, members make regular contribution to the fund, bids or draws are made on the basis of a criteria mutually agreed upon by members.

Question 3.
Tina deposited a lurnpsurn amount of 50,000 in the bank for a period of one year.
Answer:
Concept: Fixed deposit
Explanation : Fixed deposit refers to a lumpsum amount deposited by a customer for a specified period of time. Compared to all other deposits, fixed deposits carry a high rate of interest.

Question 4.
ABC bank provides d-mat facility, safe deposit lockers, internet banking facilities to its customers.
Answer:
Concept: Ancillary function of Commercial Bank
Explanation : Ancillary services are those services of commercial banks which are provided beside the primary services of bank. Ancillary services are transfer of j funds collection of money, making periodical payments on behalf of the customer, merchant banking, foreign exchange, safe deposits lockers, D-mat facility, internet banking.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Solutions Chapter 9 Money Market and Capital Market in India

6. Distinguish between:

Question 1.
Money market and Capital market.
Answer:

Money Market Capital Market
(a) Money market is a market for lending and borrowing of short term funds. It is a market for “near money”. (a) Capital market is a market for long-term funds both equity and debt, raised within and outside the country.
(b) Money market is divided into 2 structure  Organised sector of money market Unorganised sector of money market (b) Capital market is divided into 4 parts.
Government securities

  1. Industrial securities market
  2. Development financial institutions
  3. Financial Intermediaries.

Question 2.
Demand deposit and Time deposit.
Answer:

Demand Deposits Time Deposits
(a) Deposits that are withdrawable on demand are known as demand deposits. (a) Deposits that are repayable after a certain period of time are known as time deposits.
(b) Example :
1. Current Account
2. Saving Account
(b) Example :
1. Recurring Deposits
2. Fixed Deposits

Question 3.
Organized sector and Unorganized sector of money market.
Answer:

Organized Sector Unorganized Sector
(a) The organized sector of the money market is within the direct purview of RBI regulation. (a) This market is unorganized because its activities are not systematically co-ordinated by the RBI.
(b) It consist of Reserve Bank of India. Commercial Bank, Co-operative Bank, Regulated Financial Intermediaries, etc. (b) The unorganized Indian Money market is largely made up of indigenous bankers, money lenders and unregulated non-bank financial intermediaries.

7. Answer the following:

Question 1.
Explain the problems faced by the money market in India.
Answer:
Following are the problems of money market in India:
(a) Shortages of Funds : Generally, there is shortage of funds in Indian Money Market on account of various factors like inadequate banking facilities, low savings, lack of banking habits, existence of parallel economy,- etc. have also been responsible for the paucity of funds in the money market.

(b) Existence of Unorganised Money Market : This is one of the major defects of Indian Money Market. It does distinguish between short term and long term finance, and also between the purposes of finance. Since it is outside the control and supervision of RBI. It limits the RBI’s control over money market.

(c) Delays in technological up-gradation: Use of advanced technology is a pre requisite for the development and smooth functioning of financial markets. Delays in up-gradation of technology hampers the working of the money market.

(d) Absence of Well Organized Banking Sector : Branch expansion was very slow before bank nationalization in 1969. Even now the banks are largely concentrated in large towns and small cities. There is lack of movement of funds. Indian banking system is not yet a well organized sector.

(e) No Uniformity in the rates of interest:
There exists too many rates of interest in the Indian Money Market such as the borrowing rate of government, deposits and lending rates of co-operatives and commercial banks, lending rates of financial institutions, etc. This is due to lack of mobility of funds from one section of the money market to another.

(f) Seasonal fluctuations : The seasonal stringency of money and high rate of interest during the busy season (November to June) is striking feature of Indian Money market. There are wide fluctuation in the interest rates from one season to another. Money Market add money into the money market during the busy season and withdraw funds during the slack seasons.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Solutions Chapter 9 Money Market and Capital Market in India

Question 2.
Explain the functions of commercial bank.
Answer:
(A) Meaning A bank is a dealer in credit. Any institution that accepts deposits from public who have more cash than it needs immediately and gives loans to those who are need is called as a bank. Commercial bank performs all these functions for earning profit. Commercial banks play an important role in mobilizing savings and allocating ) them to various sectors of the economy. It includes both scheduled commercial banks l and non scheduled commercial banks.

(B) Definition of Commercial Bank :
Banking Regulation Act 1949 “”Banking means the accepting for the purpose of lending or investment of deposits of money from public repayable on demand or otherwise and withdrawable by cheque, demand draft, order or otherwise.
The above definition clearly indicates the essential function of a bank is mainly dealing in money and credit.

(C) Functions of a Commercial Bank :
Commercial Bank performs a variety of functions to satisfy the needs of the various S sectors of the economy.

The functions of Commercial Banks are as follows:

(I) Accepting Deposits:
The most significant and traditional function of commercial bank is accepting ? deposits from public. A commercial bank acts as the custodian of public deposits. This l function is very important because it helps in the mobilisation of funds from households to businessman for production purposes, Commercial banks act as intermediary by accepting deposits and paying interest on them and giving loans and charging interest) from borrowers at a high rate. The difference j between the two is the profit of the bank. Commercial bank accepts the following types of deposits :

(A) Demand Deposits
(B) Time Deposits

(A) Demand Deposits : The deposits which ; are withdrawable on demand, are known as demand deposits. They are of two types (1) Current Account Deposits (2) Saving) Account Deposits

(1) Current Account Deposits : Current j account deposits are usually held by businessmen, industrial enterprises, public bodies for business transactions. Money deposited in current account can be withdrawn in part or full at any time and any number of times by the depositors without any prior notice. Overdraft facilities and agency service are provided by the bank to the current account holders. Very low or no interest is paid on these accounts as the banks cannot utilise these short term deposits. Banks may charge certain amount of service charges on account holders.

(2) Saving Account Deposits : Saving account deposits are opened by salaried class or people with fixed income for holding their short term savings. Money deposited in these accounts retain high degree of liquidity. At the same time it earns nominal interest. It is a kind of demand deposits which is generally kept by people for sake of safety.

(B) Time Deposits : These are deposits, which are repayable after a certain period of time. They are of two types – (1) Recurring Deposits (2) Fixed Deposits

(1) Recurring Deposits : These are deposits under which people deposit a fixed amount at regular interval for specified period of time. These deposits encourage savings and carry high rate of interest.
(2) Fixed Deposits : Fixed deposits are time deposits or term deposits, which attract fund for a specific period. It is a time bound deposit as the amount deposited cannot be withdrawn before the maturity of the period. However, loans can be taken from the bank against the security of this deposit, within that period. These deposits earn a higher rate of interest.

(II) Advancing / Granting Loans :
The second major function of a commercial bank is to make loans and advances out of the money, which comes to it from the public by way of deposits. Direct loans and advances are given to all types of persons particularly to businessmen and investors against personal security, gold, silver and other assets. The profit earning capacity of commercial banks depends on this function of lending. Generally banks grant loans and advances to the borrowers in the following forms :
(1) Loans (2) Cash Credit (3) Overdraft facility (4) Discounting of bills.

(III) Ancillary Functions :
Commercial Banks also provide variety of ancillary services like – transfer of funds, j collection of money, making periodical ( payments on behalf of the customer, merchant banking, foreign exchange, safe deposit lockers, D-mat facility, internet banking, mobile banking, ATM facility, purchase and sale of securities, etc.

(IV) Credit Creation :
It is an important function of commercial banks. Commercial banks are the creators  of credit.
Commercial Bank collects deposits from public which is called as primary deposits. After deducting required reserves, bank lends money to the borrower which is called j as secondary deposits or derivative deposits. This procedure is followed by entire banking [ system in a country leading to creation of credit.
Thus, every loan creates deposits and every deposits creates loans.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Solutions Chapter 9 Money Market and Capital Market in India

Question 3.
Explain the role of capital market in India.
Answer:
Role of Capital Market:

  1. Mobilizes long term savings : Capital market helps to mobilize long term savings from various section of the population through the sale of securities.
  2. Provides equity capital : Capital market provides equity capital or share capital to entrepreneurs which will be used by entrepreneurs to purchase business assets and also to fund the business operations.
  3. Operational efficiency : Capital market helps to achieve operational efficiency by lowering the transaction costs, simplifying transaction procedures, lowering settlement timings in purchase and sale of stocks.
  4. Quick valuation : Capital market helps to determine a fair and quick value of both equity (shares) and debt (bonds, debentures) instruments.
  5. Integration : Capital market brings integration among real and financial sectors, equity and debt instruments, government and private sector, domestic and external funds, etc.

Question 4.
Explain the problems of capital market in India.
Answer:
Following are the problems of capital market in India :

  • Scams : It is observed that different types of financial scams in the stock exchange have affected the confidence of individual investors in the securities market. Scams involve manipulation of larger amount of money, which results in public distrust and loss of confidence among the individual investors.
  • Inadequate debt instruments : There is less trading in debt securities due to narrow investor base, high cost of issue, lack of accessibility to small and medium enterprises.
  • Lack of informational efficiency : Indian stock markets lacks informational efficiency as compared to advanced countries.
  • Decline in volume of trade : There is sharp decline in the volume of trade in regional stock exchanges. This is due to investors preferring trading in securities listed in premier stock exchanges like BSE and NSE.

8. Answer in detail:

Question 1.
Explain the role of money market in India.
Answer:
(A) Meaning:
Money market is a market for lending and borrowing short term funds.
It is a market for near money.
It deals in short term instruments like trade bills, government securities, promissory notes, etc.

Money market centres are located at Mumbai, Delhi and Kolkata. Money market consists of organised as well as unorganised j sector.

Role of Money Market in India :

(a) Portfolio Management : Money market deals with different types of financial instruments which are designed to suit the risk and return preferences of the investors. This enables the investors to hold a portfolio of different financial assets which in turn, j helps in minimizing risk and maximizing returns.

(b) Implementation of monetary policy :
Various monetary policies are implemented by the Central Bank, with an aim to manage the quantity of money, to meet the requirements of different sectors of the economy and to increase the pace of economic growth. Money market ensures successful implementation of these monetary policies. It also guides the central bank in developing an appropriate interest policy.

(c) Growth of Commerce, Industry and Trade : Money market facilitates discounting bills of exchange to local and international traders who are in urgent need of short-term funds. It also provides working capital for agriculture and small scale industries.

(d) Financial requirements of the Government : Money market helps the Government to fulfil its short term financial requirements on the basis of Treasury Bills.

Economizes the use of cash : Money market deals with various financial instruments that are close substitutes of money and not actual money. Thus, it economizes the use of cash.

Equilibrating mechanism : Money
market helps to establish equilibrium between the demand for and supply of short term funds by allocating rationally the available resources and thus mobilizing the savings of public into fruitful investment channels.

Liquidity Management : Money Market, through the monetary authorities facilitates better management of liquidity and money in the economy. This, in turn, leads to economic stability and development of the country.

Short-term requirements of borrowers :
Money market provides short-term financial needs of the borrowers at reasonable prices.

Question 2.
Explain the functions of RBI.
Answer:
(A) Introduction: Central Bank is the apex or the supreme monetary banking authority and occupies an important position in the monetary and banking structure of the country.
The guiding principle of a Central Bank is to act only in public interest and for the welfare of the country without regards to profit as primary consideration.
In India, The Reserve Bank of India is the Central Bank. It was established as shareholder’s bank on 1st April, 1935. It was nationalized on 1st January, 1949.

(B) Definitions :
(1) According to M. H. de Kock –
“A Central Bank is one which constitutes the apex of the monetary and banking structure of the country. ”

“(2) According to Prof. W. A. Shaw –
“Central Bank is a bank which controls credit.”

(C) Functions of Central Bank :
(1) Issue of Currency Notes : The Central i Bank has been authorised to print and issue ; currency notes. The RBI enjoys the monopoly of note issue of all denominations except one rupee note. The one rupee note and coins are issued by the Ministry of Finance of the government of India but their distribution is undertaken by RBI.

(2) Banker to the Government: The Central Bank acts as (A) a banker, (B) advisor, and (C) agent to the government. It performs all these functions which commercial banks do for their customers.
As a banker to the government, central bank transacts the business of Central and State governments. It accepts money and makes payments on behalf of these governments.
As an advisor, central bank advises the government on various economic issues and policies.
As an agent, central bank acts as a representative of central bank and attends l the international meetings of IMF and World Bank.
In short, it is a friend, philosopher and guide to the government.

(3) Bankers’ Bank : It supervises, co-ordinates j and controls the operations and activities of the commercial banks. As their bank it undertakes the following functions:
(a) acts as custodian of cash reserve.
(b) acts a lender of the last resort.
(c) provides clearing house function.

(4) Controller of Credit or Money Supply : Central Bank regulates the volume of credit and money supply in the country. The main objective behind this is to maintain price and ; economic stability in the country.
There are various methods which Central Bank uses to control the supply of credit in : the economy. They are –

  • Quantitative Measures control the quantity or volume of credit created by the commercial banks. They are bank rate, open market operation and cash reserve ratio.
  • Qualitative Measures or Selective Measures deal with the purpose and direction of credit. They are – varying margin requirements, regulation of credit, moral suasion and direct action.

(5) Custodian of Foreign Exchange Reserve of the Country: The Central Bank is also a custodian of country’s gold and major foreign currencies like US dollar, Euro the British Pound, etc. obtained by government from international trade.
The central bank also maintains international liquidity.

(6) Developmental and Promotional Functions : In developing countries like India, a very important function of Central Bank is to promote economic development.

  • To promote banking habits among the poor people.
  • To provide agriculture finance through NABARD and to promote rural and agricultural development.
  • To provide industrial finance through IDBI, SFC and IFCI and boost the growth of industrial sector.
  • To provide export – import finance through EXIM bank.
  • To encourage small savings through Unit Trust of India.

(7) Data Collection and Publicity : The Central Bank also collects and publishes information relating to agriculture, industrial and financial sectors of the economy, exports and imports, banking, trends in money and capital market, etc.
Its main publications include – Report on Currency and Finance, RBI Bulletin, RBI Journals and various research papers.

Intext Questions

Try this (Textbook Page 81)

Identify the type of finance into – Personal finance, Corporate finance or Public finance.
Answer:

Personal Finance Corporate Finance Public Finance
Building a retirement corpus. Raising share capital through sale of equity shares. Collection of tax revenue.
Clearing home loan through EMI (Equated Monthly Instalment) Managing working capital needs. Expenditure on social infrastructure such as health and education.

Find out (Textbook Page 83)

Find out names of the Central Banks of the following countries.

(1) USA
(2) Canada
(3) Russia
(4) Germany
(5) China
(6) UK (United Kingdom)
(7) Sweden
(8) France
(9) Japan
(10) Australia
Answer:
(1) USA : Federal Reserve System ;
(2) Canada : Bank of Canada
(3) Russia : Central Bank of Russia
(4) Germany : Deutsche Bundes bank
(5) China : People’s Bank of China
(6) UK (United Kingdom) : Bank of England
(7) Sweden : Sveriges Riksbank
(8) France : Banque de France
(9) Japan : Bank of Japan
(10) Australia : Reserve Bank of Australia

Try this (Textbook Page 85)

Pair the logos given with their respective banks as given in the bracket below :
(State Bank of India, HSBC Bank, Union Bank of India, Axis Bank, Standard Chartered Bank, HDFC Bank)
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Solutions Chapter 9 Money Market and Capital Market in India 1
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Solutions Chapter 9 Money Market and Capital Market in India 2

Try this (Textbook Page 85)

Collect information of Co-operative banks in your region at different levels.
Answer:
[Students should do this activity by themselves]

Find out (Textbook Page 90):

List the regional stock exchanges in India.
Answer:

  • Regional Stock Exchanges in India :
  • Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE)
  • National Stock Exchange (NSE)
  • Calcutta Stock Exchange (CSE) Metropolitan Stock Exchange (MSE)
  • India International Exchange (India INX)
  • NSE IFSC Ltd.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 5 Secondary Economic Activities

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 5 Secondary Economic Activities Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 5 Secondary Economic Activities

1. Complete the Chain

Question 1.

