Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions

1. Choose the correct option and complete the following statements.

Question 1.
…………… is a combination of bodily arousal, expressive behavior, thoughts, and feelings.
(a) Response
(b) Reaction
(c) Emotions
Answer:
(c) Emotions

Question 2.
According to James Lange we first experience ……………….. then emotions.
(a) physical arousal
(b) feelings
(c) thoughts
Answer:
(a) physical arousal

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions

Question 3.
Emotion is used as a …………….. to control others.
(a) weapon
(b) measure
(c) opportunity
Answer:
(a) weapon

Question 4.
When you allow another person to exploit you, you are a victim of ………….. abuse.
(a) physical
(b) emotional
(c) social
Answer:
(b) emotional

Question 5.
Exercising releases ………………… which makes you feel good as a stress buster.
(a) endorphins
(b) thyroxin
(c) insulin
Answer:
(a) endorphins

2. Identify the odd items from the following and write a suitable reason for your choice

Question 1.
admiration, disgust, acceptance, trust

Question 2.
kicking, ignoring, shoving, screaming

Question 3.
Reassess, React, Respond, Relax

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions

Question 4.
meditation, social work, compassion, engage in hobbies

3. Match the pair.

Question 1.

Group A Group B
(1) Happiness (a) basic emotion
(2) Paul Ekman (b) fight and flight
(3) Anger (c) surprise
(4) Fear (d) sadness
(5) Grief (e) triggers
(6) Anger management technique (f) powerful emotion

Answer:

Group A Group B
(1) Happiness (c) surprise
(2) Paul Ekman (a) basic emotion
(3) Anger (f) powerful emotion
(4) Fear (b) fight and flight
(5) Grief (d) sadness
(6) Anger management technique (e) triggers

4. State whether the following statements are true or false.

Question 1.
Emotional well-being is not easily observable.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
Positive emotions energise you.
Answer:
True

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions

Question 3.
You should feel guilty for standing up for yourself.
Answer:
false

Question 4.
Anger is a basic negative emotion.
Answer:
True

5. Answer the following questions in 35 – 40 words each.

Question 1.
Explain the term facial feedback hypothesis.
Answer:
According to the facial feedback hypothesis, our facial expressions provide feedback to our brain about our emotions. Facial expressions are not only the result of our emotions, e.g., smiling in happiness, but they are also capable of influencing emotions, e.g. laughter can actually make us feel happier. The same might hold true for other emotions as well. In the 1840’s, William James presented the idea that awareness of our bodily experiences is the basis of emotion.

Question 2.
When does an individual face social rejection?
Answer:
Social rejection occurs when an individual is deliberately excluded from a social relationship or interaction. This can be done by a person or a group. It includes rejection of the person by family/ peers/ colleagues or even in intimate relationships. Rejection may be active, i.e., by ridiculing, bullying, etc., or passive, i.e., ‘silent treatment’. Social rejection may be faced due to individual differences e.g., attractiveness, shyness or due to intergroup exclusion on the basis of prejudice, e.g., in case of Dalits or ethnic minorities.

Question 3.
With the help of an example write the non-verbal triggers of anger.
Answer:
Anger is a common emotion that everybody experiences in life from time to time. Anger is a normal response to some real or perceived threat. It is a protective emotion that help us to defend ourselves against physical or psychological harm.

Triggers of Anger refer to any event that signals the brain to activate the body’s anger system. The triggers of anger may be (i) verbal, for e.g., being blamed, disrespected or abused (ii) non¬verbal, for e.g., being ignored unappreciated or rejected, (iii) physical such as physical threats, sexual/ physical assault, etc.

Non-verbal triggers of anger are feelings of being neglected, disregarded, disappointed, unloved or frequently spurned. It is expressed through gestures such as pointing a finger, shrugging the shoulders; by facial expressions such as sneering, frowning and also by behaviours such as groaning/sighing/whining or speaking in a mocking tone.

There are three factors involved in the experience of anger : A trigger (causes of anger) → individual’s personality → particular interpretation of that situation.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions

Question 4.
What are the aspects of emotional well-being?
Answer:
Emotional well-being means managing our emotions, both positive and negative ones, so that we can lead a healthy and productive life. It is the absence of negative affect as well as general satisfaction with life. A person who experiences emotional well-being is positively engaged with the world.
The aspects of emotional well-being are at three levels viz. physical, emotional and social.

  1. Physical level, i.e., well balanced diet, exercise.
  2. Emotional level, i.e., practise mindfulness, raising levels of motivation and optimism.
  3. Social level, i.e., engaging in prosocial behaviour, meaningful relationships.

6. Compare and Contrast

Question 1.
Happiness and Sadness

Question 2.
James Lange theory and Cannon Bard’s Theory

7. Write short notes on the following in 50 – 60 words each.

Question 1.
Measures of dealing with Emotional Abuse
Answer:
Emotional abuse is any kind of abuse that is emotional rather than physical in nature. It occurs when one person subjects or exposes another person to intentionally harmful behaviour that may result in anxiety, depression and psychological trauma to the victim.
The types of emotional abuse may be-

  1. verbal abuse such as blaming, insulting, labeling, threatening, swearing, etc.
  2. non verbal abuse such as ignoring, rejection, bullying, spying, etc.

The most important technique is to break the silence and stand up for yourself.

  1. Accept that emotional abuse is not because of you, i.e., don’t justify the actions of the abuser.
  2. Respond assertively to the abuser but seek distance from him.
  3. Give yourself time to heal.
  4. Prioritize your self-care, e.g., eating right, exercise, etc.
  5. Mobilise support from family and friends. If needed, seek professional help.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions

Question 2.
Plutchiks’s Model of Emotions
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions 1
Robert Plutchik presented the wheel of emotions,

  1. there are 8 basic emotions viz. joy, trust, fear, surprise, sadness, anticipation, anger and disgust.
  2. each primary emotion has its polar opposite such as fear is opposite of anger.
  3. primary emotions combine to produce complex emotions, for e.g., love (complex) is a combination of joy and trust.
  4. intensity of emotions increases as we move toward the centre and decreases as we move outward. For e.g., apprehension (weak) → fear (basic) → terror (strongest).

This model is important from the perspective of emotional literacy, i.e., understanding emotional levels, complexity and change as well as appropriate emotional labelling

Question 3.
Anger -A powerful emotion
Answer:
Anger is a common emotion that everybody experiences in life from time to time. Anger is a normal response to some threat. It is a protective emotion that helps us to defend ourselves against physical/ psychological harm. However, anger may also be unwanted, irrational and destructive. When we experience anger, our amygdala goes into action and overrides the cerebral cortex which is in control of thinking and evaluation. Triggers of anger refer to any event that signals the brain to activate the body’s anger system. The triggers may be (i) verbal, for e.g., being blamed, disrespected or abused (ii) non-verbal, for e.g., being ignored unappreciated or rejected, (iii) physical such as physical threats, sexual/ physical assault, etc.

There are three factors involved in the experience of anger: A trigger (causes of anger) → individual’s personality → particular interpretation of that situation. As the experience of anger is subjective, it can be controlled too. If we understand the triggers of anger, we can anticipate potential anger episodes and provide an intentional/ acceptable response such as it may energize us towards solving problems. As anger is a powerful emotion, it must be kept in check to avoid it’s destructive out comes.

Question 4.
Managing Emotions
Answer:
The word emotion is derived from the latin word ‘emovere’, which means to stir up or to move. An emotion refers to an involuntary, aroused state of an organism involving physical, cognitive and behavioural components. It is described as a combination of bodily arousal, e.g., increased heartrate, thoughts and feelings, i.e. emotional tone and expressive behaviour, i.e., facial expression.

Managing of emotions is an important life skill. Managing emotions can be defined as, ‘the ability to be open to feelings and modulate them in oneself and in others, so as to promote personal understanding and growth. It is the ability to be aware and constructively handle both positive and challenging emotions.

Sometimes, our emotions hijack our thinking due to which we act impulsively. This is because the limbic system (emotional section) developed before the prefrontal cortex (thinking part) and is hence, an extremely strong part of the brain. Emotional management is an art as it is a form of expression as well as a science as it is a skill that needs to be learnt and practiced If a person ignores of suppresses his/her emotions it leads to anxiety. The best way of manage emotions is to acknowledge the emotions, find out what is the cause of that emotion in you, chose how to respond in that situation.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions

Question 5.
Benefits of Emotional Well-being
Answer:
Emotional well-being means managing our emotions, both positive and negative ones, so that we can lead a healthy and productive life.
Persons who have high emotional well-being experience benefits such as- (i) better able to deal with stress (ii) better self-regulation (iii) increased productivity in tasks undertaken (iv) increased creativity (v) life satisfaction due to meaningful activities and relationship.

  1. Coping with stress – It helps to deal with stress using healthy methods such as exercise, social support, etc.
  2. Better self-regulation – It enables the person to label how they feel and accept negative emotions life fear, anger, etc.
  3. Increases productivity in tasks undertaken – The ability to focus is enhanced, the person feels positive and energized.
  4. Increases creativity – The person indulges in divergent thinking, shows curiosity is open to new experiences.
  5. Life satisfaction – The individual is able to have meaningful interactions and relationships, show empathy, altruism and engage in activities like volunteer work.

8. Answer the following 50 – 60 words.

Question 1.
Using the 3 R model of Anger Management present a case study of your own experience.
Answer:
Anger management is an intervention programme to prevent anger from turning into a habit or obstacle. It enables the person to create an awareness of and responsibility for his/her emotions. This involves two aspects (i) managing one’s own anger (ii) learning to respond effectively to anger in others.

The 3 R’s in anger management a Relax, Reassess and Respond.
1. Relaxation – Relaxation and connection with the inner self helps to enhance thinking and concentration so that we ‘respond’ rather than ‘react’ impulsively.
2. Reassess – This helps the person to revisit the situation objectively. It involves

  • taking complete responsibility for your emotion
  • developing empathy for the person you perceive has wronged you
  • conduct a reality check e.g., is your anger justified given the facts of what happened.

The feeling’s thermometer helps to focus on the extent of anger we are experiencing and helps in the process of reassessment.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions 2

3. Respond – It entails re-engaging with the other person/situation. Responding involves

  • consulting a trustworthy person to get another perspective
  • engage in talks with the other party in a calm respectful manner with a willingness to sort out the situation.
  • active listening and assertive speaking – Allow the person to express their viewpoint. However, we should stand up for our feeling while exhibiting the same for the other person. The right approach is a practical, positive communication style.
  • cage your rage i.e. establish boundaries and moderate your anger – We must guard against escalation of our own anger which may lead us to provoke the other person. Moderation of anger and establishing clear boundaries of interaction with each other is essential.

CASE STUDY – 1 was in the passenger seat and my brother was driving the car. Suddenly, a cyclist swerved right in front after he had failed to observe the red light. This led me to get enraged at this uncalled-for action. Using the 3R technique. I tried to breathe for a few seconds to give me recovery time, i.e. Relaxation. I revisited the situation – Is my anger justified? Was it a genuine error? Is the cyclist hurt? Did the incident cause injury to us or damage to the car.? Is the anger worth my time/effort? Reassess. I allowed my elder brother to handle the situation but also assertively cautioned the teenage cyclist about the dangers of riding in a rash manner, i.e. Respond.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions

Question 2.
How does the brain work when angry?
Answer:
Anger is a common emotion that everybody experiences in life from time to time. Anger is a normal response to some threat. It is a protective emotion that help us to defend ourselves against physical/ psychological harm. However, anger may also be unwanted, irrational and destructive. When we experience anger, our amygdala goes into action and overrides the cerebral cortex which is in control of thinking and evaluation.

Triggers of anger refer to any event that signals the brain to activate the body’s anger system. The triggers may be (i) verbal, for e.g., being blamed, disrespected or abused (ii) non-verbal, for e.g., being ignored unappreciated or rejected, (iii) physical such as physical threats, sexual/ physical assault, etc.

There are three factors involved in the experience of anger: A trigger (causes of anger) → individual’s personality → particular interpretation of that situation. As the experience of anger is subjective, it can be controlled too. If we understand the triggers of anger, we can anticipate potential anger episodes and provide an intentional / acceptable response.

The emotional center of the brain is the Limbic system and is more primitive than the cerebral cortex. It is located in the lower section of the brain. Hence when a person is experiencing and expressing anger, he or she is not using the cortex (thinking section) but primarily functioning from the limbic system. In the limbic system, a small structure called Amygdala which is a storehouse of emotional memories plays an important role in the emotional outbursts. The data coming in from the world around us passes through the amygdala where the decision is made whether to send the data to the limbic or cortex area of the brain.

If the incoming data triggers enough of an emotional charge, the amygdala can override the cortex, which means the data will be sent to the limbic system causing the person to react using the lower part of the brain. During an overriding event, the amygdala goes into action without much regard for the consequences (since this area of the brain is not involved in judging, thinking, or evaluating).

Eg. You are waiting patiently in the queue at the bank, a person comes and cuts the line and moves ahead of you, you scream at them and ask them to go back. On an average, it can take 20 minutes for a person who has experienced an angry state of arousal to calm, to move from functioning from the emotional area to the thinking area of the brain.

Question 3.
After having realised you are emotionally abused by your best friend, write the steps you will take to deal with it.
Answer:
Emotional abuse is any kind of abuse that is emotional rather than physical in nature. It occurs when one person subjects or exposes another person to intentionally harmful behaviour that may result in anxiety, depression and psychological trauma.
The types of emotional abuse may be (i) verbal abuse such as blaming, insulting, labeling, threatening, swearing, etc. (ii) non verbal abuse such as ignoring, rejection, bullying, spying, etc. Some of the techniques to deal with emotional abuse are-

  1. Accept that emotional abuse is not because of you i.e. don’t justify the actions of the abuser.
  2. Respond assertively to the abuser but seek distance from him/her.
  3. Give yourself time to heal.
  4. Prioritize your self-care, e.g., eating right, exercise, etc.
  5. Mobilise support from family and friends. If needed, seek professional help.

If I realize that I have been emotionally abused by my good friend I will adopt the following steps-

  1. Disengage from the friendship and set personal boundaries
  2. Understand that I am not the cause of abuse and so respond assertively to the abuser
  3. Practice self care and give myself time to heal
  4. If necessary seek guidance from other friends or my family / teachers.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions

9. Analyse the situations presented below and
a. Write the Emotion/s you experience.
b. What will be your response to this situation?

Question 1.
Anish was scolded by his boss. He came home and in a fit of rage hit his son. You are Anish’s friend who witnessed this outburst.
Answer:
I will feel anger as well as disgusted on witnessing this outbust. I will try to calm Anish and make him realise the harm that his anger can cause.

Question 2.
You helped your friend with study notes during his illness. But when your friend got better he did not respond nor show any sense of appreciation.
Answer:
I will feel disappointment as well as sadness. I will meet the friend and tell him that his lack of courtesy has hurt me.

Question 3.
Though you are a good friend of Anushka, she has not invited you to her new year’s party.
Answer:
I will feel disappointed and hurt. I will (if possible) try to find out if the action was deliberate or an oversight.

Question 4.
It’s your Birthday and you wake up that morning to find yourself surrounded with beautiful gifts.
Answer:
I will obviously feel immense happiness.

Question 5.
You have had a hectic day at college when you come home you find the door locked. You forgot your keys at home that day and your parents have not informed you of their plans.
Answer:
I will be angry at my at myself and my parents also. But since I forgot the keys, I will take full responsibility and wait it out some family member returns.

Question 6.
You have planned a surprise day out for your best friend and she tells you she is not interested and has other plans
Answer:
I will be a little sad and disappointed but will accept my friend’s decision sportingly.

Class 12 Psychology Chapter 5 Emotions Intext Questions and Answers

ACTIVITIES (Textbook Page. No. 44)

Activity 1

THINK AND ANALYSE
Think of the following situations and note down what will be the experience of each person in that situation.

  1. It’s Mira’s Std. 12th result today. She comes to know that she has topped in the college.
  2. Rahul’s mother passed away just few days before his 18th birthday.
  3. Suchita was ridiculed by her classmate for wearing old fashioned clothes.
  4. Yash had a fight at home because his parents were not allowing him to go for a late night party.

Answer:

  1. Mira will experience happiness due to her success.
  2. Rahul will experience grief and loneliness.
  3. Suchita will experience a sense of helplessness and shame.
  4. Yash will be angry with his parents and feel they are doing him an injustice.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions

Activity 2 (Textbook Page. No. 46)

Observe each figure carefully and write the emotion that corresponds to each in the blank spaces provided below. Can you identify which among these is a positive and negative emotion?
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions 3
Answer:
(A) = Surprise (positive), (B) = Anger (negative), (C) = Disgust (negative), (D) = Sadness (negative),
(E) = Joy (positive), (F) = Fear (negative).

Activity 3 (Textbook Page. No. 46, 47)

Check whether you can name the emotions accurately from the following examples-

  1. It’s Riya’s 18th birthday today and her friends have given her a surprise party.
  2. Rohan recently had a break up with his long time girlfriend with whom he was in love deeply.
  3. Sameer had a disagreement with his best friend over where to go for a picnic and the situation got heated up.
  4. Sumi has come to know that she has failed in her exam and she is figuring out how she will convey this to her parents.
  5. Ashmeet suddenly saw his school best friend across the street after many years.
  6. Amy opened today’s newspaper and read the news of a 5 year old getting gang raped.

Answer:

  1. Happiness
  2. Surprise
  3. Anger
  4. Fear
  5. Surprise
  6. Disgust

Activity 4 (Textbook Page. No. 48)

THINK, REFLECT, ANALYSE AND DISCUSS
State what will you feel and how will /did you behave in the given following situations:-

  1. You are crossing the road and suddenly find a car breaking the signal and speeding up towards you.
  2. You reach home and find the table laid with your favourite dish cooked by your mother.
  3. You receive a phone call telling you that your best friend is undergoing an operation and needs blood.
  4. Recall an incident in your childhood when you were insulted by an adult.

