Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 4 Human Development Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Psychology Solutions Chapter 4 Human Development
1A. Complete the following statements.
The rate of development in each stage is ____________
Developmental changes occur in ____________ pattern.
The period between conception to birth is called ____________
____________ period is also known as the period of identity crisis.
b. Middle age
1B. Match the following pairs.
|1. Early childhood||a. A single fertilized cell|
|2. Adolescence||b. From the second week to two years after birth|
|3. Infancy||c. Age of questioning|
|4. Zygote||d. Adjusting to the new environment after birth|
|5. Neonatal period||e. Storm and stress|
|1. Early childhood||c. Age of questioning|
|2. Adolescence||e. Storm and stress|
|3. Infancy||b. From the second week to two years after birth|
|4. Zygote||a. A single fertilized cell|
|5. Neonatal period||d. Adjusting to the new environment after birth|
1C. State whether the following statements are true or false.
Development has a specific and continuous pattern.
Development proceeds from specific to general.
Development proceeds from dependency to independence.
All the changes in an individual are due to development.
1D. Identify the odd item from the following.
Zygote, Neonate, Embryo, Foetus
Early childhood, Neonate, Foetus, Infancy
2. Explain the following concepts.
Explain characteristics of human development.
The characteristics of human development are as follows:
i. Development follows a specific pattern:
Like other species, human beings follow a specific pattern and sequence of development in the prenatal and postnatal periods. They may skip a particular stage, but the order or pattern will remain the same. The specific pattern is observed in behavioral development as well. Sexual development also starts at a specific age.
ii. Development takes place in a specific direction: Development takes place during the prenatal and postnatal stages based on the two principles of development, viz. Cephalocaudal principle (development proceeds from the head to toe) and Proximodistal principle (development proceeds from the center of the body to outward).
iii. Development is continuous: There are various stages of the human life span like prenatal, infancy, early childhood, late childhood and adolescence, early youth, adulthood, and old age. One stage of development lays the foundation for the next stage. The rate of development varies across stages.
iv. Development proceeds from general to specific: The infant’s first motor movements are very generalized; like reflexes and non-directional waving arms or kicking before being able to reach or crawl towards an object. The child uses his full hand before developing finger dexterity.
v. There are individual differences in development: Although the pattern and sequence for growth and development are usually the same for all, the rate at which every individual reaches that stage is different. Some individuals attain a particular stage very early while others mature late.
vi. The rate of development is different for different body parts: The child first develops control over his neck then raises his head resting on his chest, then sits, crawls, and finally starts walking.
vii. Development leads to integration: A child starts producing sounds first, then monosyllable, then words, then sentences, and then complex sentences. This is how development leads to integration. In this process, physical and mental growth does not occur simultaneously.
viii. Behavioural problems are normal for a particular stage: There are certain behavioural patterns observed in every stage. Any variation in that pattern need not necessarily be labelled as abnormal. This is because some behavioural patterns perceived as problems by parents may subside with age.
ix. Development is predictable: The rate of development is fairly constant for every child. So, it is possible to predict a child’s development.
x. The child develops as a unified whole: Physical and mental development, as well as socio-cultural factors, influence each other and in turn, affect the development of an individual as a whole.
Why is the prenatal period the most crucial period in development?
A period between conception till birth is called a prenatal period. It is the most crucial period in development due to the following factors:
- Heredity serves as the foundation for later development.
- Favourable conditions in the mother’s womb can foster the development of hereditary potentials while unfavourable conditions can block their development.
- Sex determination takes place during the first three months of life.
- Proportionally faster growth and development take place during the prenatal period as compared to an individual’s entire life.
- Failure to take proper care of the mother may lead to physical and psychological hazards to the unborn child.
What are the developmental tasks?
There is a set of expectations about changes in an individual at a certain age based upon the norms of development. This set is known as a developmental task. The developmental tasks at different stages are as follows:
- Prenatal stage: In this stage, the child is completely dependent on the mother for nourishment. There is the rapid development of physical systems and organs.
- Neonatal stage: The child is still dependent on the mother and there is the development of initial reflexes.
- Infancy: This stage is associated with motor, cognitive and psychosocial development as well as rapid physical development.
- Early childhood: Although physical development is comparatively slow, we observe increased cognitive and linguistic development. It is also associated with the beginning of socialization.
- Late childhood: School provides an opportunity for overall development during this stage. There is the development of physical, mental, cognitive, and psychosocial abilities.
- Adolescence: Rapid visible physical changes occur in this stage. Also, the concept of self-identity and career-related awareness begins to develop.
- Early adulthood: Individual completes education and chooses his career. He also chooses a suitable partner and gives importance to family responsibilities.
- Late adulthood: There are more family and occupational responsibilities. Adults in this stage take responsibility of their parents. Also, women go through menopause and men experience andropause.