A B C
(1) Small scale industries (1) Manual manufacturing (1) Ceramics
(2) Cottage industries (2) Skilled crafts person (2) Tata Iron and Steel company
(3) Consumer goods (3) Individual (3) Potters
(4) Private (4) Ready for direct consumption (4) Pharmaceutical

Answer:

A B C
(1) Small scale industries (1) Ready for direct consumption (1) Potters
(2) Cottage industries (2) Manual manufacturing (2) Ceramics
(3) Consumer goods (3) Skilled crafts person (3) Pharmaceutical
(4) Private (4) Individual (4) Tata Iron and Steel company

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 5 Secondary Economic Activities

2. Identify the correct correlation.

A : Assertion, R : Reasoning
Question 1.
A – The humid climate of Mumbai offered great scope for the development of cotton textile industries.
R – Industries require ample amount of water.
(a) Only A is correct.
(b) Only R is correct.
(c) Both A and R are correct and R is correct explanation of A.
(d) Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.
Answer:
(d) Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.

Question 2.
A – In India, industries are found concentrated in few areas are available.
R – India is predominantly agrarian country.
(a) Only A is correct.
(b) Only R is correct.
(c) Both A and R are correct and R is correct explanation of A.
(d) Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.
Answer:
(c) Both A and R are correct and R is correct explanation of A.

3. Give geographical reasons.

Question 1.
Distribution of industries is uneven.
Answer:

  • Distribution of industries depend upon various physical factors like climate, raw material, water and power supply, labour, transportation, land, etc., and economic factors like capital, market and government policies.
  • Physical and economic factors vary from region to region and political factors vary from country to country.
  • Industries are developed where physical and economic factors are favourable for their development.
  • Thus, distribution of industries is uneven.
  • For example, in India industries are concentrated in Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata, Delhi, Chota Nagpur region and in the rest of India, agriculture is the only major economic activity.

Question 2.
Iron and steel industries are found in mineral rich area of Dhanbad.
Answer:

  • Important raw materials used in iron and steel industry are iron-ore, limestone, dolomite, manganese and coal.
  • All these raw materials are heavy, bulky and weight-loosing.
  • The cost of transportation of these materials are very high.
  • Dhanbad and its surrounding areas are the major iron-ore and coal producing areas.
  • • Since this industry is using weight-losing raw materials which are available around Dhanbad, iron and steel industry is found at Dhanbad.

Question 3.
Fruit-processing industries are found in Ratnagiri and Sindhudurg districts of Konkan region.
Answer:

  • Fruit processing industries use fruits as raw material.
  • Ratnagiri and Sindhudurg districts are known for horticulture. They are major mango, jackfruit, cashew and kokum producing districts of Maharashtra.
  • All these fruits are raw materials in fruit processing industry.
  • These raw materials are bulky, weight-losing and perishable and hence the industry is located in Ratnagiri and Sindhudurg districts where fruits are grown in plenty.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 5 Secondary Economic Activities

Question 4.
What are the major factors which have hindered the growth of industries in South America?
Answer:

  • Industries in the continent of South America are developed only in coastal areas of Brazil, Argentina, Chile and Peru.
  • The hindrances in the growth of industries in South America are due to unfavourable physical factors such as dense forests in Brazil, deserts in interior parts of Argentina, Andes mountain range running along the west coast.
  • The economic factors like limited capital, lack of modern technology and lack of transportation facilities etc., create hindrance in development of industries.
  • Comparatively low density of population and lack of markets are the other factors responsible to have hindered the growth of industries in South America.

4. Write short notes on.

Question 1.
Footloose industries.
Answer:

  • Footloose industry is a general term for an industry that can be placed and located at any location without effect of factors of location such as land, labour, climate and capital.
  • The raw material used as well as finished products of these industries are very light so their location near the source of raw material or transport is not important.
  • These industries often have spatially fixed cost, which means that costs of the product do not change despite where the product is assembled.
  • Diamond cutting, computer chips and mobiles manufacturing are some of the examples of footloose industries.
  • Advance technology like internet, email are used for raw material as well as marketing.
  • These are generally non-polluted industries.

Question 2.
Public sector industries.
Answer:

  • Public sector industries are owned by the state.
  • The investments in public sector industries is done by the government. Also, marketing of goods is done through government agencies.
  • Public sectors include public goods and governmental services such as military, law enforcement infrastructure (public roads, bridges, tunnels, water supply electrical grids, health, etc.).
  • Bharat Heavy Electrical Limited (BHEL) is one of the largest engineering and manufacturing companies of its kind in India engaged in designing engineering construction.

Question 3.
Economics of scale.
Answer:
1. Economics of scale are the cost advantages that enterprises obtain because of various facilities
established due to basic industries in certain region.

2. Sometimes due to advantage of many favourable factors for industrial development in certain areas, there is concentration of industries in that area, which is called agglomeration of industries.

3. In these regions industries develop not due to any locational factors but due to economies of scale enjoyed because agglomeration of industries.

4. Due to the development of basic industries other ancillary industries which are complementary to each other also develop. For example, once cotton textile industry develops in any region, readymaide garment making industries, industries supplying dyes and chemicals, industries producing materials like thread, buttons, laces, etc., also develop.

5. Due to such agglomeration, the industries in that region get more profit compared to their investment due to economies of scale such as cheap transport, labour, financial facilities etc. For example, transport companies give concession, hence, the cost of transportation decreases.

6. Since industries in this region are complementary, it is easier to collect or supply goods from other industries of nearby areas. For example, dye making industries supply dyes to cotton textile industry and cotton textile industry supplies cloth to ready-made garment industries.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 5 Secondary Economic Activities

Question 4.
Role of transportation in industries.
Answer:

  • Transportation facilities are important for the collection of raw materials and distribution of finished products.
  • Low cost of transportation is the key factor in the location of industries.
  • Transport network is crucial for sustained economic growth and development of a nation.
  • Transport system helps to send raw material, fuel and machinery to different industries at the right time and runs the industry.
  • Thus, transport plays a crucial role in the development of industries.

5. Differentiate between.

Question 1.
Weight-losing and Weight-gaining Industries.
Answer:

Weight-loosing Weight-gaining
(i) Weight-losing industries are those industries in which raw material are relatively bulky but finished products are relatively light. (i) Weight-gaining industries are those industries in which raw materials are relatively lighter than finished products.
(ii) Weight-losing industries are located near raw materials. (ii) Weight-gaining industries are located near markets.
(iii) For example, sugar industries locate near sugarcane producing areas. 10 tons of sugarcane is required to produce 1 ton of sugar. (iii) For example, cotton textile industries locate near the market because finished product cotton cloth is heavier than the raw material cotton.

Question 2.
Primary and Secondary Activities.
Answer:

Primary Activities Secondary Activities
(i) Primary activities include activities, such as hunting, fishing, mining, agriculture. (i) Secondary activities include manufacturing and constructions.
(ii) These activities are concerned with obtaining materials directly from nature. For example, fish from water or wood from trees. (ii) These activities add value to the already existing products by changing their form, making them more suitable to satisfy our needs and wants.
(iii) Primary activities produce raw materials. (iii) Secondary activities produce finished products.
(iv) Production of goods in primary activities depends upon natural factors. (iv) Production of goods in secondary activities depends on technology, skill of labours and capital.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 5 Secondary Economic Activities

Question 3.
Basic Industries and Consumer Industries.
Answer:

Basic Industries Consumer Industries
(i) The finished products of these industries are used by other industries. (i) The finished products of these are used as raw material which are directly consumed by consumers.
(ii) For example, iron and steel industry provides steel as raw material to machine tool making or agricultural implements making industry. (ii) For example, the medicines made in pharmaceutical industries are directly consumed by consumers.
(iii) These industries supply their products to others. Hence, they are called linkage products. (iii) These industries supply their products to consumers. Hence, they are called as consumer goods industries.

6. Answer the following questions in detail.

Question 1.
Explain the physical factors affecting location of industries.
Answer:
Climate, raw material, water, power, labour, land and transport are important physical factors deciding the location of industry.

Extreme climate like too hot, too cold, dry and very humid climate are not suitable for industries. Generally, industries develop in areas of moderate climate.

Availability of raw material is essential for the development of industries. Industries using perishable, heavy, bulky and weight-losing raw materials are located in the areas of source of raw materials. For example, sugar mills near sugarcane growing areas.

Most of the industries require lot of water for processing, like cooling, washing etc. Such industries are located near lakes, rivers or other water bodies. For example, many industries are located around Great Lakes in USA.

Labour is another important factor deciding location of industries. Availability of skilled, semi-skilled and cheap labour is very important to work in industries. Hence, we generally find labour colonies are located where skilled and cheap labour is available.

Transport facilities are essential for transport of raw materials and finished products. Low cost transport is the key factor in the development of industries. Industries develop in the areas, where transportation network is well developed. For example , many industries are developed along Trans-Siberian railway line in Russia.

Industrial development need huge land for the construction of industrial units. Industries develop where cheap, plain and extensive land is available.

Industries need power supply, main sources of power supply are coal, oil, electricity and now a days wind energy, solar energy etc. Industries locate near coal mines, or availability of electricity. For example, industries concentrated around coal mining area of Ruhr region of Germany or industries concentrated near Khopoli hydro power station.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 5 Secondary Economic Activities

Question 2.
Explain the factors affecting location of sugar industries.
Answer:
The following are the factors affecting the location of sugar industries.

  • Sugar industry is and agro-based industry.
  • Sugarcane is the raw material in sugar industry.
  • Sugarcane is perishable and weight-losing raw material.
  • It is also heavy and bulky raw material.
  • Taking into consideration all above characteristics of raw material used in sugar industry, it is always located in the areas of sugarcane production.
  • In Maharashtra, Satara, Kolhapur, Ahmednagar, Sangli etc., are the sugarcane producing districts and the same districts have concentration of sugar industry.

Question 3.
Explain the economic and political factors affecting location of industries.
Answer:
The following are the economic factors affecting the location of industries.
1. Neatness to market : Transport cost is one of the important costs included in production cost of goods. If industries locate near the market there is saving on transport cost and goods reach to the consumers as early as possible. Some industries whose finished products are perishable or bulky or heavy, locate near the market. For example, ice cream making, furniture making or air craft making industries.

2. Availability of capital : Capital is required for land, construction, equipment, labour, transport etc. Therefore, industries are located in areas where banking and financial facilities are available. Generally, these facilities are available in big cities, therefore in India many industries are located in big cities like Mumbai, Chennai, Bengaluru, Ahmedabad, Kolkata etc.

The following are the political factors affecting the location of industries.
Government policies : The government policy of encouragement or discouragement directly affects location of industry.

  • Sometimes government gives encouragement for development of industries in economically backward areas or to reduce the overcrowding in nearby cities by providing land, water, power at cheaper rate. For example, to reduce the overcrowding in Mumbai city, the government provided land, water, electricity at a cheaper rate in Navi Mumbai.
  • The government policy regarding import, export, taxes, subsidies, etc., also affect location of industries. For example, liberal policy for industries in the State of Gujarat attracted many industrialists to set up industries.
  • Development of SEZ : Due to the development of Special Economic Zone (SEZ) many industries are attracted in SEZ area. SEZ are developed to set up public sector or private sector industries, specially to increase export quality production in the country.

7. Show the following on a map of the world with suitable index

(1) Ruhr industrial region
(2) An industrial region in Japan
(3) An industrial region in South Africa
(4) An industrial region in Australia
(5) Industrial region near Great Lakes
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 5 Secondary Economic Activities 1

Class 12 Geography Chapter 5 Secondary Economic Activities Intext Questions and Answers

Observe the pictures given in the textbook figure. Identify the activities with which these figures are associated and complete the table.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 5 Secondary Economic Activities 2
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 5 Secondary Economic Activities 3

Try These

Question 1.
Look at the map of Solapur district. It shows the location of some sugar industries. Shamrao is a farmer at location A. He has just harvested his sugarcane crop. Study the map and tell where should he send his crop? What factors will Shamrao consider for this? (Textbook Page No. 43)
Answer:
(i) Shamrao has two options, he can sell his sugarcane to Pimpalner Sugar Factory or Virag Sugar Factory, since both the factories almost at equal distance from A.
(ii) The most important factor of consideration is the distance and perishability of sugarcane as a raw material.
(iii) Third factor he should take into consideration is from A, the road condition. The factory to which he should send sugarcane must be in good condition; so that sugarcane can be transported to industry as early as possible.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 5 Secondary Economic Activities

Question 2.
Firoz’s son has done an advanced course in Bakery Management from the nearby city. He wants his son to start a bakery in their village but his son says it should be in the city, which is around 20 kms from their village. Who is correct? Firoz or his son? Why? (Textbook Page No. 44)
Answer:
The decision of Firoz’s son is correct. He should start a bakery in the city. First thing is that bakery products are perishable and secondly there is loss of weight of raw materials in the production of bakery products.

Question 3.
Shantaram is a young boy from a tribal area in Maharashtra. He wants to start a honey processing unit as he has access to good honeycombs in the forest. The city is around 35 kms away. He has his own land in the village and is also getting land in the cit3\ Where should he establish the honey factory? In the village or in the city? Why? (Textbook Page No. 44)
Answer:
(i) Shantaram should start his honey factory in the city. Raw material in his factory will be honeycombs.
(ii) From honeycombs he will get two finished products – honey and wax. The weight of honeycombs after extracting honey and wax will be the same and therefore ideal location is city.

Can you tell?

Question 1.
Find example of market-oriented industries. (Textbook Page No. 45)
Answer:
(i) All textile industries are market-oriented industries Cotton Textile, Silk Textile, Woollen Textile.
(ii) All assembly industries are market-oriented industries Automobile, Air-craft, shipbuilding industries.

Use your brain power!

Question 1.
Following is a list of few industries. Think about the factors of location of these industries and tell whether they are footloose industries or not. Complete the table accordingly. (Textbook Page No. 47)
(i) Cotton textile industries
(ii) Cement industries
(iii) Diamond industries
(iv) Mobile manufacturing units
(v) Paper industry
(vi) Sugar industry
(vii) Food processing industry
(viii) IT (Hardware) industry
(ix) Oil refinery
(x) Hairpins industry
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 5 Secondary Economic Activities 4

Question 2.
(i) Refer to the lumbering map of the world in fig. 4.1 and 5.1, tell which industries will be located in the northernmost island of Japan?
(ii) How have the Great Lakes been instrumented in development of industrial regions in the USA?
(iii) How has the Trans-Siberian Railway contributed to the development of industries in Russia? (Textbook Page No. 51)
Answer:
(i) Paper and pulp industry.
(ii) The Great Lakes have been instrumented in the development of industrial regions in the USA through concentration of minerals and coal producing areas, local market, capital and technological development.

(iii) The Trans-Siberian Railway contributed to the development of industries in Russia is

  • Trans-Siberian Railway is the longest railway system connecting Petersburg in Western Russia to Vladivostok on the pacific coast.
  • This railway connects all major cities in Russia.
  • It passes through major iron-ore and coal producing areas, which has helped to the development of iron and steel industry in Russia.
  • This railway line helped for the movement of raw material and finished goods.
  • Therefore, many industries have been developed along this railway route.
  • It has also helped the movement of passenger and goods traffic in East-West direction.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 5 Secondary Economic Activities

Make friends with maps!

Question 1.
Study the given map in fig 5.3 and answer the following questions. (Textbook Pages 47 & 48)
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 5 Secondary Economic Activities 5
(i) In which hemisphere do you find more concentration of industries?
(ii) In which part of North America has the industrial region been mainly developed?
(iii) In which part of Europe is concentration of industries mainly found?
(iv) Why is less industrial development found in other parts of African continent except coastal areas?
(v) In which part of India do you find concentration of industries?
(vi) Why do you think coastal areas have higher concentration industries?
(vii) Write a concluding paragraph on latitudinal distribution of industries in the world.
Answer:
(i) Northern Hemisphere.
(ii) North eastern Region.
(iii) North western, South and Central part
(iv) Dense forest, deserts, mountains, grasslands in other parts of African continent are responsible for less development of industries.
(v) Portal cities like Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata and other areas like Delhi, Bangalore, Chota Nagpur etc.

(vi) Coastal areas have better ports and inland water transport facilities. Even road and rail transport are well developed.

  • Extensive level land.
  • Industries which depend on imported raw material like oil prefer to develop on coastal areas.
  • Industries which need humid climate develop in coastal areas for example textile industry.

(vii) Major industrial regions are concentrated in Northern Hemisphere in the latitudinal belt of 30° North to 50° North latitudes. However, there is an exception of Siberian industrial region in Russia.