Answer:

  1. I will feel angry but also afraid. I will jump out of the way
  2. I will feel happy and surprised.
  3. I will fear but feel concerned and be motivated to arrange for the blood.
  4. Students are expected to answer this question by themselves.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions

Activity 5 (Textbook Page. No. 49)

THINK, ANALYSE AND ACT
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions 4
You see a snake ….. with reference to the above given components fill the process with your interpretations, feelings and actions.
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 5 Emotions 5

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence

1. Choose the correct option and complete the following statements.

Question 1.
……………………. has given formula of I.Q.
(a) Binet
(b) Stern
(c) Wechsler
Answer:
(b) Stern

Question 2.
…………………. has given the concepts of fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence.
(a) Cattell
(b) Thorndike
(c) Salovey
Answer:
(a) Cattell

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence

Question 3.
…………………. is an individual test of intelligence.
(a) Army Alpha Test
(b) Army Beta Test
(c) Block Building Test
Answer:
(c) Block Building Test

2. State whether the following statements are true or false.

Question 1.
Verbal tests of intelligence can be given easily to illiterate people.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
It is possible to increase emotional intelligence.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
There are certain limitations to Artificial Intelligence.
Answer:
True

Question 4.
Group tests of intelligence are less expensive.
Answer:
True

3. Answer the following in one sentence each.

Question 1.
What is meant by intelligence?
Answer:
David Wechsler defines intelligence as, “the aggregate or global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment.”

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence

Question 2.
Who is considered as the father of intelligence test?
Answer:
Alfred Binet is considered as the father of intelligence tests.

Question 3.
What is meant by verbal tests of intelligence?
Answer:
Verbal tests of intelligence make use of words and numbers to measure intelligence and subjects respond verbally to the test items, for e.g., WAIS, Army Alpha Test, etc.

Question 4.
What is meant by individual test of intelligence?
Answer:
Individual tests of intelligence are tests which can be administered to a single person at a time, for e.g., Stanford Binet Scales, WAIS, Koh’s Block Design Test, etc.

4. Define / Explain the concepts in 25 – 30 words each.

Question 1.
Mental Age
Answer:
Alfred Binet introduced the concept of Mental Age. It is defined as the age at which the person successfully performs on all items of the test prepared for that age level. Mental Age need not correspond to Chronological Age. If Mental Age (MA) is the same as Chronological Age (CA), the person has average intelligence. For e.g., Sumit aged 10 years has successfully performed all items on the test for age 12. Hence, his Mental Age will be 12 years, i.e., he has above average intelligence.

Question 2.
Social Intelligence
Answer:
E.L. Thorndike proposed the term Social Intelligence. Howard Gardner included ‘interpersonal intelligence’in the Multiple Intelligences Theory. According to Karl Albrecht, ‘Social intelligence . is the ability to get along well with others and to get them to cooperate with oneself.’

A continued pattern of nourishing behaviour indicates a high level of social intelligence. Such persons are skilled at interacting with and understanding people around them. They respect and encourage others. They effectively comprehend social dynamics.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence

Question 3.
Emotional Intelligence
Answer:
The term Emotional Intelligence was used for the first time by John Mayer and Peter Salovey. The concept of emotional intelligence was popularized by Daniel Goleman. It is defined as “the ability to perceive and monitor one’s own and others emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions.” Emotional Intelligence refers to a set of cognitive abilities such as perceiving emotions, using emotions to facilitate thought, understanding emotions and managing (regulating) emotions. Persons with high emotional intelligence tend to be emotionally stable, patient, optimistic, enthusiastic and calm.

5. Write short notes on the following.

Question 1.
Intelligence Quotient
Answer:
Intelligence is the highest attribute of human beings. Different psychologists have defined intelligence differently. Lewis Terman explains intelligence as, “an ability to think on an abstract level.”

David Wechsler defines intelligence as, “the aggregate or global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment.”

Intelligence Quotient refers to a measurement of intelligence.. In 1912, William Stern introduced the concept of intelligence quotient (IQ). Terman, refined the formula for calculating IQ, which is as stated below-
IQ = \(\frac {MA}{CA}\) × 100
Example: Ankush who is 10 years old has a Mental Age of 11 years. Let us calculate his IQ.
MA = 11 years CA = 10 years IQ = ?
IQ = \(\frac {MA}{CA}\) × 100 = \(\frac {11}{10}\) × 100 = 110
Ankush has an IQ of 110.

Question 2.
Charles Spearman’s theory of intelligence
Answer:
Intelligence is the highest attribute of human beings. Different psychologists have defined intelligence differently. Lewis Terman explains intelligence as, “an ability to think on an abstract level.”
David Wechsler defines intelligence as, “the aggregate or global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment.”
In 1927, Charles Spearman with the help of a statistical method called factor analysis separated and identified two different factors of intelligence viz. General factor (g) and Specific factor (s).

  1. General factor is the minimum competence required to carry out daily work.
  2. Specific factor includes abilities which are required to solve problems in specific areas.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence

Question 3.
Verbal tests of intelligence
Answer:
Intelligence is the highest attribute of human beings. Different psychologists have defined intelligence differently. Lewis Terman explains intelligence as, “an ability to think on an abstract level.”
David Wechsler defines intelligence as, “the aggregate or global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment.”

On the basis of material used in the tests, intelligence tests can be classified as Verbal tests and Non-verbal tests of intelligence. Intelligence tests that use language (words or numbers) for measuring intelligence are called verbal tests of intelligence. In these tests subjects are required to respond verbally to test items. Army Alpha Test, Wechsler’s Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), etc., are some of the examples of verbal tests of intelligence. These tests are language and culture bound and hence cannot be used with children, illiterates etc. However, they are useful in measuring higher mental abilities.

Question 4.
Non-verbal tests of intelligence
Answer:
Intelligence is the highest attribute of human beings. Different psychologists have defined intelligence differently. Lewis Terman explains intelligence as, “an ability to think on an abstract level.”
David Wechsler defines intelligence as, “the aggregate or global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment.”
On the basis of material used in the tests, intelligence tests can be classified as Verbal tests and Non-verbal tests of intelligence.

Intelligence tests that use pictures, designs, material objects, etc., to measure intelligence are called non-verbal tests of intelligence. In these tests language is not used to measure intelligence. In these tests subjects are not required to respond verbally to test items. Non-verbal tests are of two types viz.

  1. Performance tests for e.g., Koh’s Block Design test, Dr. Bhatia’s Non Verbal test, Alexander’s Pass-along test, etc. and
  2. Paper-pencil tests for e.g., Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices.

Question 5.
Artificial Intelligence
Answer:
The term Artificial Intelligence was suggested by John McCarthy. Artificial intelligence is an innovation created by human intelligence. It is a field of study that combines computer science, algorithms, psychology, etc. It refers to enabling software programmes and computer systems to perform tasks that normally require human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, weather forecasting, language translation, etc.

Artificial intelligence can take decisions only on the basis of stored information and so cannot be an alternative to human intelligence. Artificial intelligence has immense applications in daily life as well as to solve critical problems. Artificial intelligence is used in devices like robots, computers, self-driving cars, automatic missiles, smart phones, medical diagnostic tools, etc.

6. Answer the following questions with the help of the given points.

Question 1.
Write in brief about individual tests of intelligence
(i) Meaning
(ii) Advantages
(iii) Disadvantages
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence 1
(i) Meaning – Intelligence tests that can be administered to a single person at a time are called individual tests of intelligence, for e.g., Stanford Binet Scales, Koh’s Block Design Test, etc.

(ii) Advantages-

  1. The test administrator can establish a rapport with the client.
  2. The test administrator can get additional information about the client’s feelings, moods and expressions during testing.
  3. Individual tests are more capable of measuring creative thinking, compared to group tests.

(iii) Disadvantages-

  1. Individual tests are time consuming and costly to administer.
  2. Individual tests require a trained and skillful examiner to administer, score and interpret them.
  3. These tests cannot be used for mass testing.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence

Question 2.
Write in brief about group tests of intelligence
(i) Meaning
(ii) Advantages
(iii) Disadvantages
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence 2
(i) Meaning – Group test of intelligence are tests that can be administered to more than one person at a time, i.e., for mass testing, for e.g., Army Alpha and Army Beta Test, OTIS self¬administrating tests, etc.

(ii) Advantages-

  1. Group tests are less time consuming and more economical to administer.
  2. In administrating of group tests, the role of the examiner is minimal. So, he/she need not go through any specialised training.
  3. These tests can be used in cases where mass testing is needed.

(iii) Disadvantages-

  1. The test administrator has much less opportunity to establish rapport, obtain cooperation and maintain interest of the clients.
  2. Compared to individual tests, group tests are less capable of measuring the creative aspect of intelligence.

7. Answer the following questions in Detail.

Question 1.
Write in detail about the history of intelligence testing.
Answer:
Intelligence is the highest attribute of human beings. Different psychologists have defined intelligence differently. Lewis Terman explains intelligence as, “an ability to think on an abstract level.”

David Wechsler defines intelligence as, ‘the aggregate or global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment’. Many psychologists have contributed to the measurement of Intelligence.

Sir Francis Galton thought that he could determine intelligence by measuring the size of the human skull. He administered a battery of tests to measure variables such as head size, reaction time, visual acuity, etc. However, these tests did not prove useful to measure intelligence.

Raymond Cattell, used the term ‘mental test’ for the first time. Like his mentor, Sir Galton, Cattell also believed that intelligence is best measured by sensory tasks. However, be emphasized that test administration must be standardized.

In 1905, Alfied Binet in collaboration with Theodor Simon, published the First Scale of Intelligence. This scale was revised in 1908 and 1911. In 1916, Lewis Terman revised the scale, i.e., adapted few items, established new age norms etc. This came to be called ‘Stanford Binet Test’. Binet also introduced the concept of Mental Age. It is defined as the age at which the person successfully performs on all items of the test prepared for that age level.

In 1917, Robert Yerkes and his colleagues developed the Army Alpha (verbal test) and Army Beta (performance test) intelligence tests. These two tests were used to recruit soldiers. In 1939, during World War II also, to recruit army personnel, the Army General Classification Test was used.

In 1939, David Wechsler published the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Test. In 1955, the test was revised and then called Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). It has a verbal scale and performance scale. Wechsler also developed a test to measure intelligence of children, i.e., Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC).

Mental Age – Alfred Binet introduced the concept of Mental Age. It is defined as the age at which the person successfully performs on all items of the test prepared for that age level. Mental Age need not correspond to Chronological Age. It Mental Age (MA) is the same as Chronological Age (CA), the person has average intelligence.

Intelligence Quotient – In 1912, William Stern introduced the concept of Intelligence Quotient (IQ). Terman, refined the formula for calculating IQ which is as stated below-
IQ = \(\frac {MA}{CA}\) × 100 IQ made it possible to compare the intelligence of individuals of different age CA groups.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence

Question 2.
‘Intelligence testing has a wide usage in various areas’. Justify with examples.
Answer:
David Wechsler defines intelligence as, ‘the aggregate or global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment.’
Types of Intelligence Tests-
(i) Individual tests of intelligence-
Individual tests of intelligence are tests which can be administered to a single person at a time, for e.g., Stanford Binet Scales, WAIS, Koh’s Block Design Test, etc.

(ii) Group tests of intelligence-
Group test of intelligence are tests that can be administered to more than one person at a time, i.e., for mass testing, for e.g., Army Alpha and Army Beta Test, OTIS self-administrating tests, etc.

(iii) Verbal tests of intelligence-
Verbal tests of intelligence make use of words and numbers to measure intelligence and subjects respond verbally to the test items, for e.g., WAIS, Army Alpha Test, etc.

(vi) Non-verbal tests of intelligence-
Non-verbal tests of intelligence do not use language to measure intelligence. They make use of pictures, designs, objects, etc. Such tests may be (i) Performance tests, e.g., Koh’s Block Design Test or (ii) Paper-pencil test e.g., Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices.

Application of Intelligence Testing

  1. Effective Schooling – On the basis of intelligence test scores, teachers can classify students into intellectual categories and devise special instructional programmes suited to their mental development.
  2. Aids Mental Health Personnel – Intelligence tests are helpful to Mental Health personnel such as psychologists, etc., for diagnosis purposes and therapy.
  3. Effective Parenting – Parents can provide appropriate educational facilities to their children based on their IQ scores.
  4. Career Counselling – Scores obtained on intelligence tests help the student to select the right educational options/ courses.
  5. Vocational Counselling – Individuals can choose a suitable career and achieve job satisfaction when they make a realistic choice of vocation based on IQ scores.

Question 3.
Explain the characteristics of people having high social intelligence.
Answer:
E.L. Thorndike proposed the term Social Intelligence. Howard Gardner included ‘interpersonal intelligence’ in the Multiple Intelligences Theory. According to Karl Albrecht, “Social intelligence is the ability to get along well with others and to get them to cooperate with oneself’.

According to Karl Albrecht our behaviour towards others falls somewhere on a spectrum between toxic behaviour and nourishing behaviour. Devaluing others, refusing cooperation to others, negative talking, discouraging others, etc., are some of the examples of toxic behaviours. A continued pattern of toxic behaviour indicates a low level of social intelligence. Respecting others, cooperating with others, positive talking, encouraging others, etc., are some of the examples of nourishing behaviour. A continued pattern of nourishing behaviour indicates a high level of social intelligence.

The following are some of the characteristics of people having high social intelligence:

  1. They are good at understanding and interacting with other people.
  2. They have ability to monitor their verbal and non-verbal expressions while communicating with others.
  3. They are good speakers and good listeners.
  4. They are skilled at assessing the emotions, motivations, desires, and intentions of those around them.
  5. They understand social dynamics in an effective way.
  6. They are flexible in their approach while dealing with others.
  7. They are goal orientated, persistent and self- confident.
  8. They can resolve conflicts in social contexts.
  9. They are successful negotiators.
  10. They enhance personal and professional relationships with others.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence

Class 12 Psychology Chapter 2 Intelligence Intext Questions and Answers

ACTIVITY (Textbook Page. No. 12)

Activity 1
Read the following sentences and decide whether the given sentences are the facts or just beliefs about intelligence :
(i) Intelligence is something that is inborn.
(ii) Students who are intelligent can get good marks in examinations.
(iii) Students who do not get good marks in examinations are less intelligent.
(iv) People who are intelligent are very smart.
(v) Intelligent people can impress anyone by their talk.
Answer:
[All the statements are just beliefs, not facts.]

Activity 2 (Textbook Page. No. 15)
Read the following examples. Using the formula, calculate the I.Q. of the following students:
(i) Aabha is a genius girl. Her chronological age is 8 years and her mental age is 14 years. Find out her I.Q.
(ii) Mayur has learning disabilities. His chronological age is 8 years and his mental age is 6 years. Find out his I.Q.
Answer:
(i) In case of Aabha – Mental Age (MA) = 14 years
Chronological Age (CA) = 8 years, IQ = ?
IQ = \(\frac {MA}{CA}\) × 100 = \(\frac {14}{10}\) × 100 = 175
IQ = 175.

(ii) In case of Mayur – Mental Age (MA) = 6 years.
Chronological Age (CA) = 8 years, IQ = ?
MA 6
IQ = \(\frac {MA}{CA}\) × 100 = \(\frac {6}{10}\) × 100 = 75
IQ = 75.

Activity 3 (Textbook Page. No. 16)

Make a chart listing the advantages and disadvantages of individual tests of intelligence.
Answer:
(i) Advantages-

  1. The test administrator can establish a rapport with the client.
  2. The test administrator can get additional information about the client’s feelings, moods and expressions during testing.
  3. Individual tests are more capable of measuring creative thinking, compared to group tests.

(ii) Disadvantages-

  1. Individual tests are time consuming and costly to administer.
  2. Individual tests require a trained and skillful examiner to administer, score and interpret them.
  3. These tests cannot be used for mass testing.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence

Activity 4 (Textbook Page. No. 16)

Make a chart listing the advantages and disadvantages of group tests of intelligence.
Answer:
(i) Advantages-

  1. Group tests are less time consuming and economical to administer.
  2. In administrating group tests, the role of the examiner is minimal. So, he/she need not go through any specialized training.
  3. These tests can be used in cases where mass testing is needed.

(ii) Disadvantages-

  1. The test administrator has much less opportunity to establish rapport, obtain cooperation and maintain interest of the clients.
  2. Compared to individual tests, group tests are less capable of measuring creative aspect of intelligence.

Activity 5 (Textbook Page. No. 17)

Verbal test of intelligence Choose the correct option:
(i) Shoe – Foot : : Hat – ……………..
(a) Kitten
(b) Head
(c) Knife
Answer:
Shoe – Foot: : Hat – Head

(ii) Eye – Head : : Window – ………………
(a) Key
(b) Floor
(c) Room
Answer:
Eye – Head : : Window – Room

Activity 6 (Textbook Page. No. 19)

Read the examples given in Activity 6 on textbook page no. 18 and decide the positions of Chetan, Sagar and Anil on the following spectrum of behaviour:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence 3
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence 4

Activity 7 (Textbook Page. No. 20)

Study the differences between the characteristics of people having high emotional intelligence and low emotional intelligence and think about what you can do to develop your emotional intelligence?

Characteristics of people having high emotional intelligence Characteristics of people having low emotional intelligence
Emotionally stable, Patient Emotionally unstable, Impatient
Optimistic, Independent Pessimistic, Dependent
Happy, Enthusiastic Sad, Apathetic
Calm, Satisfied Restless, Dissatisfied

Answer:
I will try to develop emotional intelligence by adopting the following ways-

  1. active listening skills .and effective style of communication.
  2. practice self-evaluation and self-awareness.
  3. respond instead of reacting in conflict situations.
  4. stay motivated, rational and have a positive outlook.
  5. show empathy, be approachable.
  6. adopt effective stress management techniques.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 2 Intelligence

Activity 8 (Textbook Page. No. 20)

Discuss how the following devices use Artificial Intelligence:
(i) Computers
(ii) Self-driving cars
(iii) Robots
(iv) Medical diagnostic tools
(v) Translation devices
(vi) Automatic Missiles
(vii) Chatbots, etc.
Answer:
(i) Computers – AI is the ability of a computer programme to think and learn. It makes computers smart, i.e., work without being encoded with commands.

(ii) Self-driving cars – Autonomous driving is a key application of AI. Self-driving cars are equipped with multiple sensors such as cameras, radars, etc., which generate massive amount of data and simulate human perceptual and decision making processes in driving.

(iii) Robots – AI gives robots the computer vision to navigate, sense and calculate their reaction accordingly. Robots learn to perform tasks from humans through machine learning which is a part of computer programming and AI.

(iv) Medical diagnostic tools – Abnormalities in body fluids and tissue can be automatically detected using AI in medical diagnosis solutions. AI can help to speed up process of diagnosis, i.e., biomarkers.