  • North America, major European countries, Japan, China and parts of Russia falls in this latitudinal belt.
  • Major cause of the development of industries in this latitudinal belt is the Industrial Revolution in Europe.
  • In this region both mineral based and agro-based industries have developed.
  • Development of science and technology, skilled labour, well developed transportation facilities, high standard of living and extensive local market in this latitudinal belt are the other factors responsible for the development of industries.
  • However, outside this major industrial belt in Northern Hemisphere* only exception is India, industries have developed in latitudinal belt 8° North to 20° North.
  • Even in Southern Hemisphere industries have developed in the same latitudinal belt i.e. 30° South to 50° South latitudinal belt in South Africa, South America and South Australia.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 5 Secondary Economic Activities

Give it a try

Question 1.
Look at the given logo. Find out more information about it and write a short note on it. (Textbook Page No. 53)
Answer:
Digital India.
(i) Digital India is a campaign launched by the Government of India in order to ensure the government’s services are made available to citizens electronically by improved online infrastructure and by increasing internet connectivity or making the country digitally empowered in the field of technology.
(ii) The initiative includes plans to connect rural India with high speed internet networks.
(iii) Digital India consists of secure and stable digital infrastructure, delivering government services digitally and universal digital literacy.

Make in India:
On 25 September 2014, the Government of India launched a movement ‘Make in India’, like Swadeshi movement, for 25 sectors of Indian Economy. The main purpose to start this movement was to provide encouragement to businessmen in India to set up companies to manufacture their products in India and to investment more for the same.

In line with make in India, individual states too launched their own local initiative, such as ‘Magnetic Maharashtra’, ‘Make in Odisha’, Vibrant Gujarat, etc.

Startup India
(i) Startup India is an initiative of the government of India was first announce by Indian Prime minister, Narendra Modi during his 15 August 2015 address from the Red Fort in New Delhi.

(ii) The action plan of this initiative is focussing on three areas:

  • Simplification and Handholding.
  • Funding support and incentives.
  • Industry-Academia partnership incubation.

(iii) An additional area relating to this initiative is to discard restrictive state Government Policies within this domain, such an ‘License Raj’, Land permissions, Foreign Investment Proposals, and Environmental clearance. It was organised by Department for promotion of industry and internal trade.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 5 Secondary Economic Activities

Question 2.
Find at least 2 examples of each of the types of industries from India.
Answer:
(i) Industries in Digital India are:
DigiLocker-
DigiLocker is an online service provided by the government wherein any Aadhar card holder can access a cloud with their authentic documents/certificates. For example, driving license, vehicle registration, academic mark sheet etc.

MyGov-
MyGov is an initiative started by the Indian government to engage citizens in governance. The portal can be accessed via a website or a dedicated mobile app.

(ii) Industries in Startup India are:
Zomato:
Zomato is an Indian restaurant aggregator and food delivery startup that was launched in 2008. It is one of the most successful food tech startups.

Paytm:
It is an Indian e-commerce payment system based in Noida. It was founded in August 2010.

Ola Cabs:
It is founded in 2010 and giving tough competition to Uber.

(iii) Industries in Make in India:
Make in India focuses on the following industries viz. Automobiles, Aviation, Biotechnology, Chemicals, Defence manufacturing, etc.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.5 The New Dress

Balbharti Yuvakbharati English 12th Digest Chapter 1.5 The New Dress Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.5 The New Dress

12th English Digest Chapter 1.5 The New Dress Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Write in Column ‘B’ the description of the clothes you would choose to wear for the occasions given in Column ‘A’:
Answer:

A B
A birthday party Casual jeans and a T-shirt
A prize distribution ceremony at school Formal shirt and trousers
A picnic Colourful casuals, or Shorts and T-shirt
An entertainment show Good jeans and a good T-shirt

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 2.
Discuss the criterion of the choice of your clothes with the help of given points:
Answer:
(a) Occasion: whether it is a birthday, wedding, picnic, college festival, etc.
(b) Society (people you may meet at the venue): friends, relatives, classmates, visitors, students from other colleges, etc.
(c) Availability: bought at a store, tailored, borrowed, etc.
(d) Fashion: designer clothes, casual, Indian formal, Western formal, etc.
(e) Your wish/whim: colour of my choice, style, etc.
(f) A suggestion or advice by someone (mother, sister, friend, etc.): Only advice by friends
(g) Any other than the above mentioned reasons: I would choose a dress that would suit me and set off my looks in the best possible way, even if it may be out of fashion. I would not go by whether it is expensive or branded.

Question 3.
Divide the class into groups. Discuss the role of costumes in enhancing your personality:
Answer:
(Points: clothes very important – first impressions important – colours, cut that suit a person – if the clothes are suitable, confidence level increases – however, it is not the cost of clothes but suitability to the wearer and occasion that are important – your clothes also depend on the culture and place.)

Question 4.
State whether you agree or disagree with the following statements and discuss the reasons:
Answer:
(a) A simple dress makes one’s personality look dull.
(Disagree – if the cut is good, the cloth is good – it suits the wearer – a simple dress can be excellent.)

(b) We should not judge ourselves from the comments we receive from others.
(Agree – we should have self-esteem – trust our judgement – do not have to seek approval from others – people may be envious, etc.)

(c) A fashionable and costly dress makes you look rich, intelligent and beautiful.
(Disagree – the dress must suit the wearer – should be worn with confidence – wearer should have good posture – accessories should be well-matched, etc.)

(d) We should choose a dress according to the fashion rather than our choice.
(Disagree – if we choose according to fashion, may not be comfortable – the fashion may not suit us-we may feel self-conscious – hence choose a dress according to our choice.)

Maharashtra Board Solutions

(A1)

Question (i)
There are a few other characters mentioned in this extract. Discuss the way their reactions help us to understand the inferiority complex of Mabel.
Answer:
Mabel told Robert Haydon that she felt like some dowdy, decrepit, horribly dingy old fly. She said it to reassure herself and appear detached and witty, and to show that she did not feel in the least out of anything.

Robert Haydon probably replied something to praise her, which Mabel felt was just politeness, and that he was being insincere. Though she was constantly looking for approval from others, she always felt suspicious when someone actually praised her, or said something in her favour. This shows that she has no self-esteem and a very big inferiority complex.

(A2)

Question (i)
Pick out the sentence/s from the extract which describe the ambience of the party at Mrs. Dalloway’s place.
Answer:
1. If she had been dressed like Rose Shaw, in lovely, clinging green with a ruffle of swansdown.
2. For she would not join Charles Burt and Rose Shaw, chattering like magpies and perhaps laughing at her by the fireplace.

Question (ii)
Mabel is thinking too much about her dress. Pick out two sentences supporting the above statement.
Answer:
1. It seemed to her that the yellow dress was a penance which she had deserved.
2. Then Mrs Holman was off, thinking her the most dried-up, unsympathetic twig she had ever met, absurdly dressed, too, and would tell every one about Mabel’s fantastic appearance.

Question (iii)
Critically analyze Mabel’s weak economic conditions in the past as one of the reasons that led her to choose the old-fashioned dress.
Answer:
Mabel did not belong to a rich family. She was one of a family of ten. They always had to be careful about their expenses, always counting the pennies. Her mother had to carry big cans the linoleum on the stairs was worn off, and there was always some minor domestic tragedy taking place.

Even when they went to seaside resorts, they stayed at lodges which never faced the sea directly, but at an odd angle, so that they had to squint to see the sea. Maybe indirectly she was still fighting with her weak economic conditions of the past, and this had made her choose the old-fashioned dress or it could have been some memories of the past that made her do it.

Question (iv)
The cause of Miss Mabel’s disappointment is not only her poor background in the past but her too much bookishness also Substantiate.
Answer:
To a certain extent this is true. She keeps thinking about the depressing lines she has read written by Shakespeare; she also keeps thinking of the story of the fly and the saucer, and how she is a fly and the others are dragonflies, butterflies and beautiful insects. Probably her over-active imagination, which led to her continuous disappointment with various things, was also due to extensive reading.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question (v)
Do you appreciate Mabel’s tendency of deciding her own value from the comments given by others? Explain your views.
Answer:
No, I don’t. We all have our own likes and dislikes; we should wear what we like and behave in the manner we think is appropriate. We should not depend on the approval and comments of others to decide our value and worth. This is done only by those who have no confidence in themselves and no self-esteem.

(A3)

Question (i)
Write the synonyms for the word ‘dress’ by filling appropriate letters in the blanks. One is done for you.
Answer:
(a) a t t i r e
(b) g a r b
(c) c o s t u m e
(d) g a r m e n t
(e) o u t f i t
(f) a p p a r e l

Question (ii)
Conchology means the scientific study or collection of mollusc shells. Find out the meanings of:
1. Etymology
2. Archaeology
Answer:
1. Etymology – the study of the origin and history of words.
2. Archaeology – the scientific study of material remains (such as tools, pottery, jewelry, stone walls, and monuments) of past human life and activities.

(A4)

(i) Use the correct tense form of the verbs given in the brackets and rewrite the sentences.

Question (a)
She ………………….. (take/takes/took/had taken) that old fashion book of her mother a few months back.
Answer:
She had taken that book of her mother a few months back.

Question (b)
She ……………… (pecking/pecks/pecked) at her left shoulder for quite some time.
Answer:
She pecked at her left shoulder for quite some time.

Question (c)
One human should (done /doing/be doing) this for another always.
Answer:
One human should be doing this for another always.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question (d)
All this (will be/is/have been) destroyed in a few years.
Answer:
All this will be destroyed in a few years.

Question (e)
She (feels/felt/will be feeling) like a dressmaker’s dummy standing there.
Answer:
She felt like a dressmaker’s dummy standing there.

(ii) Do as directed:

Question (a)
Lata will sing tonight. (Make it less certain.)
Answer:
Lata may sing tonight.

Question (b)
You should wear your uniform. (Show ability.)
Answer:
You can wear your uniform.

Question (c)
Sandeep may study to clear the examination. (Make it obligatory/compulsory.)
Answer:
Sandeep must study to clear the examination.

Question (d)
I can do it. (Make a sentence seeking permission.)
Answer:
May I do it?

(iii)

Question (a)
Frame three rules for the students of your college. (Non-textual grammar)
Answer:
1. Students must wear identity cards in the college premises.
2. Students must not loiter near the college gate.
3. Every student must have at least 75% attendance in every subject.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question (b)
Frame three sentences giving advice to your younger brother.
Answer:
1. You should make a timetable for revision at least a month before the exams.
2. You should not eat junk food.
3. You should visit your dentist at least once every six months.

Question (iv)
Fill-in the blanks with appropriate modal auxiliaries according to the situation given in the following sentences:
Answer:
(a) Take an umbrella. It might rain later.
(b) People must not walk on the grass.
(c) May I ask you a question?
(d) The signal has turned red. You must wait.
(e) I am going to the library. I could find my friend there.

(A5)

Question (i)
Virginia Woolf has created many characters other than Miss Mabel with great skill. Write a character sketch of any one of them.
Answer:
One of the guests at Mrs. Dalloway’s party was Charles Burt. Mabel was impressed by him and longing for some praise from him. However, he was a malicious person, with no heart, no fundamental kindness and only a superficial appearance of friendliness. He liked to poke fun at people and see their reactions. He probably also liked to gossip about people and discuss them behind their backs, but his opinion made a great difference to Mabel.

Question (ii)
‘Clothes mean nothing until someone lives in them.’ Expand the idea in your own words.
Answer:
Clothes mean nothing until someone lives in them These are the words of Marc Jacobs, a fashion designer. It means that clothes gain importance and character only when someone is wearing them. The first impression that people have of a person is not only through the clothes that one is wearing but the way one is wearing those clothes.

The style a person adopts tells people a lot about his/her personality and character. The best and most expensive clothes can be unimpressive if the wearer does not carry himself/herself well. On the contrary, the simplest of clothes can look good and impressive if the wearer has good posture, self-confidence and self-esteem.

Hence, when we are buying clothes, we must not only be sure that they will suit us but that we will be comfortable in them and able to carry them well. So, we must choose clothes that make us feel good about ourselves, confident and happy.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

(A6)

Question 1.
Go to a library and read the following books:
(a) ‘A Haunted House’ by Virginia Woolf
(b) ‘Mrs. Dalloway’ by Virginia Woolf

(A7)

Question 1.
Find out information about career opportunities in the following fields:

  1. Fashion designing
  2. Dress designing
  3. Textile industry
  4. Garment industry
  5. Image consultancy
  6. Psychology and Psychiatry

Yuvakbharati English 12th Digest Chapter 1.5 The New Dress Additional Important Questions and Answers

Read the extract and complete the activities given below:

A1. Global Understanding:

Question 1.
Complete the following:
Answer:
1. What depressed Mabel was her appalling inadequacy, her cowardice and her mean, water-sprinkled blood.
2. The feeling that grew stronger as she went upstairs was that something was not quite right.
3. The eyelids of the guests flickered and then shut rather tight.

Question 2.
Complete the following:
Answer:

  1. According to Mabel, fashion means cut, style, and cost, at least thirty guineas.
  2. When Mabel was sitting over the teacups, she had thought that she could not be fashionable.
  3. The book Mabel had chosen was an old Paris fashion book of her mother’s, of the time of the Empire.
  4. Rose Shaw’s lips had a little satirical pucker.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 3.
Mabel knew that these were her main faults:
Answer:
envy and spite

Question 4.
Mable tried to imagine them like flies:
Answer:
Rose Shaw and all the other people

Question 5.
He stopped to listen to Mabel:
Answer:
Robert Haydon

Question 6.
She, Mabel, was a fly but the others were:
Answer:
dragonflies, butterflies, beautiful insects

Question 7.
Complete the following:
Answer:
1. Miss Milan’s workroom was terribly hot, stuffy and sordid, smelling of clothes and cabbage cooking.
2. When Mabel looked at herself in the glass, she saw a grey-white, mysteriously smiling, charming girl, the core of herself.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 8.
Match the following and write the complete answers:

A B
1. Miss Milan wanted to know (a) pick a hemp seed from between her lips.
2. Miss Milan let the canary (b) to be so dependent on people’s opinions.
3. Mabel felt it was very weak (c) she suffered tortures and was awoken to reality.
4. When Mabel was in Miss Dalloway’s drawing-room. (d) about the length of the skirt.

Answer:

  1. Miss Milan wanted to know about the length of the skirt.
  2. Miss Milan let the canary pick a hemp
  3. Mabel felt it was very weak to be so dependent on people’s opinions.
  4. When Mabel was in Miss Dalloway’s drawing-room she suffered tortures and was awoken to reality.

Question 9.
Pick out the sentences that are false and write them correctly:
Answer:
1. Mabel was not at all confident when she went into the room.
2. Rose Shaw was actually looking very fierce and tragic.
3. Charles Burt wanted to talk to Mabel.
4. Charles Burt told Mabel that she was looking charming.
False sentences:
2. Rose Shaw was actually looking very fierce and tragic.
3. Charles Burt wanted to talk to Mabel.
4. Charles Burt told Mabel that she was looking charming.
Corrected sentences:
2. Mabel imagined that Rose Shaw would look very fierce and tragic.
3. Mabel wanted to talk to Charles Burt.
4. Mabel wished that Charles Burt had told her that she was looking charming.

Question 10.
Match the sentences from Box A and Box B and rewrite the completed sentences:
Answer:
A:
1. Mrs. Holman did not notice Mabel’s dress
2. Mabel was angry because
3. Mrs. Holman leaned forward and told Mabel
4. Mabel compared the clamour and greed of human beings for sympathy
B:
(a) Mrs. Holman treated her like a house agent or messenger boy.
(b) how her eldest boy had strained his heart running.
(c) to a row of cormorants, barking and flapping their wings.
(d) because she was worried about her family.
Answer:

  1. Mrs. Holman did not notice Mabel’s dress because she was worried about her family.
  2. Mabel was angry because Mrs. Holman treated her like a house agent or messenger boy.
  3. Mrs. Holman leaned forward and told Mabel how her eldest boy had strained his heart running.
  4. Mabel compared the clamour and greed of human beings for sympathy to a row of cormorants, barking and flapping their wings.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Answer in very brief:

Question 1.
What did Mabel do to look busy?
Answer:
punched the cushions

Question 2.
Who were chatting near the fireplace?
Answer:
Charles Burt and Rose Shaw

Question 3.
What was Rose Shaw wearing?
Answer:
a lovely, clinging green dress with a ruffle of swansdown

Question 4.
What type of job did Hubert have?
Answer:
a safe, permanent underling’s job in the Law Courts

Question 5.
Who was Mabel’s hero?
Answer:
Sir Henry Lawrence

Question 6.
Where did Mabel dream of living?
Answer:
in India

Question 7.
Choose the correct alternative and fill in the blanks:

  1. The children ……………. as they paddled. (shouted/cried)
  2. The Goddess was …………….. but ……………. (ugly/kind/beautiful/cruel)
  3. Mabel was years old. (fifty/forty)
  4. All Mabel’s brothers and sisters were …………….. people, (strong/weak)
  5. Mabel went to the seaside at ……………. .(Christmas/Easter)
  6. Now that Mabel was older, the stories about the fly and the saucer would come more ……………… (seldom/often)

Answer:

  1. The children shouted as they paddled.
  2. The Goddess was beautiful but cruel.
  3. Mabel was forty years old.
  4. All Mabel’s brothers and sisters were weak people.
  5. Mabel went to the seaside at Easter.
  6. Now that Mabel was older, the stories about the fly and the saucer would come more seldom.

Question 8.
Who said to whom:
OR
Complete the following table:
Answer:

The Words Who said To whom
“I have enjoyed myself.” Mabel Mr. Dalloway
“Lies, lies, lies!” Mabel To herself
“But it’s too early to go.” Mrs. Dalloway Mabel
“Right in the Saucer!” Mabel To herself

Complex Factual:

Question 1.
Pick out the sentences from the extract which describe the ambience of the party at Mrs. Dalloway’s place.
Answer:
Mrs. Barnet, while handing her the mirror and touching the brushes and thus drawing her attention, perhaps rather markedly, to all the appliances for tidying and improving hair, complexion, clothes, which existed on the dressing table.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 2.
Who was Mrs. Barnet? Describe her behaviour.
Answer:
Mrs. Barnet was probably the maid or housekeeper. She held the mirror, touched the brushes, and drew Mabel’s attention, rather markedly, to the appliances kept on the dressing table for improving one’s looks. She indirectly indicated to Mabel that something about Mabel’s looks was not quite right.

Question 3.
Mabel is thinking too much about her dress. Pick out a sentence supporting the above statement.
Answer:
She could not face the whole horror – the pale yellow, idiotically old-fashioned silk dress with its long skirt and its high sleeves and its waist and all the things that looked so charming in the fashion book, but not on her, not among all these ordinary people.

Question 4.
Pick out the sentences from the extract which describe the ambience of the party at Mrs. Dalloway’s place.
Answer:
Rose herself being dressed in the height of the fashion, precisely like everybody else, always.

Question 5.
Describe the dress Mabel was wearing, What had been Mabel’s thoughts about it earlier?
Answer:
The dress was a pale yellow, old-fashioned silk dress, with a long skirt and high sleeves and waist. It had looked so charming in the fashion book, but not on her. Mabel had thought earlier that the dress would I make her look modest, old-fashioned and charming.

Question 6.
Pick out the sentences from the extract which describe the ambience of the party at Mrs. Dalloway’s place.
Answer:
She was a fly, but the others were dragonflies, butterflies, beautiful insects, dancing, fluttering, skimming.

Question 7.
What did Mabel say to Robert Haydon, and why did she say it? Describe their interactions.
Answer:
Mabel said that she felt like some dowdy, decrepit, horribly dingy old fly. She said it to reassure herself and appear detached and witty, and to show that she did not feel in the least out of anything. Robert Haydon heard this and replied with some polite and insincere words.

Question 8.
Mabel is thinking too much about her dress. Pick out some sentences supporting the above statement.
Answer:
She looked at herself with the dress on, finished, an extraordinary bliss shot through her heart. Suffused with light, she sprang into existence.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 9.
Describe Miss Milan.
Answer:
Miss Milan was poor and hard-working. Her face was red and her eyes bulged. Her pleasures in life were few and cheap; one of them was allowing her pet canary to pick a hemp-seed from between her lips. She was patient and had to endure a lot of difficulties.

Question 10.
Mabel is thinking too much about her dress. Pick out a sentence supporting the above statement.
Answer:
She issued out into the room, as if spears were thrown at her yellow dress from all sides.

Question 11.
Pick out the sentence/s from the extract which describe the ambience of the party at Mrs. Dalloway’s place.
Answer:
……….. and not be whipped all around in a second by coming into a room full of people.

Question 12.
Describe Mabel’s behaviour as she entered the room.
Answer:
Mabel went out into the room, as if spears were thrown at her yellow dress from all sides. But instead of looking fierce or tragic, she looked foolish and self-conscious. She smiled in a silly way, like a schoolgirl, and slouched across the room, moving quietly, as if she were a beaten dog. She then stood by herself and looked at a picture-from shame, from humiliation.

Question 13.
What had been Mabel’s dreams before marriage? Did they come true?
Answer:
Mabel had dreamt of living in India, married to some hero like Sir Henry Lawrence, or some empire builder. However, she had failed utterly, and had married Hubert, who had an ordinary job in the Law Courts. They lived in a small house without proper maids.

Question 14.
Discuss Mabel’s opinion of herself as a wife and mother.
Answer:
Mabel felt that she had always been a fretful, weak, unsatisfactory mother, and an unsteady and uncertain wife. She felt that she was hanging about lazily in a kind of twilight existence with nothing very clear or very bold, or standing out.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 15.
Describe the actions of the fly in Mabel’s imagination. Would the fly behave in the same way (as it did in her imagination), now that she was forty?
Answer:The fly in her imagination suddenly struggled out sometimes. But now that she was forty, she felt that the fly, and she, Mabel, would gradually cease to struggle any more.

Question 16.
Pick out the sentences from the extract which describe the ambience of the party at Mrs. Dalloway’s place.
Answer:

  1. “But it’s too early to go,” said Mrs. Dalloway, who was always so charming.
  2. “I have enjoyed myself,” she said to Mr. Dalloway, whom she met on the stairs.
  3. She thanked Mrs. Barnet for helping her.

Question 2.
Describe Mabel’s plans and expectations for the next day.
Answer:
Mabel planned that she would go to the London Library the next day. She would find some wonderful, helpful, astonishing book, by a clergyman or by an American no one had ever heard of or she would walk down the Strand and drop into a hall where a miner was telling about the life in the pit, and suddenly she would become a new person. She would be transformed. She would wear a uniform; somebody would call her Sister : she would never give a thought to clothes again. And after that she would be perfectly clear about Charles Burt and Miss Milan forever.

Inference/Interpretation/Analysis:

Question 1.
There is another character mentioned in this extract. Discuss the way his/ her reactions help us to understand the inferiority complex of Mabel.
Answer:
Mrs. Barnet touched the brushes and drew Mabel’s attention, rather markedly, to the appliances kept on the dressing table for improving one’s looks. She indirectly indicated to Mabel that something about Mabel’s looks was not quite right. Mabel immediately lost whatever confidence she had. This shows us that Mabel’s inferiority complex was so deep and strong that even a housekeeper’s hint rattled her and made her lose confidence.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 2.
Complete the following:
‘RIGHT’ signifies ………………. .
Answer:
‘RIGHT’ signifies the suitability of the dress for the occasion.

Question 3.
Complete the following:
She was afraid of looking in the mirror/glass because
Answer:
She was afraid of looking in the mirror/glass because she felt that she looked horrible in the pale yellow, old-fashioned silk dress, with a long skirt and high sleeves and waist.

Question 4.
There is another character mentioned in this extract. Discuss the way his/her reactions help us to understand the inferiority complex of Mabel.
Answer:
Rose Shaw looked at Mabel up and down, twisting her lips in a sarcastic manner, Mabel had expected her to do this. Mabel also felt that Rose and all the others present were dressed, as always, in the height of fashion. This shows us how sensitive Mabel was to the behaviour of others and how she thought j that they were always right in fashion, while she was not. This indicates Mabel’s lack of self-esteem and self-worth.

Question 5.
What was Mabel’s imagination about flies?
Answer:
Mabel felt that we are all like flies trying to crawl over the edge of the saucer, some crawling slowly with their wings stuck together. In order to make the other people at the party look insignificant and unimportant, she tried hard to visualize them as poor, struggling flies, trying to pull themselves out of something or into something.

However, her inferiority complex was so strong that she ultimately saw only herself as a fly trying to drag itself out of the saucer. She saw the others as dragonflies, butterflies, beautiful insects, dancing, fluttering and skimming lightly.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 6.
Complete the following:
Answer:
Mabel’s eyes were filled with tears because she felt sorry for poor Miss Milan, who had such few pleasures in life. Those too were cheap ones, like allowing her pet canary to pick a hemp-seed from between her lips. Miss Milan was helping Mabel to become fashionable, and hence Mabel felt very fond of her and full of pity for her condition.

Question 7.
Discuss different pessimistic thoughts in Mabel’s mind.
Answer:
Mabel felt that all the thrill she had felt in her dress had vanished when she entered Mrs. Dalloway’s drawing room, and her eyes were opened to the reality of the dress. She felt depressed and weak that at her age, and with two children, she cared so much about the opinions of other people and did not have any principles or convictions of her own. She was upset that she could not take things lightly, as others did. She found plenty of faults in herself.

Question 8.
There is another character mentioned in this extract. Discuss the way his/ her reactions help us to understand the inferiority complex of Mabel.
Answer:
Mabel told Charles Burt that ‘it’ was old- fashioned, hoping that he would think it was the picture she was talking about, and not her dress. She longed for Charles’ approval, and hoped he would say that she looked charming. But Charles Burt laughed at her, and this upset her tremendously.

She wished she had the confidence to be sure that Miss Milan was right about her dress and Charles was wrong, but unfortunately that was not so, and Charles’ laughter and his malice made her feel even more humiliated and inferior than before. This shows us that Mabel depended heavily on the approval of others and had no self-esteem.

Question 9.
There is another character mentioned in this extract. Discuss the way his/her reactions help us to understand the inferiority complex of Mabel.
Answer:
When Mrs. Holman asked her questions about Elmthorpe and other things, Mabel was furious to be treated like a house agent or a messenger boy, to be made use of. It shows that she is insecure about herself, and feels that people are always humiliating her. Even a person like Mrs. Holman, who is having a difficult time with her family, can make Mabel feel insecure and inferior.

Question 10.
There are a few other characters mentioned in this extract. Discuss the way their reactions help us to understand the inferiority complex of Mabel.
Answer:
Mabel thought that Charles Burt and Rose Shaw were chatting together by the fireplace and laughing at her. She could not hear them, but this was her imagination and inferiority complex which made her think so. Mabel even felt that poor Mrs. Holman was laughing at her dress, and that she would tell everyone about it. Mrs. Holman had so many of her own problems that she probably never even thought of it, but Mabel’s lack of confidence made her feel so.

Question 11.
Describe Mabel’s ‘delicious/divine’ and ‘flat’ moments. Was there a reason for them?
Answer:
The delicious moments of Mabel’s life were reading contentedly in bed, or being down by the sea in the sun and sand at Easter, listening to the melody of the waves and the happy shouts of the children paddling in the water. Also, sometimes she had these moments with Hubert, when he was carving the mutton for Sunday lunch, opening a letter, or coming into the room. On the other hand, sometimes, when everything was arranged – music, weather, holidays – and there was every reason for happiness, it turned suddenly flat.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 12.
Complete the following:
The last sentence suggests that
Answer:
The last sentence suggests that however hard Mabel tries to be stylish or fashionable, she is ultimately a middle-class, ordinary woman. She did not have enough money to buy a new cloak. She could not have competed with the rich, stylish people at the party. However, she did not want to accept this fact gracefully, but always felt inferior.

Question 13.
“I have enjoyed myself,” said Mabel. Was this the truth? Give reasons for your answer.
Answer:
This was not the truth. Though Mabel tells Mr. and Mrs. Dalloway that she has enjoyed herself, she says “Lies, lies, lies!” to herself while going down the stairs. She also mentions that she, like the fly, is right back in the saucer, implying that she would again have to struggle unhappily to climb out of it.

Personal Response:

Question 1.
List the criteria you use to choose a dress/outfit.
Answer:
When I buy a dress, the first thing I look at is the price. If it is beyond my budget, I don’t even think of buying it, however much I like it. I then look at the colour and cut. I do not go in for branded stuff as I feel they are unnecessarily expensive. I am careful while buying clothes as I have limited pocket money. I try to buy things which I can mix and match.

Question 2.
Describe the kind of clothes you wear to college. Do you feel that your clothes do not match to those worn by your friends?
Answer:
I normally wear jeans and T-shirts to college. Everyone else wears the same. All my friends belong to middle-class families, and none of us go in for very fashionable or expensive clothes. I only try to choose colours that I know will look good on me. So, I am quite comfortable with my clothes and know that I look what I am – a young college student!

Question 3.
Do you look for approval from others when you do something/wear something?
Answer:
Yes, to a certain extent I do. After all, we are not solitary human beings, we live in society. When I wear a dress that I think is good, I like others to approve of it too. But I do not get upset if they don’t, because I know that everybody’s tastes are different. In the same way, if I do something outstanding and no one notices it, I do get a bit upset but then I console myself that I am happy, and that is what matters.

Question 4.
Name some simple things that make you feel really happy. Explain why it is so.
Answer:
I feel really happy at the beginning of spring. Just outside my bedroom window there are a few trees which lose their leaves in winter, but get fresh, tender green leaves in March. I watch the increase of leaves daily, and feel very happy. It sort of makes me feel that there is hope and life everywhere, even after a dreary winter.

Question 5.
Does your attention often wander when people are talking to you? Give examples.
Answer:
No, in general it does not. I try to pay full attention when someone is talking to me. But if the person is very slow, or is talking on a very boring topic or boasting, then my attention does wander. For example, the other day my neighbour Aditya was telling me in great detail about some great thing that he did. Aditya is a big liar, and exaggerates everything, so my attention wandered and he got upset with me!

Question 6.
Do you feel nervous/confident when you are at a party? Give examples.
Answer:
If I am attending a party where I do not know the people very well, then I feel nervous. For example, I was invited to a party at my school teacher’s house, in the next building. I did not know anyone there except my teacher, and I felt quite nervous. But when I attend a friend’s party, or a family gathering then I do not feel nervous at all. In fact, I look forward to such parties.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 7.
Describe your relationship with your siblings/cousins.
Answer:
I have an elder sister, who is two years older than me. I get along very well with her, because she is kind and very loving. She helps me a lot in my studies, and in choosing my clothes. She has many friends, and I know all of them and get along well with them. We enjoy watching movies at home and listening to music.

Question 8.
Describe one fulfilled/unfulfilled dream of yours.
Answer:
I am an avid reader. I have read many books written by English authors, in which they have described places in England and Scotland, and the beautiful green scenery. It had been my dream to see all this at least once, but it had seemed impossible, as it would have been very expensive. Then one fine day, a cousin got married in Scotland, and she wanted all of us to be present. My parents decided to go and take me along. We toured UK for fifteen days after the wedding, and my dream was fulfilled.

Language Study:

Question 1.
Mabel had her first serious suspicion that something was wrong as she took her cloak off.
(Frame a wh-question to get the underlined part as the answer.)
Answer:
When did Mabel have her first serious suspicion that something was wrong?

Question 2.
What a fright she looks! What a hideous new dress! (Rewrite as assertive sentences.)
Answer:
She looks a real fright. The new dress is very hideous.

Question 3.
Rewrite as an assertive sentence:
“How dull!”
Answer:
It was very dull.

Question 4.
She dared not look in the glass. She could not face the whole horror.
(Rewrite as affirmative sentences.)
Answer:
She was afraid to look in the glass. She was unable to face the whole horror.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 5.
If she could say that over often enough, she would become numb, chill, frozen, dumb.
(Pick out the clauses and state their type.)
Answer:
she would become numb, chill, frozen, dumb – main clause
If she could say that over often enough – adverb clause of condition

Question 6.
“Lies! Lies! Lies!” (Rewrite as an assertive sentence.)
Answer:
It was all lies.

Question 7.
Now she could see flies crawling slowly out of a saucer of milk. (Rewrite using ‘able’.)
Answer:
Now she was able to see flies crawling slowly out of a saucer of milk.

Question 8.
It smelt of clothes and cabbage cooking; and yet, when Miss Milan put the glass in her hand, an extraordinary bliss shot through her heart. (Rewrite using ‘though’.)
Answer:
Though it smelt of clothes and cabbage cooking, when Miss Milan put the glass in her hand, an extraordinary bliss shot through her heart.

Question 9.
She felt much, much fonder of Miss Milan than of any one in the whole world.
(Rewrite using ‘asfond … as’.)
Answer:
She did not feel as fond of anyone in the whole world as she felt of Miss Milan.

Question 10.
Suffused with light, she sprang into existence. (Rewrite as a compound sentence.)
Answer:
She was suffused with light and sprang into existence.