(v) Translation devices-AI uses Neural Machine Translation (NMT), i.e., an electronic, neural network trained to recognize patterns in the input data set and translate it into desired output data, for e.g., a sentence in Japanese into English. It is more accurate than simple machine translation.

(vi) Automatic Missiles – AI is leading the world towards a battlefield that has no boundaries, may not even have humans involved and will be impossible to control across the human ecosystem in Cyberspace, Geospace and Space (CGS). It refers to the weaponisation of AI, i.e., a weapon system that can select human/ non-human targets without further intervention by a human operator.

(vii) Chatbots – AI makes it possible for chatbots to ‘learn’ by discovering patterns in data. A chatbot is a computer programme that imitates spoken and written conversation, i.e., voice commands and texts, for e.g., Siri.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Positive Psychology

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Positive Psychology Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Positive Psychology

1. Choose the correct option and complete the following statements.

Question 1.
……………. is the father of positive psychology.
(a) Carver
(b) Masten
(c) Seligman
Answer:
(c) Seligman

Question 2.
Barbara Fredrickson introduced the Broaden and ………………. theory.
(a) Build
(b) Emotion
(c) Learning
Answer:
(a) Build

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Positive Psychology

Question 3.
The belief that good things will happen is called as ………………..
(a) pessimism
(b) resilience
(c) optimism
Answer:
(c) optimism

Question 4.
The capacity to understand what the other person is experiencing is………………
(a) sympathy
(b) empathy
(c) emotion
Answer:
(b) empathy

2. Answer the following questions in 35 – 40 words each.

Question 1.
Explain the theories of happiness
Answer:
Happiness is a positive emotional state that is subjective to each person, for e.g., people feel happy when they are successful or surprised or loved, etc.
The main theories of happiness are-

  1. Need/ goal satisfaction theories – Happiness is experienced when some need or goal is satisfied, e.g., Rohit feels happiness when he clears IIT-JEE exams.
  2. Process/ activity theories – Happiness is experienced when one engages in a particular activity, e.g., Sumit enjoys trekking.
  3. Genetic/ personality theories – Genetic and personality characteristics are involved in the experience of happiness.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Positive Psychology

Question 2.
What is mindfulness?
Answer:
Mindfulness is the basic human ability to be fully aware of where we are and what we are doing. It means that we should not be overly reactive or overwhelmed by what’s going on around us. Mindfulness refers to mental awareness that helps to focus on the ‘Here and Now’. It helps to increase self-regulation, which results in growth and happiness. Mindfulness is maintaining moment by moment awareness of our bodily sensations, environment, thoughts and feelings.

Question 3.
What is resilience?
Answer:
According to the American Psychological Association, resilience is the process of adapting well in the face of adversity, trauma, tragedy, threats or significant sources of stress such as family and relationships, health, work and finances, etc. It is the act of ‘bouncing back’ inspite of barriers or set backs.

Resilience helps the person to recover form setbacks with the least negative consequences. Individuals high on resilience exhibit the following characteristics-

  1. they regain their confidence after a period of emotional disturbance
  2. they are able to maintain their psychological well-being.

The types of resilience are physical, psychological, emotional and community resilience.

3. Write short notes on the following in 50 – 60 words each.

Question 1.
Life above zero
Answer:
Traditional psychology focused on life at and below zero. Zero is the line that divides illness form
health. Hence, life below zero indicates a life that is full of problems stress, diseases, etc. Positive psychology emphasizes the study of life above zero.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Positive Psychology 1
-1 to +1 indicates neutral charactristics while below 0 indicates disorders, dysfunction or illness. Life above zero covers a large area of positive aspects of behaviour such as mindfulness, resilience, happiness, hope, trust and empathy. It acknowledges elements of living that enrich and meaningfully sustain what is referred to as “the good life” in positive psychology.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Positive Psychology

Question 2.
Determinants of happiness
Answer:
Happiness is a positive emotional state. Factors like health, prestige, income, success, etc., contribute to only a small portion of our total happiness.
Some factors are predictors of long lasting happiness-

  1. Strong, intimate social relationships, positive contacts and good support system.
  2. Optimism leads to less of negative emotions like stress.
  3. Self-esteem enhances our confidence level and ability to approach challenges in a constructive manner.
  4. Achieving challenging goals- If the goals are too easy, it leads to boredom and if they are too difficult, it leads to frustration. Moderately challenging goals, increase the chance of success, leading to happiness.
  5. Perceiving meaning and purpose in life, without which we will experience frustration, boredom, etc.
  6. Looking at life’s challenges as an opportunity rather than a threat helps to develop our potential.

Question 3.
Characteristics of an optimist
Answer:
Optimism is a mental attitude that includes feelings of hopefulness and a belief that the future will be positive and favourable. It is the belief that negative events are merely setbacks that are temporary and can be overcome.
The characteristics of optimists are:

  1. they try to choose the best options available
  2. they tend to be high on self confidence
  3. they face difficulties positively as they view them as a challenge for a person to become strong
  4. they are hopeful about the future and do not generalize present failure to future events.

Question 4.
Methods to promote empathy
Answer:
Empathy is the capacity to understand and feel what another person is experiencing from within their frame of reference i.e. capacity to place oneself in another’s position.

According to Simon Baron-Cohen there are three components of empathy viz. cognitive empathy emotional reactivity and social skills. Empathy builds a sense of security and trust. It is closely related to emotional intelligence and is a key to successful relationships.
Empathy can be promoted by using the following methods-

  1. Increase social interactions – Especially with people who need help in order to understand their perspectives and motives.
  2. Connecting through similarities – With others, e.g., those having same hobbies/ work/ goals, etc.
  3. Understanding what you are feeling – Those who are able to accurately judge their own motives, can empathize better.
  4. Challenge yourself – Tasks that are challenging lead to the person struggling to achieve a goal. This lead to humility which enables empathy.
  5. Cultivate a sense of curiosity – This leads to open-mindedness and a better understanding of those around us.
  6. Widen our social circle – Contact with people of different races, cultures, viewpoints helps to increase empathy towards them at a neurological level.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Positive Psychology

4. Explain the Following concepts.

Question 1.
Positive Psychology
Answer:
Positive Psychology is a newly emerging branch of psychology. Martin Seligman officially introduced Positive Psychology as a subfield of psychology. It is the science of happiness, human strength and growth. Positive Psychology focuses on building of character strengths like courage, happiness, perseverance, etc., rather than on anxiety, conflict, avoidance, etc. According to Seligman, positive psychology is “the scientific study of positive human functioning and flourishing on multiple levels that include the biological, personal, relational, institutional, cultural and global dimensions of life.”

Question 2.
Half glass full and half glass empty.
Answer:
Optimism is a mental attitude that includes feelings of hopefulness. It is a belief that the future will be positive and favourable and that negative events are merely setbacks that are temporary and can be overcome. Seligman explained about optimism in the book ‘Learned Optimism’. Our perspective determines whether or not we will show optimism.

A glass which has water upto its mid level may be perceived as half full (optimism) or as half empty (pessimism). This is described as ‘Half glass full and half glass empty’.

Question 3.
Empathy
Answer:
Empathy is the capacity to understand and feel what another person is experiencing from within their frame of reference, i.e., capacity to place oneself in another’s position. According to Simon Baron-Cohen, there are three components of empathy viz. cognitive empathy i.e., perspective taking, emotional reactivity (connecting in an intimate bond with another person) and social skills (moved to help the other). Empathy builds a sense of security and trust. It is closely related to emotional intelligence and is a key to successful relationships.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Positive Psychology

Question 4.
Mindfulness
Answer:
Mindfulness is the basic human ability to be fully aware of where we are and what we are doing. It means that we should not be overly reactive or overwhelmed by what’s going on around us. Mindfulness refers to mental awareness that helps to focus on the ‘Here and Now’. It helps to increase self-regulation, which results in growth and happiness. Mindfulness is maintaining moment by moment awareness of our bodily sensations, environment, thoughts and feelings.

Question 5.
Social resilience
Answer:
According to the American Psychological Association, resilience is the process of adapting well in the face of adversity, trauma, tragedy, threats or significant sources of stress such as family, health, etc. It is the act of ‘bouncing back’ inspite of barriers or set backs.

Social resilience is also called community resilience. It is the ability of groups of people to respond to and recover from adverse situations such as natural disasters, epidemics, war and socio-economic challenges to their community. This is mainly due to strong connections or bonds that the community members have with each other.

5. Answer the following question in 150 – 200 words each.

Question 1.
What are the essential building blocks of resilience?
Answer:
According to the American Psychological Association, resilience is the process of adapting well in the face of adversity, trauma, tragedy, threats or significant sources of stress such as family, health, etc. It is the act of ‘bouncing back’ inspite of barriers or set backs. Resilience helps the person to recover form setbacks with the least negative consequences. Individuals who are resilience tend to-

  1. regain their confidence after a period of emotional disturbance
  2. they are able to maintain their psychological well-being.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Positive Psychology

6. The types of resilience are physical, psychological, emotional and community resilience.

According to Ann Masten, building blocks is ‘ordinary magic’, which involves behaviour that can be easily learnt. The 7 C’s of reilience are-

  1. Competence – Competence is the ability or know-how to handle situations effectively. Competence is acquired through actual experience.
  2. Confidence – True confidence is a strong belief in one’s own abilities. Confidence is gained by demonstrating competence in real life situations.
  3. Connection – Family is the central force in an individual’s life. Connections with other people, schools and communities gives the individual a sense of security that allows him/her to be independent and develop creative solutions.
  4. Character – It refers to a clear sense of right and wrong and a commitment to integrity. An individual with character has a strong sense of self-worth and confidence.
  5. Contribution – An individual who understands the importance of personal contribution develops a sense of purpose that can motivate him/her, further leading to him/her psychological well-being.
  6. Coping – A person who learns to cope effectively with stress is better prepared to overcome life’s challenges.
  7. Control – When an individual realizes that he can control the outcomes of his decisions and actions, he is more likely to know that he has the ability to bounce back.

Question 2.
Recollect the most challenging situation you faced in your life till now and the way you dealt with it. With reference to the 7 C’s of Resilience, which qualities helped you to overcome the challenge? For each of the C’s write the process you adopted to deal with the situation.
Answer:
[Students are expected to answer this question by themselves.]

7. Find out the positive aspects of behaviour from the example given below and answer in one word.

Question 1.
Mahesh studies so attentively that he never gets distracted.
Answer:
Mindfulness

Question 2.
Sujata lost her hands in an accident. Now she has learned to write with her leg.
Answer:
Resilience

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Positive Psychology

Question 3.
Vasanta’s daughter died by cancer. He has opened a rehabilitation center for cancer patients.
Answer:
Empathy

8. Case Study

Anurag was a software engineer working in one of the leading company’s in the USA for almost 5 years. He was in a stable relationship and he had plans to start a family and to settle there. Unfortunately due to the poor economy in USA he lost his job and had to return back to India. He felt distressed as he realized that he had lost everything he had worked so hard to build. This made him feel like a failure.

  1. How do you think Anurag can apply the 7 C’s of resilience to overcome the difficult situation he is in?
  2. As Anurag’s friend how will you empathise with him and help him deal with this challenge?
  3. Anurag has developed a very pessimistic approach after these setbacks, how will you guide him to stay happy and optimistic?

Answer:
According to the American Psychological Association, resilience is the process of adapting well in the face of adversity, trauma, tragedy, threats or significant sources of stress such as family, health, etc. It is the act of ‘bouncing back’ inspite of barriers or set backs. Resilience helps the person to recover form setbacks. Individuals who are resilient tend to-
(i) regain their confidence after a period of emotional disturbance
(ii) maintain their psychological well-being.

Anurag can apply the 7 C’s of resilience as follows-
1. He has already worked in a reputed firm successfully. Hence he has the Competence and Confidence in his own abilities. Although he is feeling a sense of hopelessness and failure, he must live in the ‘Here and Now’ by taking stock of the situation. Character will provide Anurag self worth and provide a sense of purpose and motivation, i.e., Contribution. When he realizes that he can still succeed in life by applying for a similar job here and accepting the situation, i.e., Control he can use effective Coping mechanisms. Besides, he should not forget social support of family and friends, i.e., Connection.

2. As Anurag’s friend, I can understand and feel what he is going through, from his frame of reference. Since, he is feeling distressed and like a failure due to loss of job, I will empathize with him by being encouraging and supportive. I will try to make him understand that with his own competence and experience, he can easily find a well paying job in India. I will also encourage him to improve his professional skills and seek social support from family and friends.

3. It seems natural for a person who was in a good job, stable relationship and successful position to feel pessimistic and like a failure when all of these no longer exist in his life. I will help Anurag to have a positive approach towards the challenges and difficulties in his life, i.e., view all setbacks i.e. loss of job, being sent back from the USA, etc., as opportunities not as obstacles. This will help him to gain a better perspective.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Positive Psychology

Class 12 Psychology Chapter 8 Positive Psychology Intext Questions and Answers

ACTIVITY (Textbook Page. No. 99)

Activity 4

(a) Meera scored poor marks in the examination.
(b) Suresh’s scholarship application got rejected.
(c) Mahesh lost his job.
Imagine yourself in their position and answer the following questions-
(i) How does being in their situation make you feel?
(ii) What do you think about yourself and your future being in their position?
Answer:
(i) You may feel

  • Hopeless and so you might think that your future is dark.
  • Helpless and so you might think that you cannot do anything to get out of the situation.
  • Worthless and so you might think that you are a failure.

(ii) In contrast you may also feel

  • Hopeful and think that the current adverse situation can change in the future.
  • Challenged and think that you have the ability to overcome the adversity.
  • Confident and think that one failure does not define you

Activity 5 (Textbook Page. No. 100)

What would your feeling be in the following situations?
(i) After a long struggle your friend got a job.
(ii) You see a person who just met with an accident and is bleeding profusely.
(iii) Your cousin is awarded a PhD. degree.
Answer:
In all the above examples I would feel empathy i.e., feel what these persons are experiencing.
(i) I will also feel happy and hopeful.
(ii) I will also feel concerned and helpless,
(iii) I will feel elated and proud.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Positive Psychology

Activity 8 (Textbook Page. No. 104)

Think of someone you know who has faced a challenging situation in their life and were successfully able to deal with it. This situation may have been emotionally difficult to deal with like death of a loved one, loss of a job, dealing with chronic illness, failure etc. Answer the following questions and discuss the answers in class.

  1. How did they handle the adverse situation?
  2. Which obstacles did they have to overcome?
  3. In your opinion which specific attitudes and skills helped them cope with the situation?
  4. Do you think they received help and support from others?

Answer:
Sundari, a professor in a reputed college was diagnosed with cancer at age 35 years.

  1. Initially, she was overcome by feelings of intense fear and hopelessness. However, she decided that she would not give up the fight against cancer.
  2. She had to overcome obstacles such as intense pain, fear of chemotherapy, pity shown by some ‘well wishers’, financial constraints, etc.
  3. Specific attitudes that helped her to cope with this trauma were Resilience, fighting spirit interacting with other cancer survivors and good coping skills.
  4. Yes, she received immense support from family, colleagues, friends and support groups like CPAA and Cancer Aid Foundation.

Activity 9 (Textbook Page. No. 105)

Read about the life of Indian boxer Mary Kom. Discuss in class the struggles she faced and how she overcame them to win multiple medals for the country.
Answer:
Mary Kom was born in Kangathei in the north-east state of Manipur. She grew up in a humble surroundings in an agricultural family. She is the eldest of three siblings. Her father had been a keen wrestler. Since a young age, Mary exhibited an inclination towards sports, like athletics and football. She was inspired by Dingko Singh, (a fellow Manipur who won a gold medal in 1998 Asian games ) to take up boxing. She was unable to pass her matriculation exam but still cleared X Std., from NIOS, Imphal. When she was 15, she left home to study at the Sports Academy in Imphal.

Her first coach K. K. Meitei recalls her as being hard working, dedicated, a quick learner with a strong will power. She has won many accolades such as 6 World Championships, Bronze medal at London Olympics (2012), 1 gold medal each at Asian Games (2014) and at Commonwealth Games (2018). She has been awarded the Padma Shri, Padma Bhushan and Padam Vibushan.

Her life story exhibits how Mary overcome obstacles of poverty, family opposition, gender bias to become the undisputed Queen of Boxing. Even at age 37, she still has the hunger to compete and win medals for India. Mary showed resilience as she has returned to the very demanding sport of boxing, after the birth of each child and has exceeded all expectations.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 8 Positive Psychology

Activities 1, 2, 3, and 6
Answer:
[These are personal response questions.]

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Important Questions Chapter 4 Primary Economic Activities

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Geography Important Questions Chapter 4 Primary Economic Activities Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board 12th Geography Important Questions Chapter 4 Primary Economic Activities

Identify the correct correlation.

A: Assertion R : Reasoning
Question 1.
A – Collection of forest products is not done on large scale in the equatorial forest region.
R – Humid and unhealthy climate of the equatorial region.
(a) Only A is correct.
(b) Only R is correct.
(c) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.
(d) Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.
Answer:
(c) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Important Questions Chapter 4 Primary Economic Activities

Question 2.
A – Commercial lumbering is not done in equatorial rainforest.
R – Trees in equatorial rain forest have hardwood.
(a) Only A is correct.
(b) Only R is correct.
(c) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.
(d) Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.
Answer:
(c) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.

Question 3.
A – Lumbering is mostly practiced in coniferous forest region.
R – Coniferous forest are not very dense.
(a) Only A is correct.
(b) Only R is correct.
(c) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.
(d) Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.
Answer:
(a) Only A is correct.

Question 4.
A – Fishing on the coastal areas of Japan is well developed.
R – Presence of cold and warm ocean water currents.
(a) Only A is correct.
(b) Only R is correct.
(c) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.
(d) Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.
Answer:
(c) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Important Questions Chapter 4 Primary Economic Activities

Question 5.
A – Animal husbandry has developed on a commercial basis in North America and Australia.
R – In North and South America animal husbandry is carried out with the help of advanced technology on a commercial basis.
(a) Only A is correct.
(b) Only R is correct.
(c) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.
(d) Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.
Answer:
(c) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.