Rewrite in indirect speech:

Question 1.
If he had only said, “Mabel, you’re looking charming tonight!” it would have changed her life.
Answer:
If he had only told Mabel that she was looking charming that night, it would have changed her life.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 2.
“Mabel’s got a new dress!” he said.
Answer:
He said that Mabel had got a new dress.

Question 3.
“Why,” she asked herself, “can’t I feel one thing always, feel quite sure that Miss Milan is right, and Charles wrong and stick to it?”
Answer:
She asked herself why she couldn’t feel one thing always, feel quite sure that Miss Milan was right, and Charles wrong and stick to it?

Question 4.
Then Mrs. Holman, seeing her standing there, bore down upon her. (Rewrite as a complex sentence.)
Answer:
Then Mrs. Holman, who saw her standing there, bore down upon her.

Question 5.
Mrs. Holman looked at it suspiciously.
(Frame a wh-question to get the underlined word as the answer.)
Answer:
How did Mrs. Holman look at it?

Question 6.
Though Mrs. Holman was leaning forward and telling her how her eldest boy had strained his heart running, she could see her, too, quite detached in the looking glass. (Rewrite using ‘yet’.)
Answer:
Mrs. Holman was leaning forward and telling her how her eldest boy had strained his heart running; yet, she could see her, too, quite detached in the looking glass.

Question 7.
She knew that she was condemned.
(Identify the clauses.)
Answer:
She knew – main clause
that she was condemned – subordinate noun clause

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 8.
She would not join Charles Burt and Rose Shaw, chattering like magpies and perhaps laughing at her by the fireplace.
(Rewrite using ‘who’.)
Answer:
She would not join Charles Burt and Rose Shaw, who were chattering like magpies and perhaps laughing at her by the fireplace.

Question 9.
She had married Hubert, with his safe, permanent underling’s job in the Law Courts, and they managed tolerably in a smallish house, without proper maids.
(Pick out the verbs and state their tense.)
Answer:
had married – past perfect tense; managed – simple past tense.

Question 10.
By degrees she would cease to struggle any more. (Rewrite using an adverb of the same meaning in place of the underlined expression.)
Answer:
Gradually, she would cease to struggle any more.

Question 11.
It didn’t matter so long as one never said them. (Rewrite using ‘unless’)
Answer:
It didn’t matter unless one said them.

Question 12.
With Hubert sometimes she had divine moments.
(Rewrite beginning ‘Divine moments…’.)
Answer:
Divine moments were had with Hubert sometimes.

Question 13.
‘I have enjoyed myself,” she said to Mr. Dalloway, whom she met on the stairs. (Rewrite using indirect speech.)
Answer:
She told Mr. Dalloway, whom she met on the stairs, that she had enjoyed herself.

Question 14.
She thanked Mrs. Barnet for helping her.
(Rewrite using ‘because’.)
Answer:
She thanked Mrs. Barnet because she had helped her.

Question 15.
She would never give a thought to clothes again. (Add a question tag.)
Answer:
She would never give a thought to clothes again, would she?

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Vocabulary:

Question 1.
Pick out two words from the extract formed by using prefixes.
Answer:
inadequacy, dissatisfaction

Question 2.
Write the noun forms of:

  1. improve
  2. suspect
  3. attend
  4. depress

Answer:

  1. improve – improvement
  2. suspect – suspicion
  3. attend – attendance
  4. depress – depression

Question 3.
Write the adjective forms of the following words :

  1. fashion
  2. style
  3. horror
  4. thought

Answer:

  1. fashion – fashionable
  2. style – stylish
  3. horror – horrible
  4. thought – thoughtless/thoughtful

Question 4.
Write the meanings of:
1. satirical
2. chastised
Answer:
1. satirical – sarcastic
2. chastised – punished

Question 5.
Pick out four infinitives from the extract.
Answer:
to make, to hear, to reassure, to crawl.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 6.
Pick out four words ending in ‘ing’ from the extract.
Answer:
trying, crossing, crawling, listening

Question 7.
Write the antonyms of the following words using prefixes:

  1. endurable
  2. polite
  3. sincere
  4. real

Answer:

  1. endurable × unendurable
  2. polite × impolite
  3. sincere × insincere
  4. real × unreal

Question 8.
Pick out four abstract nouns from the extract.
Answer:
bliss, existence, patience, endurance.

Question 9.
Pick out four adjectives from the extract:
Answer:
stuffy, sordid, charming, miserable.

Question 10.
Write the verb forms of:

  1. opinion
  2. endurance
  3. bulging
  4. hot

Answer:

  1. opinion – opine
  2. endurance – endure
  3. bulging – bulge
  4. hot-heat

Question 11.
Guess the meanings:
1. suffused
2. wrinkles
Answer:
1. suffused – filled with.
2. wrinkles – folds or creases in the skin.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 12.
Match the words in Column A with their meanings in Column B:

A B
1. simpered (a) moving quietly and stealthily
2. slouched (b) pushed
3. slinking (c) smiled in an affectedly coy or silly manner
4. shoved (d) moved in a lazy, drooping way
5. ruffled (e) superficial appearance
6. veneer (f) loss of calmness.

Answer:

  1. simpered – smiled in an affectedly coy or silly manner
  2. slouched – moved in a lazy, drooping way
  3. slinking – moving quietly and stealthily
  4. shoved – pushed
  5. ruffled – loss of calmness.
  6. veneer – superficial appearance

Question 13.
Guess the meanings:
1. scarlet fever
2. self-loathing
Answer:
1. scarlet fever – a bacterial illness; symptoms are a bright red rash that covers most of the body, a sore throat and a high fever.
2. self-loathing – self-hatred.

Question 14.
Write the verb forms of the following :

  1. humiliation
  2. agony
  3. suspicious
  4. grudgingly

Answer:

  1. humiliation – humiliate
  2. agony – agonise
  3. suspicious – suspect
  4. grudgingly – grudge

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 15.
Match the adjectives in Column A with the nouns in Column B, based on the extract:

A B
1. domestic (a) twig
2. unsympathetic (b) house
3. feeble (c) tragedy
4. smallish (d) creature

Answer:

  1. domestic – tragedy
  2. unsympathetic – twig
  3. feeble – creature
  4. smallish – house

Question 16.
Pick out two compound words from the extract:
Answer:
backwater, seaside

Question 17.
Find the meaning:
1. crest of a wave
2. by degrees
Answer:
1. crest of a wave – the top of a wave
2. by degrees – gradually

Question 18.
Write two adjectives from the extract for each of the following, and write down which are the present participles from these:

  1. moments
  2. sky
  3. life
  4. wife

Answer:

  1. moments → divine, delicious
  2. sky → blue, smooth
  3. life → creeping, crawling
  4. wife → fretful, weak

Present participles: creeping, crawling.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Non-Textual Grammar:

Do as directed:

Question 1.
Speechless, she smiled happily and gathered her daughter into her arms.
(Rewrite using the infinitive form of ‘speak’.)
Answer:
Unable to speak, she smiled happily and gathered her daughter into her arms.

Question 2.
He wiped the water off and gently wrapped it in pink paper. (Rewrite as a simple sentence.)
Answer:
Wiping the water off, he gently wrapped it in pink paper.

Question 3.
Dhruv had never received such a gift.
(Rewrite as an affirmative sentence.)
Answer:
It was the first time that Dhruv had received such a gift.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Spot the error in the following sentences and rewrite them correctly:

Question 1.
Not only did his speech improve and his expression also became clearer.
Answer:
Not only did his speech improve but his expression also became clearer.

Question 2.
Must you pass me the salt, please?
Answer:
Can you pass me the salt, please?

Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.3 The Cop and the Anthem

Balbharti Yuvakbharati English 12th Digest Chapter 1.3 The Cop and the Anthem Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.3 The Cop and the Anthem

12th English Digest Chapter 1.3 The Cop and the Anthem Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Suppose you have gone to a place where the winter season is very severe. Discuss with your partner the ways in which you would protect yourself in the cold climate. (The answer is given and underlined.)
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.3 The Cop and the Anthem 1
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.3 The Cop and the Anthem 2

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 2.
When you see a cop approaching, you feel either ‘relieved’ or ‘scared’. Discuss with your partner and write down the situations when you feel ‘relieved’ or ‘scared’.
Answer:
Relieved:
(a) You are walking alone in a dark street.
(b) There is a fight taking place near you.
(c) A group of rough-looking people are coming towards you on a lonely road.
Scared:
(a) You are riding a bike without a valid driving licence.
(b) You have broken a traffic signal.
(c) You have been involved in a fight.

Question 3.
Discuss some of the motivating things that can change a person’s life :
Answer:
(a) Listening to an inspiring speech
(b) Reading motivating books and biographies of great people
(c) Reading epics and religious books
(d) Observing successful/happy people or watching biopics of their lives.

(A1)

Question (i)
Discuss with your partner and find out the different ways in which Soapy tried ; to get arrested. The first one is given.
Answer:
(a) Tried to enter a luxurious cafe.
(b) Threw a stone and broke a shop window.
(c) Ate heartily at a restaurant and then said he had no money.
(d) Shouted and howled and raved and danced on the sidewalk.
(e) Stole an umbrella.

Question (ii)
Describe the atmosphere when Soapy reached near the Church.
Answer:
(a) A soft light glowed through the violet-stained window.
(b) Sweet music drifted out of the quaint, old church.
(c) There was a full, radiant moon, and few vehicles and pedestrians.
(d) Sparrows twittered sleepily in the eaves.

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(A2)

Question (i)
Read the story and match the incidents given in Column A with the consequences given in Column B.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.3 The Cop and the Anthem 3
Answer:

  1. Soapy tried to enter a cafe – Strong and ready hands of the head waiter turned him around.
  2. Soapy broke a glass window – The cop ran after another man.
  3. Two waiters pitched Soapy on the callous pavement – He stood up slowly beating the i dust from his clothes.
  4. Soapy heard the anthem being played in the Church – Suddenly a wonderful change came in his heart.
  5. Cop arrests Soapy for hanging around. – Dream of turning around in life was shattered.

Question (ii)
Give reasons and complete the following: (The answers are given directly and underlined.)
Answer:
(a) Soapy had confidence in himself because he was shaven, his coat was trim and he had a neat, black bow. The portion of him that showed above the table looked respectable and would raise no doubt in the waiter’s mind.
(b) The head waiter of the luxurious cafe did not allow Soapy to enter because he saw Soapy’s tattered trousers and old, worn out shoes, and knew that Soapy would not have money to pay for a meal.
(c) The cop did not arrest Soapy for breaking the glass window because Soapy was standing calmly and talking to him. The policeman felt that men who smash glass windows do not remain to chat with the police.
(d) The cop did not arrest Soapy for shouting and dancing because it was the time of celebrations for the local college boys. They were generally noisy but harmless, and he had been told by his superiors to let them be.

(iii) Pick out the lines from the text which show that:

Question (a)
Soapy wants to enter the cafe for two reasons.
Answer:
1. A roasted mallard duck, thought Soapy, would be about the thing with a bottle of wine and then some cheese, a cup of coffee and a cigar.
2. The meat would leave him filled and happy for the journey to his winter island.

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Question (b)
Soapy was afraid that he won’t be able to enter the prison.
Answer:
It seemed that his route to the coveted island was not to be an easy one. Some other way of entering the limbo must be devised.

Question (c)
Soapy was not caught by the cop for throwing stones at the glass.
Answer:
1. The policeman refused to accept Soapy even as a clue.
2. The policeman saw a man half-way down the block running to catch a car. With drawn club he joined in the pursuit.

Question (d)
Soapy actually did not want the umbrella.
Answer:
He hurled the umbrella angrily into the excavation.

Question (e)
Listening to the anthem, Soapy remembered his good old days.
Answer:
He had known it well in the days when his life contained such things as mothers and roses and ambitions and friends and immaculate thoughts and collars.

Question (iv)
‘He would make a man of himself again’ – The word ‘man’ in the sentence means ……………….. .
Answer:
‘He would make a man of himself again’ – The word ‘man’ in the sentence means a responsible and worthy human being.

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Question (v)
Soapy’s earlier life was much different from his present life. Complete the table to show this contrast. One is done for you.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.3 The Cop and the Anthem 4
Answer:

Earlier life Present life
(a) contained friends and roses (a) unworthy desires
(b) eager ambitions (b) dead hopes, degraded days
(c) clean thoughts and clothes (c) wrecked faculties and base motives

Question (vi)
After listening to the sweet and solemn organ notes, Soapy decides to:
Answer:
1. pull himself out of the mire, conquer the evil that had enslaved him and make a man of himself again
2. resurrect his old eager ambitions and pursue them without faltering
3. go into the roaring downtown district and find work

Question (vii)
Write an incident in which you did something wrong and repented for it later. Give reasons.
Answer:
A lady who stayed in my building used to shout at me for playing noisily under her window. One day, she shouted at me as usual from her window and went inside. I suddenly got angry and threw a stone at her window. The stone hit the glass which broke. I heard a loud shout of pain and ran away. I later came to know that she had been badly injured by the shattered glass. I repented for what I had done. Though I did not tell her that I was the culprit, I was very good to her after that.

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(A3)

Question (i)
O’Henry has used different words to indicate prison where Soapy wants to reach. Make a list of those words from the extract.
Answer:
the island

Question (ii)
Find out the words used for the ‘degraded state of Soapy’.
Answer:

  1. the pit into which he had tumbled
  2. the degraded days
  3. unworthy desires
  4. dead hopes
  5. wrecked faculties
  6. base motives
  7. mire
  8. evil that had enslaved him.

Question (iii)
The specific meaning of word ‘anthem’ in the content of the story is:
Answer:
Anthem – a rousing or uplifting song.

(A4)

Question (i)
Convert the following sentences into the negative without changing their meanings:
(a) The policeman refused to accept Soapy even as a clue.
(b) Soapy drifted along, twice unsuccessful.
(c) Soapy stopped his unavailing racket.
(d) The island seemed very far away.
(e) The island seemed an unattainable Arcadia.
Answer:
(a) The policeman did not accept Soapy even as a clue.
(b) Soapy drifted along, twice not successful.
(c) Soapy stopped his racket which was not successful.
(d) The island seemed not at all near.
(e) The island seemed an Arcadia which was not attainable.

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Question (ii)
Convert the following sentences into the affirmative without changing their meanings :
(a) Men who smash windows do not remain to chat with the police.
(b) On the opposite side of the street was a restaurant of no great pretensions.
(c) Why don’t you call a cop?
(d) Noisy; but no harm.
(e) They seemed to regard him as a King who could do no wrong.
Answer:
(a) Men who smash windows refrain from remaining to chat with the police.
(b) On the opposite side of the street was a very ordinary restaurant.
(c) Please call a cop.
(d) Noisy; but harmless.
(e) They seemed to regard him as a King who was always right.

(A5)

Question (i)
‘Forgiveness is often better than punishment’. Write two paragraphs – one for and another against this notion.
Answer:
1. To err is human, to forgive is divine.

We all make mistakes. Nobody is perfect. That is why we are human. However, mistakes should be forgiven if there is sufficient repentance. Forgiveness will make the guilty person feel ashamed of his conduct and he will not repeat it. It is easy to punish but very difficult to forgive someone. It needs a big heart and a lot of kindness. If we punish the guilty person we will only make him more defiant. If punishing someone could have solved the problem, criminals who have been jailed would never have repeated the crime. But this is not found to be so. Just as God forgives us our mistakes, we should forgive others their mistakes too.

2. Punishment is the only answer

Forgiveness may work in certain cases, but there are hardened criminals who will not respond to forgiveness. They will only be stopped by punishment. If a person has murdered another in cold blood, will he improve by forgiveness? Never. He has to be punished severely so that he does not repeat it and society feels safe.

People only fear punishment. It can be easily seen at traffic signals – if there is no policeman to punish you, most people will break the signal. Then there will be chaos. If there is no punishment and no prisons, people will do whatever they want – rob, kill, etc. – and go off freely. No, in a society where it is not possible to expect everyone to have high values, punishment for misdeeds is the only solution.

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Question (ii)
You are the class representative and you have been asked by the Principal to conduct an interview of a cop. Frame 8-10 questions with the help of the following points, give introduction and conclusion.

  • reasons for joining the department
  • special trainings
  • developing the skill to identify and locate criminals
  • dealing with criminals
  • achievements and awards

Answer:
Good morning, Mr. Pawar. Congratulations on your excellent work in finding the bank robbers. May I ask you a few questions about your life? Thank you.

  1. When did you join the police department?
  2. Which examinations did you have to clear for the post?
  3. What were your reasons for joining the department?
  4. Did you have to go through any special training sessions?
  5. What type of criminals do you come across most in this area-thieves, killers, molesters,
    etc?
  6. How do you identify or locate criminals?
  7. Once you catch the culprit-say a thief-how do you deal with him?
  8. Can you tell me something about your achievements and awards?
  9. How can you motivate others to join the force?
  10. Any message to college students?

Thank you, Sir, for sparing the time for this interview. It will be published in our school magazine. Good day.

(A6)

Question (i)
Make a list of jobs which would give you an opportunity to help the society or serve the country. Also mention the different ways in which they can be beneficial to the people and also the country,

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Question (ii)
Go to your school/college library and read some other stories by O’Henry like, ‘The Gift of the Magi’, ‘The Last Leaf and ‘After Twenty years’. Write the stories in short in your notebook.

Yuvakbharati English 12th Digest Chapter 1.3 The Cop and the Anthem Additional Important Questions and Answers

Read the extract and complete the activities given below:

Global Understanding:

Question 1.
Name the following:
Answer:

  1. This is where Soapy stopped at a luxurious cafe
  2. This had been a gift to Soapy: a neat, black bow
  3. This is what Soapy wanted to eat: a roasted mallard duck, some cheese a bottle of wine, a cup of coffee
  4. This is what Soapy wanted to drink: Soapy’s tattered
  5. This is what the head waiter noticed:trousers and old shoes
  6. This is where Soapy was left by the head: on the sidewalk

Question 1.
Write if the following sentences are True or False. Correct the False sentences:
1. Soapy broke the glass of the shop window.
2. Nobody heard the breaking of the window.
3. The policeman chased Soapy.
4. Soapy did not run away from the place.
5. The restaurant Soapy entered was an ordinary one.
6. The policeman ate beefsteak, flapjacks, doughnuts and pie.
Answer:
True sentences:
1. Soapy broke the glass of the shop window.
4. Soapy did not run away from the place.
5. The restaurant Soapy entered was an ordinary one.

False sentences:
2. Nobody heard the breaking of the window.
3. The policeman chased Soapy.
6. The policeman ate beefsteak, flapjacks, doughnuts and pie.

Corrected sentences:
1. A policeman as well as some people heard the breaking of the window.
2. The policeman chased a man running to catch a car.
3. Soapy ate beefsteak, flapjacks, doughnuts and pie.

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Question 2.
Complete the table:
(The answers is given directly and underlined.)
Answer:

The Words mo said To whom
1. Noisy, but no harm A policeman A citizen
2. I took it. Soapy The umbrella man
3. You know how these mistakes occur. The umbrella man Soapy
4. Of course it’s mine! Soapy The umbrella man
5. We’ve instructions to let them be. A policeman A citizen
6. I hope you’ll excuse me. The umbrella man Soapy

Question 3.
Rearrange the following sentences according to their occurrence in the extract:

  1. Soapy decided to go into the downtown district and find work.
  2. A policeman caught Soapy’s arm.
  3. Soapy saw a quaint old church.
  4. Soapy’s ears caught sweet music.

Answer:

  1. Soapy saw a quaint old church.
  2. Soapy’s ears caught sweet music.
  3. Soapy decided to go into the downtown district and find work.
  4. A policeman caught Soapy’s arm.

Question 4.
Complete the following:
(The answers are given directly and underlined.)
Answer:

  1. A soft light glowed through one violet-stained window.
  2. Soapy came to a standstill on an unusually quiet corner.
  3. Soapy stood without moving near the iron fence listening to the anthem that the organist played.
  4. Soapy planned to resurrect his old eager ambitions.

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Answer the following in a few words each:

Question 1.
Who was lighting a cigar?
Answer:
A well-dressed man

Question 2.
Who twirled his club?
Answer:
A policeman

Question 3.
Who grabbed the umbrella?
Answer:
Soapy

Question 4.
Whom did the policeman help?
Answer:
A tall blonde

Complex Factual:

Question 1.
Give reasons and complete the following:
(The answers are given directly and underlined.)
Answer:
Soapy was disgusted with the policeman because he refused to accept that Soapy had broken the window, and he rushed off to chase another man.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 2.
Complete the web:
(The answers are given directly and underlined.)
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.3 The Cop and the Anthem 5

Question 3.
Describe Soapy’s behaviour on the sidewalk.
Answer:
On the sidewalk Soapy began to yell drunken meaningless things at the top of his harsh voice. He danced, howled, spoke wildly and made a big disturbance.

Question 4.
Describe the wonderful change in Soapy’s soul.
Answer:
After listening to the anthem, Soapy remembers his earlier life, and is horrified to realize that he has indeed become a degraded person. He decides to pull himself out of the pit into which he has fallen and make a man of himself again. He determines to bring back to his life his old eager ambitions and pursue them. He makes up his mind to take up a job.

Question 5.
Describe the end of the story in your own words.
Answer:
Initially Soapy had felt that he would like to pass the winter months in prison, and he makes several efforts to get himself arrested. The notes of anthem transform him from within and he decides to give up his evil ways and become a man again. He resolves to work hard. At that very moment, ironically, a policeman arrests him for loitering and he is sent to prison for three months. Soapy faces the irony of fate as the moment he realizes that real freedom lies in a virtuous life, he is taken into confinement.

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Question 6.
Complete the following:
Soapy was angry because ………..
Answer:
Soapy was angry because when he wanted to fall into the clutches of the policemen. In order to be arrested, they seemed to regard him as a king who could do nothing wrong.

Inference/Interpretation/Analysis:

Question 1.
Complete the following:
(The answers are given directly and underlined.)
Answer:
Soapy took a stone because he wanted to break the glass of the shop window. This would result in a policeman arresting him for this act, and he would be imprisoned for the winter, which was exactly what he wanted.

Discuss the hidden meaning in the expressions/sentences.

Question 1.
It catered to large appetites and modest purses.
Answer:
The restaurant prepared food for ordinary workers who had large appetites but very little money.

Question 2.
He told the waiter the fact that the minutest coin and himself were total strangers.
Answer:
He told the waiter that he did not have any money.

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Question 3.
A voice like butter cakes and an eye like the cherry in the Manhattan cocktail.
Answer:
A very smooth voice and a hard, stony eye (a tough person).

Question 4.
Discuss the meaning in the context:
He caught at the immediate straw of ‘disorderly conduct’.
Answer:
Soapy wanted to be arrested by a policeman and imprisoned. However, his efforts towards this end had been unsuccessful, and he was worried that he would continue to be unsuccessful. When he suddenly came upon a policeman lounging in front of a theatre, an idea struck him. He felt that if he shouted and screamed and made a lot of noise, he would be arrested for behaving in a dangerous and disturbing way in public, and would be imprisoned, which was what he wanted.

Question 5.
Complete the following:
(The answer is given directly and underlined.)
Answer:
Soapy was angry because even after he had stolen a man’s umbrella, the man did not report him to the police, but instead apologized and said that perhaps he (the umbrella man) had made a mistake.

Question 6.
The umbrella man did not call a policeman. Give reasons for this.
Answer:
The umbrella man had himself probably stolen the umbrella from somewhere. When Soapy picked up the umbrella, the man first thought that he could get it back. But when Soapy spoke about calling a policeman, the man thought that the umbrella was actually Soapy’s, and Soapy would hand him over to the police. Hence, he apologized quickly and walked away without calling a policeman.

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Personal Response:

Question 1.
Give your opinion about Soapy’s desire to enter prison.
Answer:
I find it very strange that a person can actually want to enter prison, whatever be the reason. At least, from what I know of prisons, they are terrible places, and one has a very difficult time there. However, Soapy has obviously been to prison before, and probably enjoys the free food and protection from the winter that he gets there.

Question 2.
Have you ever bought/eaten something and then found that you did not have enough money to pay for it? Describe your feeling at that time.
Answer:
Yes, it happened to me once. I went to a mall and bought a jacket for myself. I had been looking at a lot of jackets and I got confused with the prices. Finally, when the cashier was making the bill, I found that the jacket I had chosen was very expensive and I did not have enough money to pay for it. I was very embarrassed to tell the cashier this, but I had to. He gave me an angry look.

Question 3.
Have you ever stolen/wanted to steal anything? Narrate in brief.
Answer:
Yes, when I was about 12 years old, I stole my friend’s remote-controlled toy car, which his uncle had sent him from abroad. It was a beautiful car. However, when I was playing with it at home my mother saw me, and she made me return the car. I later felt very ashamed of myself, but fortunately my friend forgave me.

Language Study.

Question 1.
If only he could reach a table in the restaurant unsuspected, success would be his.
(Rewrite using ‘unless’.)
Answer:
Unless he could reach a table in the restaurant unsuspected, success would not be his.

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Question 2.
One dollar for the cigar would be enough.
(Add a question tag.)
Answer:
One dollar for the cigar would be enough, wouldn’t it?

Question 3.
Some other way of entering the limbo must be devised.
(Use an infinitive in place of a gerund.)
Answer:
Some other way to enter the limbo must be devised.

Question 4.
He had set his silk umbrella by the door on entering. (Rewrite using the verb form of the underlined word.)
Answer:
He had set his silk umbrella by the door when he entered.

Question 5.
At length Soapy reached one of the avenues to the east. (Rewrite using another adverb phrase with the same meaning as the underlined phrase.)
Answer:
After a long time Soapy reached one of the avenues to the east.

Question 6.
On an unusually quiet corner, Soapy came to a standstill. (Rewrite using ‘that’.)
Answer:
Soapy came to a standstill on a corner that was unusually quiet.

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Vocabulary:

Question 1.
Guess the meaning of the following in the context:
1. winter island
2. eye fell upon
Answer:
1. winter island – prison.
2. eye fell upon – saw or noticed.

Question 2.
O’Henry has used different words to indicate prison, where Soapy wants to reach. Make a list of those words from the extract.
Answer:

  1. winter island
  2. coveted island
  3. limbo

Question 3.
Make sentences using the following words/expressions :
1. eye fell upon
2. strolled
Answer:
1. My eye fell upon the clock, and I sat up with shock.
2. Seema strolled along the beach, enjoying the breeze.

Question 4.
Guess the meaning of:

  1. napery
  2. betook
  3. brass buttons

Answer:

  1. napery – table linen.
  2. betook – to cause oneself to go.
  3. brass buttons – the police.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 5.
O’Henry has used different words to indicate prison where Soapy wants to reach. Make a list of those words from the extract:
Answer:
the island

Question 6.
Fill in the blanks with the correct nouns from the extract:

  1. friendly
  2. electric
  3. large
  4. callous

Answer:

  1. friendly voice
  2. electric lights
  3. large appetites
  4. callous pavement

Question 7.
O’Henry has used different words to indicate prison where Soapy wants to reach. Make a list of those words from the extract.
Answer:
the island, Arcadia

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 8.
Pick out four verbs in the simple past tense from the extract.
Answer:
danced, howled, raved, disturbed

Question 9.
Match the words in Column A with the meanings in Column B :
Answer:

  1. disconsolate – very unhappy
  2. sauntered – walked in a relaxed manner
  3. raved – spoke wildly
  4. rendered – made

Non-Textual Grammar

Do as directed:

Question 1.
Shivani found a small box and dropped her bangles inside.
(Rewrite the sentence, beginning ‘Finding …)
Answer:
Finding a small box, Shivani dropped her bangles inside.

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Question 2.
Sunlight from the window made her black hair appear brown. (Rewrite using ‘that’.)
Answer:
Sunlight that came from the window made her black hair appear brown.

Question 3.
On the day the school closed for the summer, no student was more delighted than Rithik.
(Change the degree.)
Answer:
1. On the day the school closed for the summer, Rithik was the most delighted student. – Superlative degree
2. On the day the school closed for the summer, Rithik was more delighted than any other student. – Comparative degree

Spot the error in the following sentences and rewrite them correctly:

Question 1.
There is room for much boxes in this cupboard.
Answer:
There is room for many boxes in this cupboard.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 2.
If I requires help for him in public places, I was not embarrassed to seek it from people around.
Answer:
If I required help for him in public places, I was not embarrassed to seek it from people around.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions

1. Choose the correct option and complete the following statements.

Question 1.
…………… is a combination of bodily arousal, expressive behavior, thoughts, and feelings.
(a) Response
(b) Reaction
(c) Emotions
Answer:
(c) Emotions

Question 2.
According to James Lange we first experience ……………….. then emotions.
(a) physical arousal
(b) feelings
(c) thoughts
Answer:
(a) physical arousal

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions

Question 3.
Emotion is used as a …………….. to control others.
(a) weapon
(b) measure
(c) opportunity
Answer:
(a) weapon

Question 4.
When you allow another person to exploit you, you are a victim of ………….. abuse.
(a) physical
(b) emotional
(c) social
Answer:
(b) emotional

Question 5.
Exercising releases ………………… which makes you feel good as a stress buster.
(a) endorphins
(b) thyroxin
(c) insulin
Answer:
(a) endorphins

2. Identify the odd items from the following and write a suitable reason for your choice

Question 1.
admiration, disgust, acceptance, trust

Question 2.
kicking, ignoring, shoving, screaming

Question 3.
Reassess, React, Respond, Relax

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions

Question 4.
meditation, social work, compassion, engage in hobbies

3. Match the pair.

Question 1.

Group A Group B
(1) Happiness (a) basic emotion
(2) Paul Ekman (b) fight and flight
(3) Anger (c) surprise
(4) Fear (d) sadness
(5) Grief (e) triggers
(6) Anger management technique (f) powerful emotion

Answer:

Group A Group B
(1) Happiness (c) surprise
(2) Paul Ekman (a) basic emotion
(3) Anger (f) powerful emotion
(4) Fear (b) fight and flight
(5) Grief (d) sadness
(6) Anger management technique (e) triggers

4. State whether the following statements are true or false.

Question 1.
Emotional well-being is not easily observable.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
Positive emotions energise you.
Answer:
True

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions

Question 3.
You should feel guilty for standing up for yourself.
Answer:
false

Question 4.
Anger is a basic negative emotion.
Answer:
True

5. Answer the following questions in 35 – 40 words each.

Question 1.
Explain the term facial feedback hypothesis.
Answer:
According to the facial feedback hypothesis, our facial expressions provide feedback to our brain about our emotions. Facial expressions are not only the result of our emotions, e.g., smiling in happiness, but they are also capable of influencing emotions, e.g. laughter can actually make us feel happier. The same might hold true for other emotions as well. In the 1840’s, William James presented the idea that awareness of our bodily experiences is the basis of emotion.

Question 2.
When does an individual face social rejection?
Answer:
Social rejection occurs when an individual is deliberately excluded from a social relationship or interaction. This can be done by a person or a group. It includes rejection of the person by family/ peers/ colleagues or even in intimate relationships. Rejection may be active, i.e., by ridiculing, bullying, etc., or passive, i.e., ‘silent treatment’. Social rejection may be faced due to individual differences e.g., attractiveness, shyness or due to intergroup exclusion on the basis of prejudice, e.g., in case of Dalits or ethnic minorities.

Question 3.
With the help of an example write the non-verbal triggers of anger.
Answer:
Anger is a common emotion that everybody experiences in life from time to time. Anger is a normal response to some real or perceived threat. It is a protective emotion that help us to defend ourselves against physical or psychological harm.

Triggers of Anger refer to any event that signals the brain to activate the body’s anger system. The triggers of anger may be (i) verbal, for e.g., being blamed, disrespected or abused (ii) non¬verbal, for e.g., being ignored unappreciated or rejected, (iii) physical such as physical threats, sexual/ physical assault, etc.

Non-verbal triggers of anger are feelings of being neglected, disregarded, disappointed, unloved or frequently spurned. It is expressed through gestures such as pointing a finger, shrugging the shoulders; by facial expressions such as sneering, frowning and also by behaviours such as groaning/sighing/whining or speaking in a mocking tone.

There are three factors involved in the experience of anger : A trigger (causes of anger) → individual’s personality → particular interpretation of that situation.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions

Question 4.
What are the aspects of emotional well-being?
Answer:
Emotional well-being means managing our emotions, both positive and negative ones, so that we can lead a healthy and productive life. It is the absence of negative affect as well as general satisfaction with life. A person who experiences emotional well-being is positively engaged with the world.
The aspects of emotional well-being are at three levels viz. physical, emotional and social.

  1. Physical level, i.e., well balanced diet, exercise.
  2. Emotional level, i.e., practise mindfulness, raising levels of motivation and optimism.
  3. Social level, i.e., engaging in prosocial behaviour, meaningful relationships.