Identify the incorrect factor

Question 1.
Commercial fishing is carried along the following coastlines.
(a) North-East Atlantic coastline
(b) North-West Atlantic coastline
(c) Eastern coastline of Africa
(d) North-West coastline of Pacific Ocean
Answer:
(c) Eastern coastline of Africa

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Important Questions Chapter 4 Primary Economic Activities

Question 2.
Agriculture is developed in the following continents.
(a) Antarctica
(b) Asia
(c) Europe
(d) North America
Answer:
(a) Antarctica

Question 3.
Animal husbandry is developed on a commercial basis in the following continents.
(a) North America
(b) Australia
(c) Asia
(d) South America
Answer:
(c) Asia

Question 4.
The following physical factors are important for agriculture.
(a) Climate
(b) Transport
(c) Soil
(d) Relief
Answer:
(b) Transport

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Important Questions Chapter 4 Primary Economic Activities

Question 5.
The following economic factors are essential for agriculture.
(a) Transport
(b) Storage facilities
(c) Climate
(d) Capital
Answer:
(c) Climate

On an outline map of the world, show the following with appropriate symbols and prepare-an index.

Question 1.
(a) Horticultural area in Europe
(b) Plantation agriculture area in Asia
(c) Extensive commercial agriculture area in USA and Russia
(d) North-East Atlantic fishing
(e) Countries leading in commercial lumbering in Europe,
(f) Mining areas in Africa
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Important Questions Chapter 4 Primary Economic Activities 1

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 5 Contemporary India: Good Governance

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 5 Contemporary India: Good Governance Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 5 Contemporary India: Good Governance

1. (A) Complete the following statements by selecting the appropriate option.

Question 1.
The concept of Lokpal is taken from
(a) United States
(b) United Kingdom
(c) Sweden
(d) Russia
Answer:
(c) Sweden

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 5 Contemporary India: Good Governance

Question 2.
The Right to Information was passed in the year
(a) 1950
(b) 1976
(c) 2016
(d) 2005
Answer:
(d) 2005

(B) State the appropriate concept for the given statements.

Question 1.
Person investigating complaints against government officials.
Answer:
Ombudsman

2. (A) Complete the concept map.

Question 1.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 5 Contemporary India Good Governance 1
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 5 Contemporary India Good Governance 2

(B) State whether the following statements are true or false with reason.

Question 1.
Lokayukta can investigate complaints against political executives.
Answer:
This statement is True.

  1. Lokayuktas were created by the Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act, 2013 to look into allegations of corruption against public functionaries in the States.
  2. A member of the public can file specific allegations with the Lokayukta for inquiry against any public servant including legislators, political executives, local bodies, public enterprises.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 5 Contemporary India: Good Governance

Question 2.
Good Governance aims at efficient use of natural resources.
Answer:
This statement is True.

  1. One of the core values of good governance is effectiveness and efficiency.
  2. It refers to sustainable human development in the context of efficient use of natural resources and the protection of the environment.

3. Explain the correlation between the following.

Question 1.
Good Governance and E-Governance.
Answer:
Good Governance aims to replace traditional public administration riddled with corruption and redtapism and to make it more citizen-centric, responsible and responsive. The core values of good governance include efficiency, inclusiveness, being consensus-oriented, transparency, accountability, etc. Specific programmes aimed at good governance include setting up of Lokpal and Lokayuktas, Creating of Citizen’s Charters, Right to Information Act, institutional mechanisms like NHRC, NCW, etc.

E-Governance is one of the most important aspects of good governance. It involves the employment of Information and Communications Technology (I.C.T) to facilitate efficient and instant transmission and processing of information as well as storing and retrieval of data. Thus, e-governance helps to implement core values of good governance such as transparency, effectiveness, accountability and participation of citizens.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 5 Contemporary India: Good Governance

4. Express your opinion of the following.

Question 1.
E-governance speeds up governmental processes.
Answer:
I agree with this statement.
E-governance refers to the use of Information and Communications Technology (I.C.T) to carry out the varied and complex aspects of governance and of citizen’s expectations. E-governance facilitates instantaneous transmission and processing of information as well as efficient storing and retrieval of data. This helps in speeding up governmental processes and taking decisions expeditiously. Large scale digitisation of records enables easy and reliable access over the internet.

Question 2.
E-governance brought administration closer to people.
Answer:
I agree with this statement.
E-governance refers to the use of Information and Communications Technology (I.C.T) to carry out the varied and complex aspects of governance and of citizen’s expectations. Large scale digitisation of records enables easy and reliable access over the internet.

E-governance helps in increasing the geographical and demographical reach of the government. Efforts have been made at various levels to improve the delivery of public services and simplify the process of accessing them. The objective of National e-Governance Plan is to bring public services closer to the people i.e., make them citizen centric.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 5 Contemporary India: Good Governance

5. Answer the following question in 80 to 100 words.

Question 1.
Explain various institutions protecting rights of different sections in India.
Answer:
The core values of good governance include administration being consensus-oriented based on principles of inclusiveness and equity as well as responsiveness to the needs of citizens.

The benefits of good governance must be available to all the sections of the society. The constitution provides for socio-economic and political safeguards to certain disadvantaged sections of the society. Besides the safeguards, provided for them the government has created several commissions to safeguard the rights of different sections of the society. These include the following:
1. National Commission for Scheduled Castes – Deals with matters related to the safeguards provided in the constitution for the Scheduled Castes and inquire into specific complaints relating to deprivation of rights of the Schedule Castes.

2. National Commission for Scheduled Tribes – Deals with matters related to the safeguards provided in the constitution for the Scheduled Tribes and inquire into specific complaints relating to deprivation of rights of the Schedule Tribes.

3. National Human Rights Commission – It deals with protection of rights relating to life, liberty, equality and dignity guaranteed by the constitution.

4. National Commission for Women – This was created to facilitate the redressal of grievances and accelerate socio-economic development of women.

5. National Commission for the Protection of Child Rights – It seeks to protect, promote and defend child rights in the country. The Commission defines a child as a person in the 0 to 18 years of age group.

6. National Commission for Backward Classes – The focus is welfare of socially and economically backward classes.

7. National Commission for Minorities – It monitors the working of the safeguards for minorities provided in the Constitution and by laws enacted by the Parliament and the State Legislatures. The National Commission for Minorities recognises the following religious communities as minority communities: Muslim, Sikh, Christian, Buddhist, Parsis and Jain.

8. National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission – This provides for a consumer disputes redressal mechanism e.g.,consumer courts are set up.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 5 Contemporary India: Good Governance

6. Answer the following question with reference to the given points.

Question 1.
Explain in detail the following values of Good Governance.
(a) participation
(b) transparency
(c) responsiveness
(d) accountability
Answer:
In development administration, not only the government but also citizens and NGO’s play a vital role. The term ‘governance’ is used to describe this cooperative effort of the government and non-governmental bodies in public administration. Governance is broader than government as

  1. it includes formal institutions of government e.g., legislature, bureaucracy as well as informal institutions e.g., NGO’s.
  2. it aims to improve the performance of public institutions with focus on values like accountability, transparency, citizen feedback, etc.

The Good Governance approach aims at the following-

  1. to reform the traditional, huge-sized public administration which was riddled with red tape and corruption.
  2. to replace the archaic systems with responsible, participative and equitable systems.
  3. to look at interlinkages between government and civil society.
  4. to make the administration citizen-centered and not rule bound.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 5 Contemporary India Good Governance 3

a. Participation – The effective functioning of any democratic system requires that people get an opportunity to participate in the process of decision making and its implementation.

b. Transparency – This value of good governance enables people to keep the government under scrutiny for e.g., Right to Information Act (2005) provides citizens access to information about public policies and actions.

c. Responsiveness – The government must be prompt and sensitive while designing policies to serve all stake holders within a reasonable time frame.

d. Accountability – This cannot be enforced without the rule of law and transparency. Any organization is accountable to those who will be affected by it’s decisions and actions, i.e. to stakeholders. Governmental institutions, private sector and civil society institutions must be accountable.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 5 Contemporary India: Good Governance

Activity

Question 1.
Find out the information regarding State level commissions working for safeguarding rights of various sections of society (Text Book Page No. 58)
Answer:
The State Level Commissions are-
1. State Information Commission was constituted with the objective to fulfill the mandate assigned in the RTI Act 2005. It consists of State Information Commissioners headed by the State Chief Information Commissioner.

2. State Commission for Women was constituted on 25th January 1993. It consists of a chair person, 6 nonofficial members, a member secretary and a DGP as ex-officio member. It aims to investigate into practices derogatory to women and suggest remedial measures. It also advises the government on matters related to upliftment to the status of women.

3. State Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes was established by the Social Justice and Special Assistance Department dated 1st March 2005. It’s role is to study existing socio-economic, political and educational situation of Scheduled Castes and Tribes and to suggest measures to improve the same. It also investigates grievances raised by members of Scheduled Castes and Schedules Tribes.

4. State Human Rights Commission (MSHRC) was established on 6th March 2001 to protect, promote and enforce human rights. It can inquire suo motu (of its own accord) or on petition presented to it, into complaints of violation of human rights.

5. State Commission for Protection of Child’s Rights was set up in July 2007 to protect and defend child rights in the State.

6. State Commission for Minorities – was set up to safeguard the interests of religious and linguistic minorities.

Question 2.
Find out information about Ombudsman. (Text Book Page No. 58)
Answer:
Ombudsman is a Swedish term. In general, it means “a legal representative” or an official appointed to investigate complaints especially against public officials. The first country to set up ombudsman institution in 1809 was Sweden. In India, the Lokpal (for centre) and Lokayuktas (for States) are the ombudsman. The ARC (1966-70) headed by Morarji Desai recommended the institution of Lokpal and the Bill was first introduced in Parliament in 1968. Orissa was the first State to constitute institution of Lokayukta.

After the India Against Corruption Movement led by Anna Hazare, the Lokpal and Lokayuktas Bill, 2013 was passed in Parliament and came into force on 16th January 2014. The Lokpal is a multimember body, consisting of a chairperson and a maximum of 8 members. The Lokpal and Lokayuktas inquire into allegations of corruption / maladministration against public functionaries.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 5 Contemporary India: Good Governance

Class 12 Political Science Chapter 5 Contemporary India: Good Governance Intext Questions and Answers

ACTIVITY (Text Book Page No. 48)

Question 1.
Identify NGO’s that are working in your Area/City/State. Look at the issues and work done by them. In which NGO would you like to work?
Answer:
1. For environmental causes

  • Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS)
  • Vanshakti
  • Earth5R
  • Bombay Environmental Action Group (BEAG)
  • Vasundhara
  • PETA

2. For child welfare

  • Child Right and You (CRY)
  • Prerana
  • Helen Keller Institute
  • Bal Asha Trust
  • Salaam Baalak Trust
  • Akansha Foundation
  • Apnalaya

3. For educational purposes

  • Teach for India
  • Door step School
  • Magic Bus India Foundation
  • Pratham Education Foundation
  • VIDYA .
  • Abhilasha Foundation

4. For women’s welfare

  • Society for Nutrition, Education and Health Action (SNEHA)
  • Apne Aap Women’s Collective (AAWC)
  • Women’s India Trust (WIT)
  • MAJLIS

5. For the disabled/ill/aged

  • AASRA
  • National Association for the Blind (NAB)
  • ALERT-India (leprosy patients)
  • Cancer Patients Aid Association (CPAA)
  • Committed Action for Relief and Education (CARE)
  • Cheshire Homes India

Question 2.
Find out E-governance initiatives of Government of Maharashtra (Text Book Page No. 54)
Answer:
Maharashtra is a pioneer in citizen centric e-governance initiatives such as

  1. SARITA (Stamps and Registration Information Technology based Administration) for registration of 67 different types of documents over the entire State.
  2. SETU (Integrated Citizen Facilitation Centres) act as one stop service centre for people who have to visit government offices for permits/affidavits, etc. The Society for promotion of Excellence and Transparency for better Understanding of the requirements of citizen in interface with government.
  3. E-validity for caste/minority status certificates.
  4. Online Disability certificates.
  5. SEVARTH – integrated system to provide electronic salary payment to all government personnel.
  6. SARTHI – Computerisation of driving license and vehicle registration.
  7. Rojgar Wahini – to provide free services like vocational guidance, job opportunities, self-employment guidance, etc.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 5 Contemporary India: Good Governance

Question 3.
Consumer Protection Act (1986) (Text Book Page No. 56)
Answer:
The Consumer Protection Act was enacted by Parliament in 1986 to protect the interests of consumers in India. It is replaced by the Consumer Protection Act 2019.
It aims to check unfair trade practices, ‘defects in goods’, and ‘deficiencies in services’ and has led to a widespread network of consumer fora and appellate courts all over the country. The Act provided six rights to consumers:

  • Right to seek redressal against unfair trade practices.
  • Right to be heard and be assured that their interests receive due consideration at an appropriate forum.
  • Right to be assured wherever possible, access to a variety of goods and services at competitive prices.
  • Right to be informed about the quality, standard, price of goods and services.
  • Right to be protected against marketing of goods and services which are hazardous to life and property.
  • Right to consumer education.

To ensure consumer rights, Consumer Disputes Redressal System included a three-tier level i.e.,

  • National Consumer Commission (set up by the central government).
  • State Consumer Commission (set up by each State).
  • District Consumer Forum (in each district of the State).

The redressal agencies (consumer courts) set up were. Central Consumer Protection Council and State Consumer Councils. Consumer courts are special-purpose courts dealing with cases involving consumer disputes, conflicts and grievances.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 7 First Aid in Mental Health

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 7 First Aid in Mental Health Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 7 First Aid in Mental Health

1. Choose the correct option and complete the following statements.

Question 1.
One of the major obstacles to getting help from a mental health professional is the ………………… attached to mental illness.
(a) policy
(b) stigma
(c) society
Answer:
(b) stigma

Question 2.
Friends and family are not a substitute for …………………..
(a) solving problems
(b) giving solutions
(c) professional help
Answer:
(c) professional help

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 7 First Aid in Mental Health

Question 3.
In our culture the ………………….. of an individual is considered to be the reflection of one’s family.
(a) intelligence
(b) behaviour
(c) status
Answer:
(b) behaviour

Question 4.
Individuals who experience ………………… commonly have a negative thinking style.
(a) depression
(b) phobia
(c) acute stress
Answer:
(a) depression

2. Answer the following questions in 35 – 40 words each.

Question 1.
Describe the term Mental Health First Aid?
Answer:
Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) is an internationally recognized training programme designed to teach people how to identify the signs and symptoms of mental health problems and to provide assistance on a first aid basis. MHFA was originally developed by Betty Kitchener and Anthony Jorm.

First Aid in Mental Health is a concept based on the idea of ‘prevention is better than cure’. If the early signs of mental illness are recognized, it can help in the following ways.

  1. Diagnosis – timely diagnosis at the onset of mental illness helps to prevent it from developing into a more severe form.
  2. Intervention – early intervention helps to get professional help.
  3. Relapse prevention – it prevent reoccurrence of symptom of the mental illness.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 7 First Aid in Mental Health

Question 2.
What are the stigmas attached to mental illness?
Answer:
One of the major obstacles to getting help from a mental health professional is the stigma that is attached to mental illness. We fear things that we do not understand. In the same way, our lack of understanding of mental illness makes us fear it.
This lack of knowledge and awareness makes us-

  1. Blame the individual, i.e., think that mental illness is a personal failing or weakness.
  2. Think that mental illness is caused as punishment for our sins.
  3. Think that the person is intentionally behaving in an inappropriate way.

Question 3.
Anxiety disrupts day to day functioning of an individual : State two predispositional factors contributing to anxiety.
Answer:
Anxiety that is excessive or persists after the anxiety creating situation has subsided leads to anxiety disorders such as phobias, acute stress disorder, etc.
Predispositional factors in anxiety are-

  1. Genetic factors – if anyone in the family has anxiety issues, then the person will be at a higher risk of exhibiting high levels of anxiety as compared to other persons.
  2. Childhood trauma such as physical or mental neglect or abuse, death of a loved one, parental divorce, etc.

Question 4.
Your friend confided in you that he is suffering from anxiety.
Suggest two self- help strategies to help him deal with this issue.
Answer:
The self help strategies that can be suggested to help him deal with excessive anxiety are-

  1. Engage in some activity that he always wanted to pursue for e.g., pottery, writing, sketching or voluntary social service.
  2. Indulge in physical activity like exercise, outdoor games or trekking.
  3. Relaxation techniques like laughter therapy, meditation and breathing techniques.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 7 First Aid in Mental Health

3. Answer the following in 80 – 100 words based on the given points.

Question 1.
Explain the reasons why First Aid in Mental Health is required.
(a) Stigma associated with mental health
(b) Shame
(c) People do not always know how to respond
(d) People may not always seek professional help
Answer:
MHFA is an internationally recognized training programme whose objective is to teach people how to identify the signs and symptoms of mental health problems and to provide assistance on a first aid basis.
(a) Stigma associated with mental health:
Lack of understanding about mental illness makes us fear it. This lack of awareness leads us to blame the person for behaving inappropriately or showing personal failing.

(b) Shame:
Often, a person who has been diagnosed with a mental illness is ridiculed or blamed. He/she experiences shame, withdraws from social interaction and does not reach out to others or seek help. Hence, it is beneficial to show understanding and provide support.

(c) People do not always know how to respond:
Most people may not respond in an adequate way to a mentally ill person who reaches out to them. Sometimes, their advice/help may do more harm than good. However, MHFA programme can help friends/family to identify early signs of mental illness and help the person to get professional help.

(d) People may not always seek professional help:
The main reasons for this is-

  1. Culture – Stigma attached to mental illness prevents people from seeking professional help as it may hurt the reputation of the family.
  2. Advice from elders – A mentally ill person may incorrectly believe that advice of elders alone is sufficient to cure his illness.
  3. Superstitions – If the person is convinced that his//her mental illness is caused due to sins/curses etc., they will not want to visit a mental health professional. Hence, they will be deprived of the benefits of early intervention.

Question 2.
Explain the ALGEE Model in your own words.
(a) Approach, Assess and Assist in any crisis
(b) Listen non-judgmentally
(c) Give support and information
(d) Encourage the person to get professional help
(e) Encourage self-help and other support strategies
Answer:
ALGEE is an action plan to carry out First Aid in Mental Health.
(a) Approach, Assess and Assist in any crisis – An attempt is made to understand the situation and observe if there are behavioural changes in the person whom we are concerned about.

(b) Listen non-judgmentally – We should listen to the other person without letting our opinions influence us. We should not judge/ criticise but listen with acceptance and empathy. It does not imply that we agree with what the other person is saying but it ensures that the person feels supported.