6. Compare and Contrast

Question 1.
Happiness and Sadness

Question 2.
James Lange theory and Cannon Bard’s Theory

7. Write short notes on the following in 50 – 60 words each.

Question 1.
Measures of dealing with Emotional Abuse
Answer:
Emotional abuse is any kind of abuse that is emotional rather than physical in nature. It occurs when one person subjects or exposes another person to intentionally harmful behaviour that may result in anxiety, depression and psychological trauma to the victim.
The types of emotional abuse may be-

  1. verbal abuse such as blaming, insulting, labeling, threatening, swearing, etc.
  2. non verbal abuse such as ignoring, rejection, bullying, spying, etc.

The most important technique is to break the silence and stand up for yourself.

  1. Accept that emotional abuse is not because of you, i.e., don’t justify the actions of the abuser.
  2. Respond assertively to the abuser but seek distance from him.
  3. Give yourself time to heal.
  4. Prioritize your self-care, e.g., eating right, exercise, etc.
  5. Mobilise support from family and friends. If needed, seek professional help.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions

Question 2.
Plutchiks’s Model of Emotions
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions 1
Robert Plutchik presented the wheel of emotions,

  1. there are 8 basic emotions viz. joy, trust, fear, surprise, sadness, anticipation, anger and disgust.
  2. each primary emotion has its polar opposite such as fear is opposite of anger.
  3. primary emotions combine to produce complex emotions, for e.g., love (complex) is a combination of joy and trust.
  4. intensity of emotions increases as we move toward the centre and decreases as we move outward. For e.g., apprehension (weak) → fear (basic) → terror (strongest).

This model is important from the perspective of emotional literacy, i.e., understanding emotional levels, complexity and change as well as appropriate emotional labelling

Question 3.
Anger -A powerful emotion
Answer:
Anger is a common emotion that everybody experiences in life from time to time. Anger is a normal response to some threat. It is a protective emotion that helps us to defend ourselves against physical/ psychological harm. However, anger may also be unwanted, irrational and destructive. When we experience anger, our amygdala goes into action and overrides the cerebral cortex which is in control of thinking and evaluation. Triggers of anger refer to any event that signals the brain to activate the body’s anger system. The triggers may be (i) verbal, for e.g., being blamed, disrespected or abused (ii) non-verbal, for e.g., being ignored unappreciated or rejected, (iii) physical such as physical threats, sexual/ physical assault, etc.

There are three factors involved in the experience of anger: A trigger (causes of anger) → individual’s personality → particular interpretation of that situation. As the experience of anger is subjective, it can be controlled too. If we understand the triggers of anger, we can anticipate potential anger episodes and provide an intentional/ acceptable response such as it may energize us towards solving problems. As anger is a powerful emotion, it must be kept in check to avoid it’s destructive out comes.

Question 4.
Managing Emotions
Answer:
The word emotion is derived from the latin word ‘emovere’, which means to stir up or to move. An emotion refers to an involuntary, aroused state of an organism involving physical, cognitive and behavioural components. It is described as a combination of bodily arousal, e.g., increased heartrate, thoughts and feelings, i.e. emotional tone and expressive behaviour, i.e., facial expression.

Managing of emotions is an important life skill. Managing emotions can be defined as, ‘the ability to be open to feelings and modulate them in oneself and in others, so as to promote personal understanding and growth. It is the ability to be aware and constructively handle both positive and challenging emotions.

Sometimes, our emotions hijack our thinking due to which we act impulsively. This is because the limbic system (emotional section) developed before the prefrontal cortex (thinking part) and is hence, an extremely strong part of the brain. Emotional management is an art as it is a form of expression as well as a science as it is a skill that needs to be learnt and practiced If a person ignores of suppresses his/her emotions it leads to anxiety. The best way of manage emotions is to acknowledge the emotions, find out what is the cause of that emotion in you, chose how to respond in that situation.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions

Question 5.
Benefits of Emotional Well-being
Answer:
Emotional well-being means managing our emotions, both positive and negative ones, so that we can lead a healthy and productive life.
Persons who have high emotional well-being experience benefits such as- (i) better able to deal with stress (ii) better self-regulation (iii) increased productivity in tasks undertaken (iv) increased creativity (v) life satisfaction due to meaningful activities and relationship.

  1. Coping with stress – It helps to deal with stress using healthy methods such as exercise, social support, etc.
  2. Better self-regulation – It enables the person to label how they feel and accept negative emotions life fear, anger, etc.
  3. Increases productivity in tasks undertaken – The ability to focus is enhanced, the person feels positive and energized.
  4. Increases creativity – The person indulges in divergent thinking, shows curiosity is open to new experiences.
  5. Life satisfaction – The individual is able to have meaningful interactions and relationships, show empathy, altruism and engage in activities like volunteer work.

8. Answer the following 50 – 60 words.

Question 1.
Using the 3 R model of Anger Management present a case study of your own experience.
Answer:
Anger management is an intervention programme to prevent anger from turning into a habit or obstacle. It enables the person to create an awareness of and responsibility for his/her emotions. This involves two aspects (i) managing one’s own anger (ii) learning to respond effectively to anger in others.

The 3 R’s in anger management a Relax, Reassess and Respond.
1. Relaxation – Relaxation and connection with the inner self helps to enhance thinking and concentration so that we ‘respond’ rather than ‘react’ impulsively.
2. Reassess – This helps the person to revisit the situation objectively. It involves

  • taking complete responsibility for your emotion
  • developing empathy for the person you perceive has wronged you
  • conduct a reality check e.g., is your anger justified given the facts of what happened.

The feeling’s thermometer helps to focus on the extent of anger we are experiencing and helps in the process of reassessment.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions 2

3. Respond – It entails re-engaging with the other person/situation. Responding involves

  • consulting a trustworthy person to get another perspective
  • engage in talks with the other party in a calm respectful manner with a willingness to sort out the situation.
  • active listening and assertive speaking – Allow the person to express their viewpoint. However, we should stand up for our feeling while exhibiting the same for the other person. The right approach is a practical, positive communication style.
  • cage your rage i.e. establish boundaries and moderate your anger – We must guard against escalation of our own anger which may lead us to provoke the other person. Moderation of anger and establishing clear boundaries of interaction with each other is essential.

CASE STUDY – 1 was in the passenger seat and my brother was driving the car. Suddenly, a cyclist swerved right in front after he had failed to observe the red light. This led me to get enraged at this uncalled-for action. Using the 3R technique. I tried to breathe for a few seconds to give me recovery time, i.e. Relaxation. I revisited the situation – Is my anger justified? Was it a genuine error? Is the cyclist hurt? Did the incident cause injury to us or damage to the car.? Is the anger worth my time/effort? Reassess. I allowed my elder brother to handle the situation but also assertively cautioned the teenage cyclist about the dangers of riding in a rash manner, i.e. Respond.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions

Question 2.
How does the brain work when angry?
Answer:
Anger is a common emotion that everybody experiences in life from time to time. Anger is a normal response to some threat. It is a protective emotion that help us to defend ourselves against physical/ psychological harm. However, anger may also be unwanted, irrational and destructive. When we experience anger, our amygdala goes into action and overrides the cerebral cortex which is in control of thinking and evaluation.

Triggers of anger refer to any event that signals the brain to activate the body’s anger system. The triggers may be (i) verbal, for e.g., being blamed, disrespected or abused (ii) non-verbal, for e.g., being ignored unappreciated or rejected, (iii) physical such as physical threats, sexual/ physical assault, etc.

There are three factors involved in the experience of anger: A trigger (causes of anger) → individual’s personality → particular interpretation of that situation. As the experience of anger is subjective, it can be controlled too. If we understand the triggers of anger, we can anticipate potential anger episodes and provide an intentional / acceptable response.

The emotional center of the brain is the Limbic system and is more primitive than the cerebral cortex. It is located in the lower section of the brain. Hence when a person is experiencing and expressing anger, he or she is not using the cortex (thinking section) but primarily functioning from the limbic system. In the limbic system, a small structure called Amygdala which is a storehouse of emotional memories plays an important role in the emotional outbursts. The data coming in from the world around us passes through the amygdala where the decision is made whether to send the data to the limbic or cortex area of the brain.

If the incoming data triggers enough of an emotional charge, the amygdala can override the cortex, which means the data will be sent to the limbic system causing the person to react using the lower part of the brain. During an overriding event, the amygdala goes into action without much regard for the consequences (since this area of the brain is not involved in judging, thinking, or evaluating).

Eg. You are waiting patiently in the queue at the bank, a person comes and cuts the line and moves ahead of you, you scream at them and ask them to go back. On an average, it can take 20 minutes for a person who has experienced an angry state of arousal to calm, to move from functioning from the emotional area to the thinking area of the brain.

Question 3.
After having realised you are emotionally abused by your best friend, write the steps you will take to deal with it.
Answer:
Emotional abuse is any kind of abuse that is emotional rather than physical in nature. It occurs when one person subjects or exposes another person to intentionally harmful behaviour that may result in anxiety, depression and psychological trauma.
The types of emotional abuse may be (i) verbal abuse such as blaming, insulting, labeling, threatening, swearing, etc. (ii) non verbal abuse such as ignoring, rejection, bullying, spying, etc. Some of the techniques to deal with emotional abuse are-

  1. Accept that emotional abuse is not because of you i.e. don’t justify the actions of the abuser.
  2. Respond assertively to the abuser but seek distance from him/her.
  3. Give yourself time to heal.
  4. Prioritize your self-care, e.g., eating right, exercise, etc.
  5. Mobilise support from family and friends. If needed, seek professional help.

If I realize that I have been emotionally abused by my good friend I will adopt the following steps-

  1. Disengage from the friendship and set personal boundaries
  2. Understand that I am not the cause of abuse and so respond assertively to the abuser
  3. Practice self care and give myself time to heal
  4. If necessary seek guidance from other friends or my family / teachers.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions

9. Analyse the situations presented below and
a. Write the Emotion/s you experience.
b. What will be your response to this situation?

Question 1.
Anish was scolded by his boss. He came home and in a fit of rage hit his son. You are Anish’s friend who witnessed this outburst.
Answer:
I will feel anger as well as disgusted on witnessing this outbust. I will try to calm Anish and make him realise the harm that his anger can cause.

Question 2.
You helped your friend with study notes during his illness. But when your friend got better he did not respond nor show any sense of appreciation.
Answer:
I will feel disappointment as well as sadness. I will meet the friend and tell him that his lack of courtesy has hurt me.

Question 3.
Though you are a good friend of Anushka, she has not invited you to her new year’s party.
Answer:
I will feel disappointed and hurt. I will (if possible) try to find out if the action was deliberate or an oversight.

Question 4.
It’s your Birthday and you wake up that morning to find yourself surrounded with beautiful gifts.
Answer:
I will obviously feel immense happiness.

Question 5.
You have had a hectic day at college when you come home you find the door locked. You forgot your keys at home that day and your parents have not informed you of their plans.
Answer:
I will be angry at my at myself and my parents also. But since I forgot the keys, I will take full responsibility and wait it out some family member returns.

Question 6.
You have planned a surprise day out for your best friend and she tells you she is not interested and has other plans
Answer:
I will be a little sad and disappointed but will accept my friend’s decision sportingly.

Class 12 Psychology Chapter 5 Emotions Intext Questions and Answers

ACTIVITIES (Textbook Page. No. 44)

Activity 1

THINK AND ANALYSE
Think of the following situations and note down what will be the experience of each person in that situation.

  1. It’s Mira’s Std. 12th result today. She comes to know that she has topped in the college.
  2. Rahul’s mother passed away just few days before his 18th birthday.
  3. Suchita was ridiculed by her classmate for wearing old fashioned clothes.
  4. Yash had a fight at home because his parents were not allowing him to go for a late night party.

Answer:

  1. Mira will experience happiness due to her success.
  2. Rahul will experience grief and loneliness.
  3. Suchita will experience a sense of helplessness and shame.
  4. Yash will be angry with his parents and feel they are doing him an injustice.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions

Activity 2 (Textbook Page. No. 46)

Observe each figure carefully and write the emotion that corresponds to each in the blank spaces provided below. Can you identify which among these is a positive and negative emotion?
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions 3
Answer:
(A) = Surprise (positive), (B) = Anger (negative), (C) = Disgust (negative), (D) = Sadness (negative),
(E) = Joy (positive), (F) = Fear (negative).

Activity 3 (Textbook Page. No. 46, 47)

Check whether you can name the emotions accurately from the following examples-

  1. It’s Riya’s 18th birthday today and her friends have given her a surprise party.
  2. Rohan recently had a break up with his long time girlfriend with whom he was in love deeply.
  3. Sameer had a disagreement with his best friend over where to go for a picnic and the situation got heated up.
  4. Sumi has come to know that she has failed in her exam and she is figuring out how she will convey this to her parents.
  5. Ashmeet suddenly saw his school best friend across the street after many years.
  6. Amy opened today’s newspaper and read the news of a 5 year old getting gang raped.

Answer:

  1. Happiness
  2. Surprise
  3. Anger
  4. Fear
  5. Surprise
  6. Disgust

Activity 4 (Textbook Page. No. 48)

THINK, REFLECT, ANALYSE AND DISCUSS
State what will you feel and how will /did you behave in the given following situations:-

  1. You are crossing the road and suddenly find a car breaking the signal and speeding up towards you.
  2. You reach home and find the table laid with your favourite dish cooked by your mother.
  3. You receive a phone call telling you that your best friend is undergoing an operation and needs blood.
  4. Recall an incident in your childhood when you were insulted by an adult.

Answer:

  1. I will feel angry but also afraid. I will jump out of the way
  2. I will feel happy and surprised.
  3. I will fear but feel concerned and be motivated to arrange for the blood.
  4. Students are expected to answer this question by themselves.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions

Activity 5 (Textbook Page. No. 49)

THINK, ANALYSE AND ACT
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions 4
You see a snake ….. with reference to the above given components fill the process with your interpretations, feelings and actions.
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions 5

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence

1. Choose the correct option and complete the following statements.

Question 1.
……………………. has given formula of I.Q.
(a) Binet
(b) Stern
(c) Wechsler
Answer:
(b) Stern

Question 2.
…………………. has given the concepts of fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence.
(a) Cattell
(b) Thorndike
(c) Salovey
Answer:
(a) Cattell

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence

Question 3.
…………………. is an individual test of intelligence.
(a) Army Alpha Test
(b) Army Beta Test
(c) Block Building Test
Answer:
(c) Block Building Test

2. State whether the following statements are true or false.

Question 1.
Verbal tests of intelligence can be given easily to illiterate people.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
It is possible to increase emotional intelligence.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
There are certain limitations to Artificial Intelligence.
Answer:
True

Question 4.
Group tests of intelligence are less expensive.
Answer:
True

3. Answer the following in one sentence each.

Question 1.
What is meant by intelligence?
Answer:
David Wechsler defines intelligence as, “the aggregate or global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment.”

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence

Question 2.
Who is considered as the father of intelligence test?
Answer:
Alfred Binet is considered as the father of intelligence tests.

Question 3.
What is meant by verbal tests of intelligence?
Answer:
Verbal tests of intelligence make use of words and numbers to measure intelligence and subjects respond verbally to the test items, for e.g., WAIS, Army Alpha Test, etc.

Question 4.
What is meant by individual test of intelligence?
Answer:
Individual tests of intelligence are tests which can be administered to a single person at a time, for e.g., Stanford Binet Scales, WAIS, Koh’s Block Design Test, etc.

4. Define / Explain the concepts in 25 – 30 words each.

Question 1.
Mental Age
Answer:
Alfred Binet introduced the concept of Mental Age. It is defined as the age at which the person successfully performs on all items of the test prepared for that age level. Mental Age need not correspond to Chronological Age. If Mental Age (MA) is the same as Chronological Age (CA), the person has average intelligence. For e.g., Sumit aged 10 years has successfully performed all items on the test for age 12. Hence, his Mental Age will be 12 years, i.e., he has above average intelligence.

Question 2.
Social Intelligence
Answer:
E.L. Thorndike proposed the term Social Intelligence. Howard Gardner included ‘interpersonal intelligence’in the Multiple Intelligences Theory. According to Karl Albrecht, ‘Social intelligence . is the ability to get along well with others and to get them to cooperate with oneself.’