(c) Give support and information – This helps the person to feel more in control of the situation since they have emotional and informational support.

(d) Encourage the person to get professional help – Persons suffering from mental illness may hesitate to seek help due to lack of knowledge or due to stigma attached. Others may not know how to respond to someone showing ‘red flags’ of mental illness and may do more harm than good. Mental health professionals are trained to help the person to identify the problem and cope with the situation.

(e) Encourage self-help and other support strategies – Self-help strategies are tasks that help to increase our resources to deal with stress and to maintain mental health such as exercise, adequate sleep, having hobbies, etc.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 7 First Aid in Mental Health

Question 3.
Enumerate the various symptoms that are exhibited by an individual with anxiety disorders.
(a) Physical Symptoms
(b) Psychological Symptoms
(c) Behavioural Symptoms
Answer:
Anxiety is an emotion characterised by feelings of tension, hopelessness, etc. Excessive level of anxiety which persists even after the anxiety producing situation has gone away, can lead to anxiety disorders.
(a) Physical Symptoms

  1. Heart palpitations and rapid heart rate
  2. Shortness of breath
  3. Dizziness or headaches
  4. Restlessness, tremors and shaking

(b) Psychological Symptoms

  1. Mind racing or going blank
  2. Difficulty in concentration
  3. Forgetfulness
  4. Problems in decision making
  5. Irritability, impatience and anger

(c) Behavioural Symptoms

  1. Avoiding people and situations
  2. Repetitive checking
  3. Strong urge to escape the situation

Question 4.
Explain excessive dependence on the internet.
(a) Meaning
(b) Four C’s to identify excessive internet usage
(c) Red flags that indicate internet addiction.
Answer:
(a) Meaning
The amount of time as well as reason for using the internet may become a matter of concern for e.g., online gambling, gaming, etc. The person may socialise more online with friends than real life socialising. Spending excess time online may cause the person to neglect family, relationships, work etc. Virtual world enables games/gambling almost continuously. This leads to the person neglecting personal hygiene, real life relationships and become withdrawn and irresponsible. The person may feel guilty or defensive about internet use. He/ she may panic in the absence of internet service. A growing dependence on internet refers to an inability to stop and down down.

(b) Four C’s to identify excessive internet usage
Excessive internet usage is characterised by extensive, problematic addiction to the use of computer and internet. It signifies poorly controlled preoccupations or behaviour regarding such usage. Excessive internet usage leads to personal distress and social impairment.
The four C’s to identify excessive internet usage are as follows-

  1. Craving – Do you have an intense desire to use the internet?
  2. Control – Do you have an inability to control your self using the internet?
  3. Compulsion – Do you find it difficult to stop using the internet? Even though you know you should not spend so much time on it?
  4. Consequence – Have you ever experienced any physical or psychological ill effects as a result of excessive use of the internet? If you answer a ‘yes’ for at least three of the C’s, it can be a matter of concern.

(c) Red flags that indicate internet addiction
The Red Flags that indicate over dependence on internet are-

  1. Feelings of euphoria while using the internet.
  2. Physical symptoms like headache, dry eyes, etc.
  3. Inability to keep to schedules and boredom with routine tasks.
  4. Poor personal hygiene and nutrition to remain online.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 7 First Aid in Mental Health

4. Analysis the following case study.

Sujata is now a sad and lonely girl. She has cut off herself from all her relatives and family friends. She doesn’t participate in any college programmes nor family functions. She is mostly found in the library all by herself. She has lost her self-confidence. At home she prefers eating in the bedroom and mostly indulges in television or mobile activities. Apply the ALGEE model and help Sujata to evolve in her mental health.
Answer:
Sujata is showing symptoms of depression and anxiety such as sadness, withdrawing from family/ friends and social activities. The ALGEE model can be used.

  1. Approach, assess and assist in any crisis – Behavioural changes are very noticeable in Sujata. I can voice my concern to the teachers/ counsellor of the school or to her family members.
  2. Listen in a non-judgemental manner -1 will try to meet Sujata in the library or any place where she feels comfortable. I will explain my concerns to her about not interacting with others and overuse of mobile phones. I will listen patiently and compassionately.
  3. Give support and information – Let Sujata know that she has emotional support of her friends. There is nothing to feel guilty or ashamed of. She should hence be forthcoming about her problems.
  4. Encourage her to get professional help – I will encourage her to meet the college counsellor who will be able to help her professionally.
  5. Encourage self-help strategies – This will help Sujata to regain control over her life. Some positive measures include breathing exercises, yoga, laughter therapy, etc.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 1 Population Part 1

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 1 Population Part 1 Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 1 Population Part 1

1. Identify the correct correlation.

A – Assertion R – Reasoning
Question 1.
A – Areas which have fertile soil have dense population.
R – Fertile soils are good for agriculture.
(a) Only A is correct.
(b) Only R is correct.
(c) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.
(d) Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.
Answer:
(c) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.

Question 2.
A – Population of a region does not change.
R – Birth rate, death rate and migration affect the population of a region.
(a) Only A is correct.
(b) Only R is correct.
(c) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.
(d) Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.
Answer:
(b) Only R is correct.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 3.
A – In stage 2, death rate reduces but birth rate is constant.
R – Population increases rapidly in stage 2.
(a) Only A is correct.
(b) Only R is correct.
(c) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.
(d) Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.
Answer:
(c) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.

Question 4.
A – In stage 5 death rate is more than birth rate.
R – Population is declining in stage 5.
(a) Only A is correct.
(b) Only R is correct.
(c) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.
(d) Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.
Answer:
(c) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.

Question 5.
A – In stage 1 both death rate and birth rate are high.
R – Population growth is stable in stage 1.
(a) Only A is correct.
(b) Only R is correct.
(c) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.
(d) Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.
Answer:
(c) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.

2. Write short notes on.

Question 1.
Impact of relief on population distribution.
Answer:
1. Relief is one of the most important factors influencing the distribution of population.

2. Generally, mountains are thinly populated, plains are thickly populated and plateaus are moderately populated.

3. The mountains and hilly areas are less populated because of limited means of livelihood; agriculture is poorly developed and transportation facilities are limited. For example, north eastern states of India have less population due to hilly and mountainous relief.

4. On the other hand, plains are densely populated because of fertile soil and well-developed agriculture. Due to plain relief, it is easy to construct roads and develop industries. Better employment facilities attract people in these areas. For example, Ganga plains are thickly populated.

5. In short, we can say plains are densely populated and mountains and plateaus are sparsely populated.

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Question 2.
Correlation between birth rate and death rate.
Answer:

  • Birth rate and death rate are the important components of population change.
  • Birth rate is the number of live births in a year per thousand population.
  • Death rate is the number of deaths in a year per thousand population.
  • Population growth depends upon birth rate and death rate in a year.
  • Population growth occurs not only by increasing birth rate but also because of decreasing death rate.
  • When birth rate is more than death rate, population increases.
  • When birth rate is less than death rate, population decreases.
  • If both, birth rate and death rate is same then population is said to remain stable. However, the birth rate and death rate being same is only a hypothetical situation.

Question 3.
Stage 3 of Demographic Transition Theory.
Answer:
1. Stage 3 of Demographic Transition Theory is the stage of expanding population.

2. From second stage to this stage, death rates are decreasing. Birth rates are also decreasing. Decrease in both birth rates and death rates, reduces the rate of growth of population. But actually, population is growing because the birth rates are higher than death rates.

3. In this stage, since the country is making progress, the income of the people is above the subsistence level and there is an improvement in the standard of living of the people. Poverty is also reducing.

4. There is development of technology as a result secondary and tertiary activities develop.

5. Due to increase in education level, people understand the importance of family planning so size of family reduces.

6. In short in stage 3 countries are moving from developing stage to developed stage.

3. Give geographical reasons.

Question 1.
India is passing through Stage 3 of demographic transition.
Answer:

  • In India, since there is a decrease in the birth rates and death rates, the growth rate of population is also decreasing.
  • Due to the development in the country, income of the people has reached above subsistence level, standard of living is improved, poverty is decreasing, technology is developing.
  • Number of people engaged in secondary and tertiary activities are increasing.
  • Due to increase in the literacy rate, people have understood the importance of family planning. Therefore, there is a decrease in the size of family.
  • Hence, India is passing through Stage 3 of demographic transition.

Question 2.
Population distribution is uneven.
Answer:
1. Distribution of population in the world is very uneven because distribution of population depends upon many physical factors such as relief, climate, availability of water supply, soil etc.

2. For example, if you consider relief factor, mountains and hilly areas are thinly populated. Plateau regions are moderately populated and plains are densely populated. The Himalayan region in India is thinly populated but the Gangatic plains are thickly populated and Deccan plateau region are moderately populated.

3. The distribution of population also depends upon human factors such as agriculture, mining, transportation, urbanisation etc.

4. For example, agriculture or mining activities support large population since they provide source of living to many people.

5. Sometimes government policies also affect population distribution. For example, government provided land, water, electricity at concessional rate in New Mumbai area to attract people and to reduce pressure of population in Mumbai city.

Question 3.
Population increases because of transportation facilities.
Answer:
1. The development of roads and railways makes the region more accessible.

2. Such areas provide favourable conditions for the development and manufacturing industries, which generate employment. Therefore, people from different areas migrate in search of jobs. Thus, such areas become densely populated. For example, Gangetic plain of India, where the density of roads and railways is highest in India.

3. Population increases in port cities due to availability of sea transport for the development of trade. Therefore, the coastal region is densely populated. For example, many port cities like Chennai, Mumbai are developed on the east and west coast of India.

4. Thus, population increases because of transportation facilities.

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Question 4.
Secondary and tertiary activities increase in the third stage of demographic transition.
Answer:

  • In Stage 3 of demographic transition theory, growth rate of population decreases.
  • As a result, the income of the people in the country reaches above subsistence level. Poverty rate decreases and standard of living increases. Therefore, the use of technology increases and this generates an employment in secondary and tertiary activities.
  • Due to increase in education level and development of health facilities there is increase in employment in tertiary sector.
  • Thus, secondary and tertiary activities increase in the third stage of demographic transition.

Question 5.
Population may increase though birth rates are low.
Answer:
The growth of population depends upon the difference between number of live births in a year per thousand population and number of deaths in a year per thousand population. Therefore, growth of population depends upon both birth rate and death rate.

When birth rate is low and death rate is also low, then though the number of live births per thousand population are less, but due to a smaller number of deaths per thousand population, there is increase in population of the country.

Question 6.
Population density is a function of population and area of a region.
Answer:
The number of people living in any area or country is called total population of the area or country.

Density of population is the ratio between total population and a total area of that region or country.

For example, as per the census of 2011, Density of population in India is 325 persons per sq. km. It is a ratio between total population in India and total area of India in sq. kms.

In some countries total population may be less but the density of population is high due to small area of the country. For example, Bangladesh’s total population is less but area of country is small therefore, density of population is high.

In some countries total population may be more but the density of population is low due to very large area of the country. For example, Brazil has more total population but area of country is also large therefore, density of population is low.

Thus, population density is a function of population and area of a region.

4. Answer the following questions in detail.

Question 1.
Explain the physical factors affecting distribution of population.
Answer:
Physical factors affecting distribution of population are:
(i) Relief
(ii) Climate
(iii) Availability of water
(iv) Soils

(i) Relief

  • Distribution of population is greatly affected by relied features.
  • Generally, flat plains or gently sloping lands are densely populated.
  • Plains are suitable for agricultural activities.
  • In these areas it is easier to construct roads and railways and development of industries and trade. As a result, many people are attracted to plains and they become densely populated. For example, Ganga plains are thickly populated.
  • On the other hand, in mountainous and hilly areas density of population is low. This is because in such areas agricultural development is difficult.
  • The construction and development of transport facilities is very difficult and costly too. Such areas are inaccessible.
  • Due to inaccessibility, movement of goods and people are restricted. Therefore, mountainous and hilly areas are thinly populated. For example, north eastern states of India have less population due to hilly and mountainous relief.

(ii) Climate

  • Climate is the most important factor of all the factors influencing the distribution of population.
  • Areas having very hot or very cold climate, heavy rainfall are very uncomfortable for human settlement. Such areas are thinly populated.
  • For example, polar regions where Eskimos and Lapps live are sparsely populated due to extreme cold climate. Sahara Desert is sparsely populated due to extreme hot climate.
  • On the other hand, areas with equable climate, that is climate having not much seasonal variation attract people. People feel comfortable to stay in these areas.
  • For example, coastal areas have dense population because of equable climate and wide scope for the development of agriculture, industries and trade.

(iii) Availability of water

  • Water is the most important factor affecting distribution of population. It is the most essential factor for all human activities.
  • Therefore, more people live in areas where potable and sufficient water is available. As a result of this most of the river valleys are densely populated i.e. Nile river valley.
  • Even in desert areas there is more population near oasis due to availability of water.

(iv) Soil

  • Fertile soils are most important for the development of agriculture.
  • The areas having fertile alluvial soil have developed intensive agriculture and support large number of people and hence they are densely populated, e.g., Gangetic Plain, Plains of Mississippi, Irrawaddy and Yangtze etc.
  • Similarly, in the areas having very fertile black cotton soil or regur soil, agriculture is well developed and hence such areas are densely populated.
  • The volcanic soil is very fertile hence, it supports agriculture. Therefore, slopes of volcanic mountains have dense population. For example, volcanic mountain slopes of Java island.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 2.
In the first and fifth stage of the demographic transition, population growth is almost nil. What is the difference between the two stages then?
Answer:

  • In the stage 1 both birth rates and death rates are high. The difference between the two is very less and therefore, population is stable.
  • In stage 1 birth rates are high due to limited educational opportunities, people feel having many children is good. Therefore, families are big.
  • In stage 1, due to lack of sanitation facilities, medical facilities, spread of contagious diseases, malnutrition, etc., death rate is high.
  • In stage 5 birth rates and death rates are very low. Birth rates are almost equal to death rates.
  • As a result, the population growth is almost minimal or very low or even negative in case of some countries.
  • In stage 5, death rate is low because of improved medical facilities, eradication of contagious diseases and healthy environment.
  • In stage 5, due to increase in awareness among the people, birth rate is low.

Question 3.
Discuss the problems faced by counties in stage 4 and stage 5.
Answer:
Problems faced by stage 4 countries are as under:

  • The death rate is very low and going down as the medical facilities have improved and pandemic like plague, cholera, small pox, etc., are eradicated.
  • Birth rate is the same as death rate so population growth is minimal.
  • Problems faces by stage 5 countries are as under:
  • In this stage the birth rate is very low and death rate is high. Therefore, the growth of population is slow or negative growth of population is seen.
  • Due to large number of old people the death rate is high and due to a smaller number of young people birth rate is low.
  • Due to large number of old people, dependent population is high.
  • Due to less young age population, working population is limited.
  • As a result, the size of dependant population is larger than active population and it has adverse effect on economy of the country.

5. Draw a neat labelled diagram for demographic transition theory and its various stages.
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 1 Population Part 1 1

6. Mark and name the following on the outline map of the world with suitable index.

(a) Highly populated region in Australia.
(b) Sparsely populated region in India.
(c) Any 2 countries in stage 5 of demography transition theory.
(d) Any 2 countries in stage 2 of demographic transition theory.
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 1 Population Part 1 2

Class 12 Geography Chapter 1 Population Part 1 Intext Questions and Answers

Try These

Question 1.
Observe the pie charts shown in the figure and answer the following questions. (Text book pg.no – 1)
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 1 Population Part 1 3

  1. Which continent has least population?
  2. Which continent has the least landmass and also least population?
  3. Which continent has the most land mass as well as most of the population?
  4. Which continent is missing in one of the pie charts? Why?

Answer:

  1. The continent which has the least population is Australia.
  2. The continent which has the least land mass and also least population is Australia.
  3. The continent which has the most land mass and also most population is Asia.
  4. The continent of Antarctica is missing in population distribution chart, because it has no permanent human settlement.

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Question 2.
Look at the below figure and answer the questions that follow:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 1 Population Part 1 4

  1. What does the image show?
  2. What happens to the population when the deaths are more than births?
  3. What happens to the population when births are more than deaths?
  4. What happens when both are same? Is it possible?

Answer:

  1. The image shows balance between birth rate and death rate.
  2. Population growth may be less or in some countries there may be negative growth.
  3. When births are more than deaths, then population growth is faster.
  4. When both births and deaths are same, population will be stagnant. This is not possible for any country.

Give it a try

Question 1.
The below table shows the 10 most populated countries in the world in 2018 with their areas. Calculate their population densities and complete the table. (Text book pg.no – 1)
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 1 Population Part 1 5
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 1 Population Part 1 6

Question 2.
The satellite image given in Fig. They show the same area from two different periods. (Text book pg.no – 6)
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 1 Population Part 1 7

  1. What difference do you see?
  2. What might have caused these changes?

Answer:
1. The satellite image ‘A’ is image of the year 2005 and satellite image ‘B’ is of the year 2019. That means there is a difference of 14 years in these two images.

2. In image ‘A’ you can see that there are a few roads, limited settlements and most of the areas are covered by agricultural fields, and there is thin population.

3. When we compare the image ‘A’ with the image ‘B’, we find that in image ‘B’ the number of major roads (highway) and minor roads have increased. As a result, the area has become more accessible and thickly populated.

Due to development of industries and employment opportunities there is development of transport.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 3.
1. Can you calculate the death rate if the total number of deaths in the above city was 2,986 in the same year?
2. On the basis of the birth rates given in earlier and death rates calculated, what change in population do you observe?
Answer:
1. Total population of a city is 223000 and total deaths in the city are 2986 in that year.
Death Rate = \(\frac {Total number of deaths in a year}{Total population in that year}\) × 1000
Death Rate = \(\frac {2896}{223000}\) × 1000 = 13.39
Therefore, the death rate is 13.39.

2. In earlier example birth rate was 14.57 and the death rates calculated is 13.39. It means death rate have decreased by 1.8. It means the population has increased.

Question 4.
Look at the graph in Fig. carefully. Answer the following questions: (Text book pg.no – 9)
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 1 Population Part 1 8

  1. What do the blue and black lines indicate?
  2. What does the green part in the graph show?
  3. What does the blue part in the graph show?
  4. In which stages is the birth rate more than the death rate?
  5. In which stages is the birth rate same as the death rate?
  6. In which stage is the death rate being more than birth rate?

Answer:

  1. Blue lines indicate birth rate and black lines indicate death rate.
  2. Green part in the graph shows the natural increase of population.
  3. Blue part in the graph shows the natural decrease of population.
  4. In stage 2 and 3 birth rates is more than death rate.
  5. In stage 4 the birth rate is same as the death rate.
  6. In stage 5 the death rate is more than birth rate.

Make friends with maps!

Question 1.
Look at the map in Fig. Compare it with the physical map of the world given in Textbook Page No. 83. Try to understand the impact of physical factors on population distribution. Complete the table accordingly. (Text book pg.no – 2)
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 1 Population Part 1 9
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 1 Population Part 1 10
Answer:

Continent Physical factors responsible for High population Physical factors responsible for less population
North America Coastal Areas Forest, deserts, snow covered land
Asia Coastal areas and Fertile Plains Mountains and deserts
Europe Coastal areas and fertile Plains Mountains, snow covered areas
Africa Coastal Areas Dense forest, mountains and deserts
South America Coastal Areas Mountains, dense forest and deserts
Australia Coastal Areas Hilly regions and deserts
Antarctica Snow covered areas

Question 2.
Refer to the map showing rice producing regions of the world in Fig. Relate it with the population map of the world in Fig. Write the conclusions in your own words. (Text book pg.no – 5)
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 1 Population Part 1 12
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 1 Population Part 1 13
Answer:
Areas of high density of population in Fig 1.2 if we compare with world map Fig 1.4 showing major rice producing areas in the world, we found that the areas of major rice production and areas of high density / thick population are the same areas.
Conclusion:
Rice cultivation is possible only in those areas where there is fertile alluvial soil and assured supply of water.
Rice producing areas and areas of dense population in the world are the river flood plains and delta of rivers like Kaveri, Krishna, Godavari and Ganga in India, Brahmaputra in Bangladesh, Irrawaddy in Myanmar, Yangtze and Yellow in China, Mekong in Laos and Cambodia etc. These areas are high density areas in the world.

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Can you tell?

Question 1.
Can you think of the factors besides physiography which affect the distribution of population? Make a list. (Text book pg.no – 3)
Answer:

Physical / Human factors High density of population Low density of population
Availability of potable water River valleys Deserts
Climate Equable climate – coastal areas Extreme climate – polar regions
Availability of resources Minerals, fertile soil Limited resources
Economic Transportation, employment opportunities, urbanisation Less employment opportunities, poor economic growth
Social Migration from different parts of India in Mumbai Out migration from Konkan to Mumbai
Government Policy Favourable government policies to attract people Unfavourable government policies

Question 2.
Observe the table 1.4. Arrange data in ascending order for birth rate and death rates respectively. (Text book pg.no – 8)

Country Crude BR (2017) Crude DR (2017)
Sweden 11.5 9.1
India 18.1 7.2
Greece 8.2 11.6
China 12.4 7.1
USA 11.8 8.5
Niger 46.5 8.5

Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 1 Population Part 1 16

Question 3.
Look at the Fig. and answer the following questions. (Text book pg.no – 9)
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 1 Population Part 1 17

  1. If the crude birth rate is 7 and crude death rate is 8 then which stage of demographic transition is the country in?
  2. If a country has crude death rate of 20 and crude birth rate of 24, then which stage of demographic transition is the country in? [Text book pg.no – 10]

Answer:

  1. The country is in stage 5 of demographic transition.
  2. The country is in stage 3 of demographic transition.

Find out.

Question 1.
(i) Are Eskimos still living in their conventional ways?
(ii) What changes can be seen in their lifestyle now? (Text book pg.no – 4)
Answer:
(i) No, Eskimos are not living in their conventional way due to the changing environment as a result of increased contacts with societies to the south.

(ii) Eskimo life has changed greatly because of increased contacts with societies to the south.

  • They were using harpoons for hunting, now they are using rifles. They were using dogs for land transport, now they are using snowmobiles.
  • Outboard motors, store-bought clothing and many other manufactured products have entered into their culture.
  • Women are taking salaried jobs to earn currency for store-bought products. As a result, women are losing their knowledge of traditional skills such as sewing animal skin.
  • Many Eskimos are not doing nomadic hunting which was their main activity. Now they are living in northern towns and cities and working in mines and oil fields.
  • Some Eskimos in Canada have formed cooperative societies for marketing their handicrafts, fish catches, tourism ventures etc.

Use your brain power!

Question 1.
(i) Can lakes be a factor for concentration of population? Find examples.
(ii) Which water bodies are surrounded by dense population in Maharashtra? (Text book pg.no – 4)
Answer:
(i) Man always likes to settle near a waterbody. People are attracted towards lakes.

Lakes are not only a source of fresh water but also a source of fish. They also provide water supply for industries, agriculture and provide water transport. They provide good sites to develop tourism due to greenery of trees surrounding the lake, scope for boating, cool breeze and pleasant atmosphere.

For example, Lake Victoria in Africa, supports 40 million people, with population density 250 persons per sq. km. The growth rate of the population is 3.5 percent each year, which is among the highest growth rates in the world.

The Victoria lake supports the largest freshwater fishery in the world. The fish catch from the lake is more than one million and it employs two lakh people in direct fishing and supports livelihood to four million people.

Five Great lakes in USA – Superior, Huron, Michigan, Erie and Ontario make up the largest body of freshwater on earth. They support more than 30 million people. This equates to 10 percent of USA residents and 30 percent Canadian residents.

The lakes have been a major source for transportation, trade, fishing, tourism, power, recreation etc.

(ii)

  • In Maharashtra the following water bodies are surrounded by dense populations.
  • Rankala lake around which dense population of Kolhapur city.
  • Powai lake around which dense population of Mumbai city.
  • Ambazari lake around which dense population of Nagpur city.
  • Pashan lake around which dense population of Pune city.
  • Dense population on the bank of Mula-Mutha river of Pune city.
  • Dense population on the bank of Nag river – Nagpur city.
  • Dense population on the bank of Tapi river – Bhusaval and other cities.
  • Dense population on the bank of Godavari river – Nasik city.
  • Dense population on the bank of Krishna- Koyana rivers – Karad, Sangli cities.
  • Dense population along the coastline of Arabian sea- Mumbai city.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 2.
In which stage do you think India is passing right now? (Text book pg.no – 10)
Answer:
India is passing through stage 3 right now.

Question 3.
Find out in what multiples has population increased in the following timeline and write down your findings. For example, in the initial phase, the population took 6 centuries (1000 to 1600 A.D.) to double itself. (Text book pg.no – 11)
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Solutions Chapter 1 Population Part 1 18
Answer:
(i) 1000 to 1600 population increase 2 times in 6 hundred years.
(ii) 1600 to 1900 population increased 3 times in 3 hundred years.
(iii) 1900 to 1960 population increased 2 times in 6 hundred years.
(iv) 1960 to 2000 population increased 2 times in 4 hundred years.

Let’s recall.

Question 1.
Which policy did the Brazilian government promote with respect to decentralisation? (Text book pg.no – 7)
Answer:

  1. Last two decades there is highly centralised military rule in Brazil so there was demand for local autonomy. Brazil sought to decentralised government authority and promote citizen participation to establish democracy.
  2. Brazil became decentralised federation when it undertook transformation of governance.
  3. As result authoritarian military regime came to an end.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

1. (A) Choose the correct option and complete the following statements.

Question 1.
………………… is the present system for the classification of mental disorders.
(a) DSM-5
(b) WHO
(c) APA
Answer:
(a) DSM-5

Question 2.
Term Schizophrenia was first used by ………………
(a) Albert Ellis
(b) Eugene Bleuler
(c) John Travis
Answer:
(b) Eugene Bleuler

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

Question 3.
World Health Organization has developed …………….. for classification of all types of disorders.
(a) ICD
(b) DSM
(c) MCA
Answer:
(a) ICD

Question 4.
We find alternate phases of depression and mania in …………………. disorders.
(a) depressive
(b) bipolar
(c) anxiety
Answer:
(b) bipolar

(B). Match the pairs.

Question 1.

Group A Group B
(1) Phobia (a) 2013
(2) DSM-5 (b) Wellness
(3) ICD – 11 (c) Schizophrenia
(4) Eugen Bleuler (d) 2019
(5) John Travis (e) Illogical fear
(6) Depressive disorders (f) Sad feelings for a long period of time

Answer:

Group A Group B
(1) Phobia (e) Illogical fear
(2) DSM-5 (a) 2013
(3) ICD – 11 (d) 2019
(4) Eugen Bleuler (c) Schizophrenia
(5) John Travis (b) Wellness
(6) Depressive disorders (f) Sad feelings for a long period of time

(C) State whether the following statements are true or false.

Question 1.
Socially or culturally deviant behaviours are signs of psychological disorders.
Answer:
False

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

Question 2.
Schizophrenia is a serious psychological disorder.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
Feeling of hopelessness is one of the symptoms seen in depressive disorders.
Answer:
True

(D) Answer the following in one sentence each.

Question 1.
From which Latin word is the term anxiety derived?
Answer:
The word ‘anxiety’ is derived from the Latin word ‘Anxietas’ which means ‘uneasy or troubled mind’.

Question 2.
In which disorder does the person experience sadness and guilt for a long period of time?
Answer:
In a depressive disorder the person experiences sadness and guilt for a long period of time.

Question 3.
What do you call the fear that you experience unnecessarily in a non threatening situation?
Answer:
The fear that is experienced unnecessarily in a non threatening situation is called a phobia.

2. Answer the following questions Briefly.

Question 1.
Explain the nature of psychological disorder.
Answer:
The major criteria of abnormality or psychological disorders are deviance, personal distress and impaired functioning. Illness and absence of illness are not distinct categories but are on opposite poles of the continuum sequence as explained below.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders 1
Stage 1 – The person is physically and psychologically healthy. They are motivated and emotionally stable.
Stage 2 – The person may get affected by life stressors, feel anxious, lack energy, etc. For e.g., before an examination. It is possible to push oneself back towards positive health by adopting a healthy lifestyle.
Stage 3 – The person shows signs of psychological damage and experience negative feelings like sadness, lack of motivation, fear and may even indulge in addictive behaviour. However, even this stage is not irreversible.
Stage 4 – The person exhibits extreme distress, impairment in mental, emotional and social functioning. He/She needs professional treatment.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

Question 2.
What is meant by Anxiety disorders?
Answer:
The word ‘anxiety’ is derived from the Latin word ‘Anxietas’ which means ‘uneasy or troubled mind’. Anxiety refers to a condition in which the person feels worried and uneasy for a long time for no obvious reasons. Anxiety disorders include disorders in which anxiety is the main symptom or is experienced when an attempt is made to modify some maladjustment. The main anxiety disorder are Generalised Anxiety disorder, Phobic disorder. Panic disorder, O. C. D, etc.

Question 3.
Narrate indicators of psychological disorders.
Answer:
According to DSM-5, there are five criteria (indicators) for psychological disorders.

  1. Clinically significant syndrome – In psychological disorders, there should be a cluster of symptoms together i.e., a syndrome.
  2. Distress and Impairment – There should be distress, i.e., psychological pain due to negative feelings and stress, as well as impairment, i.e., inability to perform appropriate roles in personal and social situations.
  3. Dysfunction – If the symptoms lead to developmental or psychological dysfunctions, it signifies mental disorders.
  4. Responses to stressors that are normally accepted responses e.g., sadness experienced at the loss of a loved one or culturally sanctioned responses are not considered as signs of mental disorders.
  5. Behaviour which is only deviant but does not produce any disability/ distress/ dysfunction
    does not become a sign of mental disorder.

Question 4.
What is meant by bipolar disorder?
Answer:
Bipolar Disorder is also known as Manic Depressive disorder. The person experiences alternate phases of two states viz. mania and depression. Mania includes symptoms such as high energy, excitement, reduced need for sleep and loss of touch with reality, impulsivity, delusion, etc. Depressive state symptoms include low energy and motivation, loss of interest in daily activities, extreme sadness, apathy, feeling of hopelessness, fatigue, guilt, etc. Main causative factors are genetic factors, imbalance in neurotransmitters such as dopamine and epinephrine; environmental factors such as traumatic event.

Question 5.
Describe Post Traumatic Stress Disorders?
Answer:
If the symptoms of Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) continue for more than one month with the same intensity, the person is diagnosed with PTSD. A person who has suffered trauma goes through three stages viz-

  1. Shock stage – the individual is in shock, i.e., extremely disturbed.
  2. Suggestible stage – he/she may seek guidance from others and may either accept these suggestions unquestioningly or may get extra sensitive.
  3. Recovery stage – the person shows signs of recovery.

However, some persons still show signs of mental illness i.e., PTSD.
The symptoms of PTSD include

  1. nightmares, flashbacks, severe anxiety
  2. hyper vigilance and avoidance of situations that bring back the trauma
  3. irritability, social isolation
  4. survivour’s guilt

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

3. Explain the Following concepts.

Question 1.
DSM-5
Answer:
Presently, the two major systems of classifying psychological disorders are DSM and ICD. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM) was published in its first version by the APA in 1952, i.e., DSM-I. In 2013, the DSM-5 was introduced which contains 22 broad categories of mental disorders with subcategories. It is the classification of officially recognized psychiatric disorders, for e.g., categories in DSM-5 include anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive and related disorders and personality disorders.

Question 2.
ICD 11
Answer:
Presently, the two major systems of classifying psychological disorders are DSM and ICD. The International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) was created by the WHO for documenting all types of diagnoses, diseases, signs and symptoms and social circumstances. It contains a section on psychological disorders. The latest, 11th version of ICD was presented in 2019. According to the ICD-11, there are 19 broad categories of mental disorders, most of which overlap with DSM-5.

Question 3.
Phobia
Answer:
The main anxiety disorders include phobic disorders and generalized anxiety disorders. The word ‘phobia’ is derived from the Greek word ‘phobos’ which was used to refer to the God of Fear. A phobia is an intense, persistent but irrational and disproportionate fear of a specific object or situation. DSM classifies phobias as simple phobias, e.g., Acrophobia, Claustrophobia etc., and social phobias, e.g., fear of speaking or eating in public. The phobic object e.g., animals or situations e.g., elevators, almost always provide immediate anxiety.

Question 4.
Syndrome
Answer:
A syndrome refers to a cluster or collection of symptoms and signs that are characteristic of a diseases or disorder, e.g., Down’s syndrome. It is a group of symptoms which consistently occur together and indicate a particular condition. A syndrome refers to a set of symptoms that tend to occur together and can be associated with a particular physical or mental disorder. In psychological disorders, one of the criteria as suggested by DSM-5 is clinically significant syndrome.

Question 5.
Hallucination
Answer:
Hallucinations are false perceptions in the absence of appropriate stimuli. Hallucinations are a symptom of schizophrenia and other mental disorders. Commonly occurring hallucinations are visual, auditory, tactile, gustatory and olfactory in nature. For e.g., the person may hear voices telling him to do something. Hallucinations are also noticed due to substance abuse, medications, epilepsy, etc.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

4. Write short notes on the following.

Question 1.
Nature of mental wellness
Answer:
According to the WHO, mental wellness refers to “a state of well-being in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope up with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community.”
The important aspects of mental wellness are –

  1. Emotional aspect – There is a sense of well-being and contentment
  2. Psychological aspect – There is high self esteem and tendency of self actualization.
  3. Life philosophy – There are clear goals and objectives in life.

The Illness Wellness Continuum Model by John Travis
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders 2
Quadrant 1 – The person is in an ideal state of functioning.
Quadrant 2 – Thepersonhasnomentalillnessbutexperiencessubjectivefeelingofunhappiness.
Quadrant 3 – The person suffers from mental illness yet he/she experiences a high sense of subjective well-being.
Quadrant 4 – This is the lowest level of functioning. The person has mental illness and also experiences distress.

Question 2.
Drug addiction
Answer:
Addictive disorders refer to the physical and psychological inability to stop consuming some substance or indulging in some activity although it is harmful. This includes dependence on drugs, nicotine, alcohol, etc., or activities like gambling, eating, gaming etc. Drug addiction refers to an inability to control the use of alcohol, nicotine, narcotics, marijuana, medications, etc.
Symptoms of addiction are-

  1. Excessive consumption of drugs or alcohol and inability to reduce the dosage.
  2. In case the person tries to stop the drug use, then withdrawal symptoms occur which include sweating, tremors, muscle pain, goosebumps, etc.
  3. Physical and psychological dependence may lead to drug abuse or overdose of the addictive substance and even death of the person.
  4. The person’s physical, emotional, social and financial well-being break down.

Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), Narcotics Anonymous (NA) are organizations that help addicts to overcome dependence.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

Question 3.
Depressive disorders
Answer:
Depression is an emotional state typically marked by sadness and guilt, feelings of anxiety and hopelessness. Other symptoms include loss of appetite, interest and sleep, fatigue, sexual dysfunction and suicidal thoughts. Depression is associated with distractability, memory loss, neglect of personal hygiene, panic attacks and even substance abuse. Children may experience symptoms such as irritability, feelings of incompetence, difficulty in concentration, difficulty in sleeping, digestive problems etc.

Question 4.
Anxiety disorders
Answer:
The word ‘anxiety’ is derived from the Latin word ‘Anxietas’ which means ‘uneasy or troubled mind’. Anxiety refers to a condition in which the person feels worried and uneasy for a long time for no obvious reasons. The main anxiety disorders are.
(i) Generalized Anxiety Disorder – The person frequently experiences anxiety more intensely so that it starts interfering with the ability to perform daily tasks. Symptoms include irritability, headaches, insomnia, dizziness, breathlessness, etc.

(ii) Phobic disorders – The word ‘phobia’ is derived form the Greek word ‘phobos’ which was used to refer to the God of Fear. A phobia is an intense, persistent but irrational and disproportionate fear of a specific object or situation. DSM classifies phobias as simple phobias, e.g., Acrophobia, Claustrophobia etc., and social phobias, e.g., fear of speaking or eating in public.

5. Answer the following questions in 150 – 200 words.

Question 1.
Describe the criteria of psychological disorders.
Answer:
The major criteria of abnormality are deviance, personal distress and impaired functioning. Illness and absence of illness are not distinct categories but are on opposite poles of the continuum sequence as explained below.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders 3
Stage – 1: The person is physically and psychologically healthy. He/She are motivated and emotionally stable.
Stage – 2: The person may get affected by life stressors, feel anxious, lack energy, etc., for e.g., most students are tense before the exams. It is possible to push oneself back towards positive health by adopting a healthy lifestyle.
Stage – 3: The person shows signs of psychological damage and may experience negative feelings like sadness, lack of motivation, fear and may even indulge in addictive behaviour. However, even this stage is not irreversible.
Stage – 4: The person exhibits extreme distress, impairment in mental, emotional and social functioning. He/She needs professional treatment.