A continued pattern of nourishing behaviour indicates a high level of social intelligence. Such persons are skilled at interacting with and understanding people around them. They respect and encourage others. They effectively comprehend social dynamics.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence

Question 3.
Emotional Intelligence
Answer:
The term Emotional Intelligence was used for the first time by John Mayer and Peter Salovey. The concept of emotional intelligence was popularized by Daniel Goleman. It is defined as “the ability to perceive and monitor one’s own and others emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions.” Emotional Intelligence refers to a set of cognitive abilities such as perceiving emotions, using emotions to facilitate thought, understanding emotions and managing (regulating) emotions. Persons with high emotional intelligence tend to be emotionally stable, patient, optimistic, enthusiastic and calm.

5. Write short notes on the following.

Question 1.
Intelligence Quotient
Answer:
Intelligence is the highest attribute of human beings. Different psychologists have defined intelligence differently. Lewis Terman explains intelligence as, “an ability to think on an abstract level.”

David Wechsler defines intelligence as, “the aggregate or global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment.”

Intelligence Quotient refers to a measurement of intelligence.. In 1912, William Stern introduced the concept of intelligence quotient (IQ). Terman, refined the formula for calculating IQ, which is as stated below-
IQ = \(\frac {MA}{CA}\) × 100
Example: Ankush who is 10 years old has a Mental Age of 11 years. Let us calculate his IQ.
MA = 11 years CA = 10 years IQ = ?
IQ = \(\frac {MA}{CA}\) × 100 = \(\frac {11}{10}\) × 100 = 110
Ankush has an IQ of 110.

Question 2.
Charles Spearman’s theory of intelligence
Answer:
Intelligence is the highest attribute of human beings. Different psychologists have defined intelligence differently. Lewis Terman explains intelligence as, “an ability to think on an abstract level.”
David Wechsler defines intelligence as, “the aggregate or global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment.”
In 1927, Charles Spearman with the help of a statistical method called factor analysis separated and identified two different factors of intelligence viz. General factor (g) and Specific factor (s).

  1. General factor is the minimum competence required to carry out daily work.
  2. Specific factor includes abilities which are required to solve problems in specific areas.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence

Question 3.
Verbal tests of intelligence
Answer:
Intelligence is the highest attribute of human beings. Different psychologists have defined intelligence differently. Lewis Terman explains intelligence as, “an ability to think on an abstract level.”
David Wechsler defines intelligence as, “the aggregate or global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment.”

On the basis of material used in the tests, intelligence tests can be classified as Verbal tests and Non-verbal tests of intelligence. Intelligence tests that use language (words or numbers) for measuring intelligence are called verbal tests of intelligence. In these tests subjects are required to respond verbally to test items. Army Alpha Test, Wechsler’s Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), etc., are some of the examples of verbal tests of intelligence. These tests are language and culture bound and hence cannot be used with children, illiterates etc. However, they are useful in measuring higher mental abilities.

Question 4.
Non-verbal tests of intelligence
Answer:
Intelligence is the highest attribute of human beings. Different psychologists have defined intelligence differently. Lewis Terman explains intelligence as, “an ability to think on an abstract level.”
David Wechsler defines intelligence as, “the aggregate or global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment.”
On the basis of material used in the tests, intelligence tests can be classified as Verbal tests and Non-verbal tests of intelligence.

Intelligence tests that use pictures, designs, material objects, etc., to measure intelligence are called non-verbal tests of intelligence. In these tests language is not used to measure intelligence. In these tests subjects are not required to respond verbally to test items. Non-verbal tests are of two types viz.

  1. Performance tests for e.g., Koh’s Block Design test, Dr. Bhatia’s Non Verbal test, Alexander’s Pass-along test, etc. and
  2. Paper-pencil tests for e.g., Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices.

Question 5.
Artificial Intelligence
Answer:
The term Artificial Intelligence was suggested by John McCarthy. Artificial intelligence is an innovation created by human intelligence. It is a field of study that combines computer science, algorithms, psychology, etc. It refers to enabling software programmes and computer systems to perform tasks that normally require human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, weather forecasting, language translation, etc.

Artificial intelligence can take decisions only on the basis of stored information and so cannot be an alternative to human intelligence. Artificial intelligence has immense applications in daily life as well as to solve critical problems. Artificial intelligence is used in devices like robots, computers, self-driving cars, automatic missiles, smart phones, medical diagnostic tools, etc.

6. Answer the following questions with the help of the given points.

Question 1.
Write in brief about individual tests of intelligence
(i) Meaning
(ii) Advantages
(iii) Disadvantages
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence 1
(i) Meaning – Intelligence tests that can be administered to a single person at a time are called individual tests of intelligence, for e.g., Stanford Binet Scales, Koh’s Block Design Test, etc.

(ii) Advantages-

  1. The test administrator can establish a rapport with the client.
  2. The test administrator can get additional information about the client’s feelings, moods and expressions during testing.
  3. Individual tests are more capable of measuring creative thinking, compared to group tests.

(iii) Disadvantages-

  1. Individual tests are time consuming and costly to administer.
  2. Individual tests require a trained and skillful examiner to administer, score and interpret them.
  3. These tests cannot be used for mass testing.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence

Question 2.
Write in brief about group tests of intelligence
(i) Meaning
(ii) Advantages
(iii) Disadvantages
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence 2
(i) Meaning – Group test of intelligence are tests that can be administered to more than one person at a time, i.e., for mass testing, for e.g., Army Alpha and Army Beta Test, OTIS self¬administrating tests, etc.

(ii) Advantages-

  1. Group tests are less time consuming and more economical to administer.
  2. In administrating of group tests, the role of the examiner is minimal. So, he/she need not go through any specialised training.
  3. These tests can be used in cases where mass testing is needed.

(iii) Disadvantages-

  1. The test administrator has much less opportunity to establish rapport, obtain cooperation and maintain interest of the clients.
  2. Compared to individual tests, group tests are less capable of measuring the creative aspect of intelligence.

7. Answer the following questions in Detail.

Question 1.
Write in detail about the history of intelligence testing.
Answer:
Intelligence is the highest attribute of human beings. Different psychologists have defined intelligence differently. Lewis Terman explains intelligence as, “an ability to think on an abstract level.”

David Wechsler defines intelligence as, ‘the aggregate or global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment’. Many psychologists have contributed to the measurement of Intelligence.

Sir Francis Galton thought that he could determine intelligence by measuring the size of the human skull. He administered a battery of tests to measure variables such as head size, reaction time, visual acuity, etc. However, these tests did not prove useful to measure intelligence.

Raymond Cattell, used the term ‘mental test’ for the first time. Like his mentor, Sir Galton, Cattell also believed that intelligence is best measured by sensory tasks. However, be emphasized that test administration must be standardized.

In 1905, Alfied Binet in collaboration with Theodor Simon, published the First Scale of Intelligence. This scale was revised in 1908 and 1911. In 1916, Lewis Terman revised the scale, i.e., adapted few items, established new age norms etc. This came to be called ‘Stanford Binet Test’. Binet also introduced the concept of Mental Age. It is defined as the age at which the person successfully performs on all items of the test prepared for that age level.

In 1917, Robert Yerkes and his colleagues developed the Army Alpha (verbal test) and Army Beta (performance test) intelligence tests. These two tests were used to recruit soldiers. In 1939, during World War II also, to recruit army personnel, the Army General Classification Test was used.

In 1939, David Wechsler published the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Test. In 1955, the test was revised and then called Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). It has a verbal scale and performance scale. Wechsler also developed a test to measure intelligence of children, i.e., Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC).

Mental Age – Alfred Binet introduced the concept of Mental Age. It is defined as the age at which the person successfully performs on all items of the test prepared for that age level. Mental Age need not correspond to Chronological Age. It Mental Age (MA) is the same as Chronological Age (CA), the person has average intelligence.

Intelligence Quotient – In 1912, William Stern introduced the concept of Intelligence Quotient (IQ). Terman, refined the formula for calculating IQ which is as stated below-
IQ = \(\frac {MA}{CA}\) × 100 IQ made it possible to compare the intelligence of individuals of different age CA groups.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence

Question 2.
‘Intelligence testing has a wide usage in various areas’. Justify with examples.
Answer:
David Wechsler defines intelligence as, ‘the aggregate or global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment.’
Types of Intelligence Tests-
(i) Individual tests of intelligence-
Individual tests of intelligence are tests which can be administered to a single person at a time, for e.g., Stanford Binet Scales, WAIS, Koh’s Block Design Test, etc.

(ii) Group tests of intelligence-
Group test of intelligence are tests that can be administered to more than one person at a time, i.e., for mass testing, for e.g., Army Alpha and Army Beta Test, OTIS self-administrating tests, etc.

(iii) Verbal tests of intelligence-
Verbal tests of intelligence make use of words and numbers to measure intelligence and subjects respond verbally to the test items, for e.g., WAIS, Army Alpha Test, etc.

(vi) Non-verbal tests of intelligence-
Non-verbal tests of intelligence do not use language to measure intelligence. They make use of pictures, designs, objects, etc. Such tests may be (i) Performance tests, e.g., Koh’s Block Design Test or (ii) Paper-pencil test e.g., Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices.

Application of Intelligence Testing

  1. Effective Schooling – On the basis of intelligence test scores, teachers can classify students into intellectual categories and devise special instructional programmes suited to their mental development.
  2. Aids Mental Health Personnel – Intelligence tests are helpful to Mental Health personnel such as psychologists, etc., for diagnosis purposes and therapy.
  3. Effective Parenting – Parents can provide appropriate educational facilities to their children based on their IQ scores.
  4. Career Counselling – Scores obtained on intelligence tests help the student to select the right educational options/ courses.
  5. Vocational Counselling – Individuals can choose a suitable career and achieve job satisfaction when they make a realistic choice of vocation based on IQ scores.

Question 3.
Explain the characteristics of people having high social intelligence.
Answer:
E.L. Thorndike proposed the term Social Intelligence. Howard Gardner included ‘interpersonal intelligence’ in the Multiple Intelligences Theory. According to Karl Albrecht, “Social intelligence is the ability to get along well with others and to get them to cooperate with oneself’.

According to Karl Albrecht our behaviour towards others falls somewhere on a spectrum between toxic behaviour and nourishing behaviour. Devaluing others, refusing cooperation to others, negative talking, discouraging others, etc., are some of the examples of toxic behaviours. A continued pattern of toxic behaviour indicates a low level of social intelligence. Respecting others, cooperating with others, positive talking, encouraging others, etc., are some of the examples of nourishing behaviour. A continued pattern of nourishing behaviour indicates a high level of social intelligence.

The following are some of the characteristics of people having high social intelligence:

  1. They are good at understanding and interacting with other people.
  2. They have ability to monitor their verbal and non-verbal expressions while communicating with others.
  3. They are good speakers and good listeners.
  4. They are skilled at assessing the emotions, motivations, desires, and intentions of those around them.
  5. They understand social dynamics in an effective way.
  6. They are flexible in their approach while dealing with others.
  7. They are goal orientated, persistent and self- confident.
  8. They can resolve conflicts in social contexts.
  9. They are successful negotiators.
  10. They enhance personal and professional relationships with others.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence

Class 12 Psychology Chapter 2 Intelligence Intext Questions and Answers

ACTIVITY (Textbook Page. No. 12)

Activity 1
Read the following sentences and decide whether the given sentences are the facts or just beliefs about intelligence :
(i) Intelligence is something that is inborn.
(ii) Students who are intelligent can get good marks in examinations.
(iii) Students who do not get good marks in examinations are less intelligent.
(iv) People who are intelligent are very smart.
(v) Intelligent people can impress anyone by their talk.
Answer:
[All the statements are just beliefs, not facts.]

Activity 2 (Textbook Page. No. 15)
Read the following examples. Using the formula, calculate the I.Q. of the following students:
(i) Aabha is a genius girl. Her chronological age is 8 years and her mental age is 14 years. Find out her I.Q.
(ii) Mayur has learning disabilities. His chronological age is 8 years and his mental age is 6 years. Find out his I.Q.
Answer:
(i) In case of Aabha – Mental Age (MA) = 14 years
Chronological Age (CA) = 8 years, IQ = ?
IQ = \(\frac {MA}{CA}\) × 100 = \(\frac {14}{10}\) × 100 = 175
IQ = 175.

(ii) In case of Mayur – Mental Age (MA) = 6 years.
Chronological Age (CA) = 8 years, IQ = ?
MA 6
IQ = \(\frac {MA}{CA}\) × 100 = \(\frac {6}{10}\) × 100 = 75
IQ = 75.

Activity 3 (Textbook Page. No. 16)

Make a chart listing the advantages and disadvantages of individual tests of intelligence.
Answer:
(i) Advantages-

  1. The test administrator can establish a rapport with the client.
  2. The test administrator can get additional information about the client’s feelings, moods and expressions during testing.
  3. Individual tests are more capable of measuring creative thinking, compared to group tests.

(ii) Disadvantages-

  1. Individual tests are time consuming and costly to administer.
  2. Individual tests require a trained and skillful examiner to administer, score and interpret them.
  3. These tests cannot be used for mass testing.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence

Activity 4 (Textbook Page. No. 16)

Make a chart listing the advantages and disadvantages of group tests of intelligence.
Answer:
(i) Advantages-

  1. Group tests are less time consuming and economical to administer.
  2. In administrating group tests, the role of the examiner is minimal. So, he/she need not go through any specialized training.
  3. These tests can be used in cases where mass testing is needed.

(ii) Disadvantages-

  1. The test administrator has much less opportunity to establish rapport, obtain cooperation and maintain interest of the clients.
  2. Compared to individual tests, group tests are less capable of measuring creative aspect of intelligence.

Activity 5 (Textbook Page. No. 17)

Verbal test of intelligence Choose the correct option:
(i) Shoe – Foot : : Hat – ……………..
(a) Kitten
(b) Head
(c) Knife
Answer:
Shoe – Foot: : Hat – Head

(ii) Eye – Head : : Window – ………………
(a) Key
(b) Floor
(c) Room
Answer:
Eye – Head : : Window – Room

Activity 6 (Textbook Page. No. 19)

Read the examples given in Activity 6 on textbook page no. 18 and decide the positions of Chetan, Sagar and Anil on the following spectrum of behaviour:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence 3
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence 4

Activity 7 (Textbook Page. No. 20)

Study the differences between the characteristics of people having high emotional intelligence and low emotional intelligence and think about what you can do to develop your emotional intelligence?

Characteristics of people having high emotional intelligence Characteristics of people having low emotional intelligence
Emotionally stable, Patient Emotionally unstable, Impatient
Optimistic, Independent Pessimistic, Dependent
Happy, Enthusiastic Sad, Apathetic
Calm, Satisfied Restless, Dissatisfied

Answer:
I will try to develop emotional intelligence by adopting the following ways-

  1. active listening skills .and effective style of communication.
  2. practice self-evaluation and self-awareness.
  3. respond instead of reacting in conflict situations.
  4. stay motivated, rational and have a positive outlook.
  5. show empathy, be approachable.
  6. adopt effective stress management techniques.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence

Activity 8 (Textbook Page. No. 20)

Discuss how the following devices use Artificial Intelligence:
(i) Computers
(ii) Self-driving cars
(iii) Robots
(iv) Medical diagnostic tools
(v) Translation devices
(vi) Automatic Missiles
(vii) Chatbots, etc.
Answer:
(i) Computers – AI is the ability of a computer programme to think and learn. It makes computers smart, i.e., work without being encoded with commands.

(ii) Self-driving cars – Autonomous driving is a key application of AI. Self-driving cars are equipped with multiple sensors such as cameras, radars, etc., which generate massive amount of data and simulate human perceptual and decision making processes in driving.

(iii) Robots – AI gives robots the computer vision to navigate, sense and calculate their reaction accordingly. Robots learn to perform tasks from humans through machine learning which is a part of computer programming and AI.

(iv) Medical diagnostic tools – Abnormalities in body fluids and tissue can be automatically detected using AI in medical diagnosis solutions. AI can help to speed up process of diagnosis, i.e., biomarkers.

(v) Translation devices-AI uses Neural Machine Translation (NMT), i.e., an electronic, neural network trained to recognize patterns in the input data set and translate it into desired output data, for e.g., a sentence in Japanese into English. It is more accurate than simple machine translation.

(vi) Automatic Missiles – AI is leading the world towards a battlefield that has no boundaries, may not even have humans involved and will be impossible to control across the human ecosystem in Cyberspace, Geospace and Space (CGS). It refers to the weaponisation of AI, i.e., a weapon system that can select human/ non-human targets without further intervention by a human operator.

(vii) Chatbots – AI makes it possible for chatbots to ‘learn’ by discovering patterns in data. A chatbot is a computer programme that imitates spoken and written conversation, i.e., voice commands and texts, for e.g., Siri.