Psychological disorders are also called mental disorders. These are patterns of behavioural or psychological symptoms that impact multiple areas of life and create distress for the person.

According to DSM-5, there are five criteria for psychological disorders.

  1. Clinically significant syndrome – In psychological disorders, there should be a cluster of symptoms together i.e., a syndrome.
  2. Distress and Impairment – There should be distress, i.e., psychological pain due to negative feelings and stress, as well as impairment, i.e., inability to perform appropriate roles in personal and social situations.
  3. Dysfunction – If the symptoms lead to developmental or psychological dysfunctions, it signifies mental disorders.
  4. Responses to stressors that are normally accepted responses e.g., sadness experienced at the loss of a loved one or culturally sanctioned responses are not considered as signs of mental disorders.
  5. Behaviour which is only deviant but does not produce any disability/ distress/ dysfunction does not become a sign of mental disorder.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

Question 2.
Narrate any two psychological disorders in detail.
Answer:
Psychological disorders are also called mental disorders. These are patterns of behavioural or psychological symptoms that impact multiple areas of life and create distress for the person.
According to DSM-5, there are five criteria for psychological disorders are:

  1. Clinically significant syndrome – In psychological disorders, there should be a cluster of symptoms together i.e., a syndrome.
  2. Distress and Impairment – There should be distress, i.e., psychological pain due to negative feelings and stress, as well as impairment, i.e., inability to perform appropriate roles in personal and social situations.
  3. Dysfunction – If the symptoms lead to developmental or psychological dysfunctions, it signifies mental disorders.
  4. Responses to stressors that are normally accepted responses e.g., sadness experienced at the loss of a loved one or culturally sanctioned responses are not considered as signs of mental disorders.
  5. Behaviour which is only deviant but does not produce any disability/ distress/ dysfunction does not become a sign of mental disorder.

(A) Anxiety Disorders – The word ‘anxiety’ is derived from the Latin word ‘Anxietas’ which means ‘uneasy or troubled mind’. Anxiety refers to a condition in which the person feels worried and uneasy for a long time for no obvious reasons.
The main anxiety disorders are-
(i) Generalized Anxiety Disorder – The person frequently experiences anxiety more intensely so that it starts interfering with the ability to perform daily tasks. Symptoms include irritability, headaches, insomnia, dizziness, breathlessness, etc.

(ii) Phobic disorders – The word ‘photjia’ is derived form the Greek word ‘phobos’ which was used to refer to the God of Fear. A phobia is an intense, persistent but irrational and disproportionate fear of a specific object or situation. DSM classifies phobias as simple phobias, e.g., Acrophobia, Claustrophobia etc., and social phobias, e.g., fear of speaking or eating in public.

(B) Trauma Trauma and Stress-Related Disorders
Stress is inevitable in life. Daily hassles, relationship issue, frustration, chronic illness, etc., lead to stress. If stress is in moderate intensity, it acts as a motivation. However, intense prolonged stress impairs normal functioning of the individual and may lead to stress disorders.
The two types of stress disorders are-
1. Acute Stress Disorder (ASD)
If a person (aged 6 years and above) has experienced extremely stressful situations like death of a loved one, serious disease or injury, sexual abuse, natural disasters, etc., then he/she may experience ASD. The symptoms of ASD include-

  • emotional numbness and instability
  • nightmares and sleep disturbances
  • insomnia, lack of concentration, irritability and guilt feelings
  • depression

2. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
If symptoms of ASD continue for more than one month with the same intensity, the person is diagnosed with PTSD. A person who has suffered trauma goes through three stages viz.

  • Shock stage – the individual is in shock, i.e., extremely disturbed.
  • Suggestible stage – he/she may seek guidance from others and may either accept these suggestions unquestioningly or may get extra sensitive.
  • Recovery stage – the person shows signs of recovery.

However, some persons still show signs of mental illness i.e., PTSD.

Question 3.
What is Schizophrenia? Describe the major symptoms of it.
Answer:
The term ‘Schizophrenia’ is derived from Greek words Schizein (to split) and phren (mind). Thus, the literal meaning of the word ‘schizophrenia’ is split mind. The term ‘schizophrenia’ was coined in 1911 by a Swiss psychologist, Paul Eugene Bleuler. Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder.
According to DSM-5 the two types of symptoms for schizophrenia are-
(a) Positive symptoms are an excess addition to normal thoughts or behaviour of the period. Such symptoms are-

  1. hallucinations – mainly auditory and visual hallucination
  2. delusions – mainly of grandeur, reference and persecution
  3. disorganized thought and speech
  4. bizarre body movements and disorganized behaviour
  5. incongruent affect.

(b) Negative symptoms are deficits of normal emotional responses or of thought processes. They lead to low level of functioning and may not improve much even with treatment. This includes-

  1. emotional blunting – diminished emotional expression
  2. anhedonia – inability to experience deep positive emotions
  3. alogia – diminished speed
  4. asociality – lack of desire to form relationships
  5. avolition – lack of motivation
  6. apathy.

Sometimes, a schizophrenic exhibits positive as well as negative symptoms.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

Class 12 Psychology Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders Intext Questions and Answers

ACTIVITIES (Textbook Page. No. 62)

Activity 1

On the basis of your understanding of various criteria for abnormality, which of these would you consider as normal or abnormal behavior?

  1. Hemant wears the same lucky blue shirt for all his major competitive exams.
  2. Seema is not able to fall asleep easily.
  3. Rakesh throws pillows and pounding fists on the wall during arguments if he finds himself losing ground.
  4. Reena always experiences fear but is not able to specify what is so scary.

Answer:
All the stated examples show at least one of the five criteria for abnormality.

  1. Hemant seems superstitious and lacks confidence. He appears moderately healthy.
  2. Seema exhibits personal distress and signs of sleep disorders.
  3. Rakesh exhibits clear symptoms of abnormal behaviour and seems extremely unhealthy mentally.
  4. Reena seems to have anxiety disorder and may need professional help.

Activity 3 (Textbook Page. No. 67)

In which Quadrants of wellness illness continuum will you place Karan, Lalita, Pramila and Santosh?
Answer:
Karan – Quadrant 2, Pramila – Quadrant 3, Lalita – Quadrant 4, Santosh – Quadrant 3.

Activity 5 (Textbook Page. No. 68)

Collect information about Anxiety disorders and discuss this with your friends or parents.
Answer:
Anxiety disorders are characterised by feelings of worry and restlessness that tend to interfere with daily activities. Besides generalized anxiety disorder and phobia which are explained in the chapter, anxiety disorders includes Panic disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive disorder (OCD) and Social Anxiety disorders include disorders in which anxiety is the main symptom or is experienced. When an attempt is made to modify maladjustment.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

Activity 6 (Textbook Page. No. 69)

Collect information about other types of phobia.
Answer:
A phobia is a persistent, irrational fear of a situation or object. Phobias are of three types viz. Social phobia (fear of social situations); specific phobias (fear of particular situations) and agoraphobia (fear of being alone in public places from which there is no easy escape). Some phobias are:

  1. Claustrophobia (fear of enclose spaces)
  2. Acrophobia (fear of heights)
  3. Homophobia (fear of blood)
  4. Zoophobia (fear of animals)
  5. Arachnophobia (fear of spiders)
  6. Pyrophobia (fear of fire)
  7. Trypanophobia (fear of needles and injections)
  8. Xenophobia (fear of foreigners or strangers)

Activity 7 (Textbook Page. No. 71)

We make use of various strategies to reduce our stress. Speak to five of your friends and make a list of atleast ten different strategies used by them to reduce stress. Share it with your group and discuss which are healthy and which are unhealthy.
Answer:
Some strategies to reduce stress are-

  1. Negative coping such as use of alcohol/drugs, over eating, agression, etc.
  2. Exercise
  3. Developing a hobby
  4. Indulging in some constructive activity
  5. Following relaxation/meditation techniques
  6. Seeking social support, i.e., of friends/ family, etc.
  7. Having proper time management
  8. Developing rational thinking and positive attitude
  9. Indulging in self care, e.g., proper diet, rest, etc.
  10. Seeking professional help if needed

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

Activity 9 (Textbook Page. No. 74)

Identify from the internet the red flags (signaling symptoms) for various disorders that you have already studied.
Answer:
Red flags for the following disorders.
(1) Phobias

  • Displaying extreme nervousness or distress when in the presence of the source of the phobia
  • Avoidance behaviour
  • Refusal to face certain situations

(2) Depression

  • Irritability, moodiness and agitation.
  • Inability to concentrate
  • Unexplained aches and pains
  • Disruptions in sleep habits
  • Changes in appetite and eating habits
  • Suicidal thoughts.

(3) Bipolar disorder

  • Change in thought processes, and concentration
  • Change in sleep patterns
  • Change is social interaction
  • Uncharacteristic moodiness

(4) PTSD

  • Persistent negative thoughts
  • Trouble in concentration
  • Irritability and aggression
  • Engaging in reckless behaviour
  • Changes in sleep and appetite
  • Loss of interest in friends/ family / favourite activities.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Important Questions Chapter 5 Contemporary India: Good Governance

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Political Science Important Questions Chapter 5 Contemporary India: Good Governance Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board 12th Political Science Important Questions Chapter 5 Contemporary India: Good Governance

Complete the following statements by selecting the appropriate option.

Question 1.
The concept of ‘citizens charter’ is part of
(a) POSDCORB
(b) development administration
(c) good governance
(d) NGO activity
Answer:
(c) good governance

Question 2.
The good governance model looks at inter-linkages between the government and
(a) civil society
(b) political parties
(c) public administration
(d) human rights
Answer:
(a) civil society

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Important Questions Chapter 5 Contemporary India: Good Governance

Question 3.
The culture of ‘secrecy’ in administration has been challenged by the good governance value of
(a) effectiveness
(b) transparency
(c) accountability
(d) equity
Answer:
(b) transparency

Question 4.
The Consumer Protection Act was passed in the year
(a) 1986
(b) 1990
(c) 2000
(d) 2012
Answer:
(a) 1986

Identify the incorrect pair in every set and correct it.

Question 1.
(a) Lokayuktas – States
(b) Fundamental duties – good governance
(c) E-governance – Digitisation of records
(b) Directive Principles of State Policy – good governance
Answer:
(b) Fundamental duties – good governance

Complete the following sentences by selecting the appropriate reason.

Question 1.
Governance is a broader view of public administration because ………………
(a) it includes not only formal institutions of government but also informal institutions.
(b) it is based on e-governance.
(c) it was introduced after the second ARC.
Answer:
(a) it includes not only formal institutions of government but also informal institutions.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Important Questions Chapter 5 Contemporary India: Good Governance

State the appropriate concept for the given statements.

Question 1.
Wide range of organisations such as labour unions, NGO’s etc.
Answer:
Civil Society

Question 2.
Institution created in India in 2013 to inquire into allegations of corruption against officials at union level.
Answer:
Lokpal

Question 3.
Governance facilitated by I.C.T.
Answer:
e-governance

Question 4.
Act of 2005 that enables citizens to seek important public information from the government.
Answer:
Right to Information Act

Find the odd word.

Question 1.
Religious groups, Bur6aucracy, Professional groups, NGO’s.
Answer:
Bureaucracy (not included in civil society / non-state actors)

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Important Questions Chapter 5 Contemporary India: Good Governance

Question 2.
Buddhists, Christians, Hindus, Jains.
Answer:
Hindus (not included in religious minorities in India)

Question 3.
Secrecy, Efficiency, Responsiveness, Inclusiveness.
Answer:
Secrecy (not a core value of good governance)

Question 4.
Policy framework, Funding framework, Institutional framework, Redressal and grievances framework
Answer:
Redressal and grievances framework (not a pillar of e-governance)

Complete the concept maps

Question 1.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Important Questions Chapter 5 Contemporary India Good Governance 1
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Important Questions Chapter 5 Contemporary India Good Governance 2

State whether the following statements are true or false with reason.

Question 1.
Good governance approach is a break from the traditional model of public administration.
Answer:
This statement is True.

  1. Good governance approach aims to improve the performance of public institutions by making administration citizen-centered and not merely rule-bound.
  2. It aims to replace traditional administration that was archaic and riddled with red tapism and corruption with participative, responsive, equitable and transparent administration.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Important Questions Chapter 5 Contemporary India: Good Governance

Question 2.
E-governance has brought administration closer to people.
Answer:
This statement is True.

  1. E-governance refers to good governance which is facilitated using Information and Communications Technology (ICT) This helps in the instantaneous transmission, processing, storage and retrieval of data.
  2. The objective of the National e-governance Plan of Government of India is to bring public service closer home to citizens. This can be done by building a countrywide infrastructure and large scale digitisation of records to enable easy, reliable access over the Internet for e.g., passport application can be done online.

Question 3.
Right to Information is the key to strengthening participatory democracy.
Answer:
This statement is True.

  1. Right to Information Act, 2005 has enabled citizens to seek important public information from the government and helps to usher in people-centered governance.
  2. R.T.I is a basic necessity of good governance as it helps to bring transparency in government organisations and makes them function in an efficient, responsive manner.

Explain the correlation between the following.

Question 1.
Good Governance – Traditional model of administration.
Answer:
The concept of development administration brought in changes in the traditional role of administration. Governance refers to the cooperative effort of government as well as non¬government bodies in public administration. Since the traditional approach of public administration was archaic, riddled with red tapism and corruption it would not satisfy the requirements of the citizens. The good governance model is based on core values of efficient, effective, responsible, responsive, transparent and accountable public administration.

Question 2.
Citizen participation – Good governance.
Answer:
In development administration, not only the government but also citizens and NGO’s play a vital role. The term ‘governance’ is used to describe this cooperative effort of the government and non¬governmental bodies in public administration.
The Good Governance approach aims at the following-

  1. to reform the traditional, huge-sized public administration which was riddled with red tape and corruption
  2. to replace the archaic systems with responsible, participative and equitable systems
  3. to look at interlinkages between government and civil society
  4. to make the administration citizen-centered and not rule bound.

Citizen participation refers to the following aspects-

  1. the development process is a ‘bottom-up’ approach in which citizens are not recipients but participants in this process
  2. citizens have a right in making decisions pertaining to themselves
  3. there are modalities by which citizens can take control of resources and influence decision making
  4. it contributes to a responsive, participative democracy.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Important Questions Chapter 5 Contemporary India: Good Governance

Question 3.
Good Governance – Right to Information. (RTI)
Answer:
In development administration, not only the government but also citizens and NGO’s play a vital role. The term ‘governance’ is used to describe this cooperative effort of the government and non¬governmental bodies in public administration.
The Good Governance approach aims at the following-

  1. to reform the traditional, huge-sized public administration which was riddled with red tape and corruption.
  2. to replace the archaic systems with responsible, participative and equitable systems.
  3. to look at interlinkages between government and civil society.
  4. to make the administration citizen-centered and not rule bound.

The R. T. I became operative w.e.f. 12th October 2005. The main objectives of the R.T.I is for citizens to secure access to information under control of public authorities so as to increase citizens awareness and ability to exercise their other rights. It is a basic necessity of good governance which enables citizens to seek important public information from the government i.e., about public policies and actions Transparency in government institutions makes them function more objectively and enables citizens to participate effectively in the governance process.

R.T.I. is an implied fundamental right under the constitution i.e., a part of Article 19 (1) (a) as well as of Article 21. It grants access to information held by a public authority so as to promote openness, transparency and accountability in administration. According to the UN Commission on Human Rights, “Good governance creates an enabling environment conducive to the enjoyment of human rights and prompts growth and sustainable development”. Thus R.T.I. helps in good governance.

Express your opinion of the following.

Question 1.
The National Commission for Minorities (NCM) is an important institutional mechanism towards good governance.
Answer:
I agree with this statement.
The NCM was set up by the Union Government under National Commission for Minorities Act (1992). It monitors the working of safeguards for religious minorities (i.e. Muslim, Christian, Sikh, Buddhist, Zoroastrian (Parsis) and Jain). It looks into specific complaints regarding deprivation of rights of the minorities and takes up such matters with the appropriate authorities. The NCM enables that benefits of good governance must be available to all sections of society, especially to minorities.

Answer the following question in 80 to 100 words.

Question 1.
Elaborate on e-Governance.
Answer:
In the last few decades, governance has become more complex and varied. Citizens expectations from the government have also increased. Information and Communications Technology (ICT) is used in governance. This is called ‘e-governance’. It helps in-

  1. instant transmission and processing information and efficient storing and retrieval of data.
  2. increasing the reach of government both geographically and demographically.
  3. speeding up decision making and increasing transparency and accountability of government processes. E-governance in India has evolved from computerisation of departments to initiatives which are citizen centric and service oriented.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Important Questions Chapter 5 Contemporary India Good Governance Q 3

The Government of Maharashtra has identified six priority pillars to use e-governance so as to become proactive and responsive to its citizens’ needs.
Pillar – 1: Establishment of Policy/Legal Frameworks: Legal Framework has to be updated regularly with changing times and technologies.
Pillar – 2: Develop Strong Capacity Building Framework: Capacity Building of employees is necessary.
Pillar – 3: Facilitate abundant Funding: Ensure mechanisms for provision of adequate and timely funds.
Pillar – 4: Institutional Framework: Develop administrative structures that are capable of envisioning and guiding the e-Governance programs.
Pillar 5 – Build Core e-Governance Common Infrastructure: Develop the core e-Governance infrastructure like Data Centre, Common Service Centres and State Wide Area Network etc.
Pillar 6 – Develop Common Statewide Projects: Develop applications like e-Tendering, e-Office, SMS gateway, payment gateway etc. that are common to majority of State departments to ensure coordination.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Important Questions Chapter 5 Contemporary India: Good Governance

Question 2.
Discuss the initiatives for good governance in India.
Answer:
After independence, India adopted a socialist model of development aimed at achieving a Welfare State. The Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances looks after administrative reforms in India. It’s objectives are-

  1. to promote administrative reforms in government policies and processes.
  2. to promote citizen-centric governance.
  3. to conduct innovations in e-governance.

The Second Administrative Reforms Commission (ARC) was set up in 2005 to prepare a blueprint for revamping the public administration system in India. It looked at the following issues.

  1. To make public administration accountable, transparent, efficient, responsive and result- oriented.
  2. Citizen centric, participative administration.

There have been a large number of reform measures which have sought to bring administration closer to the people. Broadly these initiatives include :

  1. Enacting laws giving certain rights to people.
  2. Setting up of new institutional mechanisms to redress citizens’ grievances.
  3. Improving accessibility to citizens by setting up units closer to people.
  4. Simplifying procedures to reduce bureaucratic delays.
  5. Using technology to improve internal efficiency.
  6. Reducing regulatory control.
  7. Holding public contact programmes etc.

Question 3.
Find out examples of the reforms that have been initiated for each of the measures stated below.
Answer:

  1. Enacting laws giving rights to people – Reform initiated – Right to Information (2005).
  2. Setting up of new institutional mechanisms to redress citizens’ grievances – Reform initiated: Creating commissions like NHRC, NCW, NCM, etc.
  3. Improving accessibility to citizens by setting up units closer to people – Reform initiated: Building a countrywide infrastructure reaching down to the remotes areas.
  4. Simplifying procedures to reduce bureaucratic delays – Reform initiated: Formulation of Citizen’s Charters to specify service standards.
  5. Using technology to improve internal efficiency – Reform initiated: e-governance i.e., use of Information and Communications Technology (I.C.T) to enable easy access over the internet.
  6. Improving discipline within the organisation – Reform initiated: Establishing body of Lokpal for the Union and Lokayukta for States.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Important Questions Chapter 5 Contemporary India: Good Governance

Answer the following question with reference to the given points.

Question 1.
Discuss in detail the following specific programmes aimed at bringing good governance in India.
(a) Lokpal and Lokayukta
(b) Right to Information
(c) E-Governance
(d) Citizen’s Charters
Answer:
After independence, India adopted a socialist model of development aimed at achieving a Welfare State. The Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances looks after administrative reforms in India. It’s objectives are-

  1. to promote administrative reforms in government policies and processes.
  2. to promote citizen-centric governance.
  3. to conduct innovations in e-governance.

The Second Administrative Reforms Commission (ARC) was set up in 2005 to prepare a blueprint for revamping the public administration system in India. It looked at the following issues.

  1. to make public administration accountable, transparent, efficient, responsive and result-oriented.
  2. citizen centric, participative administration.

(a) Lokpal and Lokayukta – The Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act (2013) provides for the establishment of Lokpal (central government) and Lokayuktas (States) to inquire into allegations of corruption against public officials in a commitment to responsive, clean governance. The Maharashtra Lokayukta Institution came into being in 1972.

(b) Right to Information – It is a basic necessity of good governance which enables citizens to seek important public information from the government i.e., about public policies and actions. Transparency in government institutions makes them function more objectively and enables citizens to participate effectively in the governance process.

(c) E-Governance In the last few decades, governance has become more complex and varied. Citizens expectations from the government have also increased. Information and Communications Technology (ICT) is used in governance. This is called ‘e-governance’. It helps in-

  1. instant transmission and processing information and efficient storing and retrieval of data.
  2. increasing the reach of government both geographically and demographically.
  3. speeding up decision making and increasing transparency and accountability of government processes. E-governance in India has evolved from computerisation of departments to initiatives which are citizen centric and service oriented.

(d) Citizen’s Charters – The exercise to formulate citizen’s charters began in 1996. Each organisation must spell out the services it has to perform and the standards / norms for these services. If these standards are not met then that agency can be held accountable.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Important Questions Chapter 1 Population Part 1

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Geography Important Questions Chapter 1 Population Part 1 Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board 12th Geography Important Questions Chapter 1 Population Part 1

Choose the correct option by identifying the correct correlation in the sentences.

Question 1.
…………… continent has the least population.
(a) Europe
(b) North America
(c) Australia
(d) Africa
Answer:
(c) Australia

Question 2.
………………. continent has the largest population.
(a) Europe
(b) North America
(c) Asia
(d) Africa
Answer:
(c) Asia

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Important Questions Chapter 1 Population Part 1

Question 3.
…………………. continent has the largest land mass in the world.
(a) North America
(b) South America
(c) Asia
(d) Australia
Answer:
(c) Asia

Question 4.
……………… continent has the smallest land mass in the world.
(a) Australia
(b) Europe
(c) North America
(d) Africa
Answer:
(a) Australia

Question 5.
…………………. continent has the most landmass as well as most of the population.
(a) North America
(b) Asia
(c) Africa
(d) Australia
Answer:
(b) Asia

Question 6.
…………….. continent has the least landmass and also least population.
(a) South America
(b) North America
(c) Australia
(d) Europe
Answer:
(c) Australia

Question 7.
…………………. country has the largest population in the world.
(a) India
(b) China
(c) USA
(d) Australia
Answer:
(b) China

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Important Questions Chapter 1 Population Part 1

Question 8.
……………….. country has the second largest population in the world.
(a) China
(b) USA
(c) India
(d) Brazil
Answer:
(c) India

Question 9.
The crude birth rate per thousand in India is ………………..
(a) 46
(b) 12
(c) 12
(d) 18
Answer:
(d) 18

Question 10.
The crude death rate per thousand in India ………………..
(a) 9
(b) 11
(c) 7
(d) 8
Answer:
(c) 7

Complete the chain.

Question 1.

A B C
(1) Asia (1) 28.50% of the world landmass (1) 18.09% of the world population
(2) Europe (2) 5.90% of the world landmass (2) 0.55% of the world population
(3) Australia (3) 6.80% of the world landmass (3) 4.75% of the world population
(4) North and South America (4) 29.20% of the world landmass (4) 59.65% of the world population

Answer:

A B C
(1) Asia (1) 29.20% of the world landmass (1) 59.65% of the world population
(2) Europe (2) 6.80% of the world landmass (2) 4.75% of the world population
(3) Australia (3) 5.90% of the world landmass (3) 0.55% of the world population
(4) North and South America (4) 28.50% of the world landmass (4) 18.09% of the world population

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Important Questions Chapter 1 Population Part 1

Question 2.

A B C
(1) India (1) 171 lakh sq. km (1) 1073 persons per sq. km
(2) USA (2) 105 lakh sq. km (2) 411 persons per sq. km
(3) Bangladesh (3) 95.3 lakh sq. km (3) 34 persons per sq. km
(4) Russia (4) 321 lakh sq. km (4) 8.5 persons per sq. km

Answer:

A B C
(1) India (1) 32.9 lakh sq. km (1) 411 persons per sq. km
(2) USA (2) 95.3 lakh sq. km (2) 34 persons per sq. km
(3) Bangladesh (3) 1.5 lakh sq. km (3) 1073 persons per sq. km
(4) Russia (4) 171 lakh sq. km (4) 8.5 persons per sq. km

Question 3.

A B C
(1) Mountains (1) Siberia (1) High density of population
(2) Climate (2) Odd physical conditions (2) Government promote to shift people
(3) Mining (3) Mediterranean (3) Equable climate
(4) Government (4) Dehradun (4) High cost minerals attract people

Answer:

A B C
(1) Mountains (1) Dehradun (1) High density of population
(2) Climate (2) Mediterranean (2) Equable climate
(3) Mining (3) Odd physical conditions (3) High cost minerals attract people
(4) Government (4) Siberia (4) Government promote to shift people

Question 4.

A B C
(1) Stage 1 (1) Birth rate is not less than death rate but it is almost the same (1) China
(2) Stage 2 (2) Birth rates and death rates are also decreasing (2) USA
(3) Stage 3 (3) Birth rate and death rates are high, population growth is stable (3) No country in this category
(4) Stage 4 (4) Reduction in death rates and birth rates are constant (4) Population explosion

Answer:

A B C
(1) Stage 1 (1) Birth rate and death rates are high, population growth is stable (1) No country in this category
(2) Stage 2 (2) Reduction in death rates and birth rates are constant (2) Population explosion
(3) Stage 3 (3) Birth rates and death rates are also decreasing (3) China
(4) Stage 4 (4) Birth rate is not less than death rate but it are almost the same (4) USA

Identify the incorrect factor.

Question 1.
Continents which have least population.
(a) South America
(b) Asia
(c) Australia
(d) Africa
Answer:
(b) Asia

Question 2.
Continents which have large population.
(a) Europe
(b) North America
(c) Asia
(d) Africa
Answer:
(d) Africa

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Important Questions Chapter 1 Population Part 1

Question 3.
Physical factors affecting population distribution.
(a) Relief
(b) Climate
(c) Soil
(d) Transportation
Answer:
(d) Transportation

Question 4.
Human factors affecting population distribution.
(a) Agriculture
(b) Availability of water
(c) Urbanisation
(d) Transportation
Answer:
(b) Availability of water

Question 5.
Sparsely populated regions in the world.
(a) Snow covered regions
(b) Hot deserts
(c) Coastal regions
(d) Mountainous and hilly regions
Answer:
(c) Coastal regions

Question 6.
Densely populated regions of the world.
(a) Hot deserts
(b) Coastal plains
(c) Flat plains
(d) Flood plains
Answer:
(a) Hot deserts

Question 7.
Countries which have large population in the world.
(a) India
(b) China
(c) USA
(d) Australia
Answer:
(d) Australia

Question 8.
Countries which have low population in the world.
(a) China
(b) Australia
(c) Brazil
(d) Rumania
Answer:
(a) China

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Important Questions Chapter 1 Population Part 1

Question 9.
Countries which have crude birth rate more than 10 in the year 2017.
(a) Sweden
(b) China
(c) USA
(d) Greece
Answer:
(d) Greece

Question 10.
Countries which have crude death rate less than 10 in the year 2017.
(a) Sweden
(b) Greece
(c) India
(d) China
Answer:
(b) Greece

Complete the following as per instructions.

Question 1.
Arrange the following continents on the basis of area in percentage in ascending order. Antarctica, Europe, North America, Asia, Australia
Answer:
Australia, Europe, Antarctica, North America, Asia

Question 2.
Arrange the following continents on the basis of area in the percentage in descending order.
Australia, Asia, North America, Antarctica, Europe
Answer:
Asia, North America, Antarctica, Europe, Australia

Question 3.
Arrange the following continents on the basis of population in percentage in descending order.
North America, South America, Africa, Asia, Australia, Antarctica
Answer:
Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Australia, Antarctica

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Important Questions Chapter 1 Population Part 1

Question 4.
Arrange the following continents on the basis of population in percentage in ascending order.
Australia, Antarctica, Asia, Africa, North America, South America
Answer:
Antarctica, Australia, South America, North America, Africa, Asia.

Question 5.
Arrange the following countries on the basis of population in crores in descending order.
India, Pakistan, USA, Russia, China
Answer:
China, India, USA, Pakistan, Russia

Question 6.
Arrange the following countries on the basis of population in crores in ascending order.
Russia, China, Mexico, India, Brazil
Answer:
Mexico, Russia, Brazil, India, China

Question 7.
Arrange the following countries in descending order on the basis of birth rate in the year 2017.
USA, Greece, China, India, Niger
Answer:
Niger, India, China, USA, Greece

Question 8.
Arrange the following countries in ascending order on the basis of birth rate in the year 2017.
USA, Greece, China, India, Niger
Answer:
Greece, USA, China, India, Niger

Question 9.
Arrange the following countries in descending order on the basis of death rate in the year 2017.
China, India Greece, USA, Sweden
Answer:
Greece, Sweden, USA, India, China

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Important Questions Chapter 1 Population Part 1

Question 10.
Arrange the following countries in ascending order on the basis of death rate in the year 2017.
China, India, Greece, USA, Sweden
Answer:
China, India, USA, Sweden, Greece

Write short notes on.

Question 1.
Impact of climate on distribution of population.
Answer:

  • Climate is the most important factor of all the factors influencing the distribution of population.
  • Areas of extreme climate like too hot, too cold, too humid, too dry and region of very heavy rainfall are not comfortable for inhabitation of people. Such areas are sparsely populated.
  • For example, polar regions where Eskimo and Lapps live are sparsely populated due to extreme cold climate. Sahara Desert is sparsely populated due to extreme hot climate.
  • On the other hand, areas with equable climate, that is climate with not much seasonal variation attract people. People feel comfortable to stay in these areas.
  • For example, coastal areas have dense population because of equable climate and wide scope for the development of agriculture, industries and trade.

Question 2.
Impact of transportation on distribution of population.
Answer:
1. Availability of transport facilities is also an important human factor which affect the distribution of population in

2. Roads and railways are two important means of transportation. They increase accessibility to the region and provide facilities for the movement of people goods. Thus, developing trade and generating employment opportunities. Hence, population in such areas increases.

3. For example, density of roads and railways is very high in Uttar Pradesh and therefore it is one of the most densely populated state of India.

4. In some areas due to growth of sea transport, development of port cities and trade takes place. There is also an increase in the transport facilities connecting to the surrounding areas. Therefore, population in coastal areas increases. For example, port cities on eastern and western coastal of India are densely populated.

5. On the other hand, due to lack of transport facilities areas become inaccessible, movement of goods and people become costly and require more time and hence such areas are thinly populated.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Important Questions Chapter 1 Population Part 1

Question 3.
Impact of mining on distribution of population.
Answer:

  • Minerals are important raw materials in the development of industries.
  • Therefore, industries develop where good quality minerals are available. Mining and industries generate employment for large number of people and hence skilled and semi¬skilled labourers attract to such regions and mining areas become densely populated.
  • For example, Richest mineralised zone of India – Chota Nagpur region, Ruhr region of Germany (due to coal and iron mines) are densely populated.
  • In some country’s valuable minerals like gold, silver, copper are mined. In such areas in spite of adverse climate and relief minerals are extracted. Also, the region around the mines are densely populated.
  • For example, gold producing areas in Africa, mineral oil mines in the deserts of south-west Asia.

Question 4.
Stage 5 of Demographic Transition Theory.
Answer:

  • Stage 5 in Demographic Transition Theory is the last stage.
  • In this stage the birth rate is very low and death rate is high. Therefore, the growth of population is slow or negative growth of population is seen.
  • Due to large number of old people the death rate is high and due to a smaller number of young people birth rate is low.
  • Tertiary activities are more developed and they contribute more to the economy.
  • The standard of living of people is high, economic condition of the country is good.
  • In this stage government provides high quality educational and medical facilities.
  • Overall people are happy due to healthy environment and comfortable life.
  • For example, Norway, Sweden, Finland are in this stage.

Question 5.
Population characteristics in Stage 1 and Stage 2 in Demographic Transition theory
Answer:

Stage 1 Stage 2
(i) Both birth rates and death rates are high. (i) Birth rates are constant and death rates are declining.
(ii) Population growth is stable. (ii) Population grows rapidly.
(iii) Low sanitation, high occurrence of contagious diseases. (iii) Efforts are made to control and combat diseases.
(iv) Due to lack of medical facilities and malnutrition mortality rate is high. (iv) Reduction in mortality rate.
(v) People depend on agriculture and other primary activities. (v) Secondary activities and transport developed
(vi) No country falls in this category. (vi) Most of the developing countries fall in this category.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Important Questions Chapter 1 Population Part 1

Question 6.
Population composition and Population structure
Answer:

Population composition Population structure
(i) Population composition covers all the characteristics of population that can be measured. (i) Composition of population gives idea about the structure of population.
(ii) On the basis of composition, we can classify and understand it’s characteristics. (ii) Population structure gives idea about dependency ratio and its impact on economy of the country.
(iii) Examples of population composition are age structure, sex ratio, literacy rate, occupational structure etc. (iii) For example, age composition gives idea about percentage of young, adult and old age population.

Question 7.
Population characteristics in Stage 4 and Stage 5 in Demographic Transition Theory.
Answer:

Stage 4 Stage 5
(i) Improvement in the economic status of the citizens. (i) High economic status of the citizens of the country.
(ii) Secondary and tertiary occupations have higher share than primary occupations. (ii) Tertiary occupation contribute most towards the economy.
(iii) Population growth is almost minimal. (iii) Population may reduce because of lower birth rate than death rate.
(iv) USA is passing through this stage. (iv) Sweden and Finland population are in this stage.

Question 8.
Early expanding stage and Late expanding stage
Answer:

Early expanding stage Late expanding stage
(i) Birth rates continue to remain constant. (i) Death rates continue to decrease. Birth rates are also decreasing.
(ii) Population grows rapidly. (ii) Rate of growth of population reduces.
(iii) Agricultural and industrial production increases. (iii) Rise in technological growth and expansion of secondary and tertiary activities.
(iv) For e.g., Uganda, Congo, Bangladesh, Niger etc. (iv) For e.g., China.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Geography Important Questions Chapter 1 Population Part 1

Answer the following questions in detail.

Question 1.
Explain the human factors affecting distribution of population.
Answer:
Important human factors affecting distribution of population are
(i) Agriculture
(ii) Mining
(iii) Transportation
(iv) Urbanisation
(v) Government policy

(i) Agriculture

  • Due to use of fertilizers and irrigation facilities, agricultural production increases and it supports large number of people.
  • The method of cultivation, crops grown, types of agriculture and specialisation in particular crop are the other factors that affects the distribution of population.

(ii) Mining

  • Minerals are the important raw materials for the development of industries.
  • Industries develop in mineral rich areas and generate employment for skilled and unskilled labour. People are attracted in such areas and thus density of population increases.
  • For example, richest mineralised zone of India – Chota Nagpur region in India is densely populated.

(iii) Transportation

  • Regions having well developed network of transportation facilities are densely populated.
  • Transportation network increases accessibility and helps to develop industries and generate employment and increases density of population.
  • On the other hand, the areas where transport facilities are not developed, movement of goods and people become difficult and time consuming and therefore density of population is less.

(iv) Urbanisation

  • Due to the development of industries, there is growth of towns and cities.
  • In cities transportation, trade and other tertiary activities develop on large scale to fulfil the needs of increasing population.
  • People are attracted to city areas due to better employment opportunities, educational and medical facilities, development of means of transport and communication and thus population goes on increasing. For e.g. Mumbai, London, Tokyo, New York.

(v) Government policy

  • There is direct effect of government policies on density and distribution of population.
  • Sometimes the government encourages people to settle in certain areas to reduce the pressure of population in certain cities. The government provides incentives to attract people.
  • For example, to reduce overcrowding in Mumbai city, government provided land, water, and power at concessional rate in New Mumbai area.