- Old age: Retirement life begins in this stage. Leisure is forced on people due to old age. People also experience many health problems. Also, they start thinking about death.
Describe the neonatal stage.
The neonatal stage is the period from birth to two weeks.
- During this period, a newborn starts adjusting to the external environment, e.g. outside temperature.
- The neonate sleeps for around 18 to 20 hours.
- The characteristics of the neonatal stage are as follows:
- It is the shortest of all developmental periods.
- It is the time of radical adjustment.
- It can be a hazardous period, both physically (because the neonate has to make radical adjustments to the new and different environment) and psychologically (because it is the time when the attitudes of significant people in neonate’s life will have an effect on his development).
What are the characteristics of early childhood?
The early childhood stage extends from two years to about six years. The characteristics of early childhood are as follows:
- Parents call this age ‘toy age’ as children play with toys.
- Educators call this age ‘preschool age’ as the child starts going to preschool.
- Psychologists term this age as ‘pre-gang age’ as in the previous stage the child plays alone and does not share his toys but now he starts mixing around.
- Children in this stage experience stranger anxiety or separation anxiety.
Write the characteristics of late childhood.
The late childhood stage ranges from six years to 11 years of age. The characteristics of late childhood are as follows:
- Children in this stage are curious by nature and experiment with new ideas. They are not satisfied with lame answers. For many parents, late childhood is a troublesome age.
- Educators regard late childhood as a critical period in the achievement drive. According to educationalists, this is the age of skill development.
- For psychologists, late childhood is the gang age. During this stage, boys and girls make their separate gangs.
Describe the problems during adolescence.
- Internet addiction: Adolescents indulge more in social media (WhatsApp, Facebook) and online games. Their addiction to the internet due to these applications results in problems like lack of concentration and social interaction.
- College dropouts: Some adolescents may leave college before completing their graduation due to financial or academic problems.
- Identity crisis: Adolescents are confused about ‘who they are because they are neither children nor adults. Parents treat them differently in different situations. Some adolescents pursue a psychological moratorium, i.e. a period in which they take time off from the upcoming responsibility of adulthood to explore various roles and possibilities.
- Depression: When adolescents experience a breakup in a relationship, failure in exams, or death of a loved one, they experience feelings of sadness, loss, or grief. Sometimes, they feel so hopeless that they stop following normal routines. Depression could be due to genetic and environmental factors.
- Suicide: Although girls attempt suicide more frequently than boys, the rate of adolescent suicide is higher for boys. This is because boys use violent means to commit suicide. Social inhibition, perfectionism, and a high level of stress/anxiety create a higher risk of suicidal attempts.
Write a note on adulthood.
- Adulthood ranges from 21 years to 40 years.
- The prime concerns for a young adult are personal career choice and economic independence.
- At this stage, an individual tries to settle in his life. Men and women take responsibility for their families and start earning money.
- The characteristics of Adulthood are as follows:
- Adulthood is the age of settling down. Once they are legally mature, adults have to shoulder their own responsibility.
- Adulthood is the reproductive age.
- Problems faced in this stage are different from those faced at earlier stages.
- An adult tries to establish himself in life and so, experiences tension.
- As adults start working and get married, they don’t get time to mingle around with their friends like earlier.
- They have to adjust to new patterns of life.
- Adulthood is a time of changing experiences and changes in the value system.
- Early adulthood is the time of adjustment to the new lifestyle.
Explain the adjustment problems in middle age.
The middle age or late adulthood period ranges between 40 years to 60 years. The adjustment problems in this stage are as follows:
- It is a time of transition where both men and women leave their physical and behavioural characteristics of adulthood.
- It is a dreaded period due to mental and physical deterioration. The capacity of reproduction, as well as mental and physical capacities, slowly begins to decline.
- It is the time of more responsibilities. They assist the next generation to be competent.
- It is a time of stress as there is a radical financial burden.
- People in this stage may experience nervous breakdown and anxiety.
- It is the time of ‘Empty Nest’ as children go out for higher education, job or get married.
Discuss the application of the principles of human development in different fields.
- There are two principles of development, viz. Cephalocaudal principle (development proceeds from the head to toe) and Proximodistal principle (development proceeds from the center of the body to outward).
- These principles prove helpful to doctors while evaluating the development of an individual. Further, the application of the cephalocaudal principle can also be seen in corporate organizations where decisions taken by the board of directors at the top level are communicated to and implemented by managers and workers. Similarly, the proximodistal principle applies to the development of cities from the center to the outward peripheries.
3. Compare and contrast.
Growth and development
- Growth is quantitative change and it refers to physical changes. On the other hand, development is qualitative change and it includes physical as well as mental changes.
- Growth is perceived through changes in size, weight as age advances and it is a part of development. Development is perceived through changes in behaviour and it is all-inclusive in nature.
Maturation and development
- Maturation refers to a natural unfolding of the genetic potential at the appropriate time in the course of development. Maturation denotes changes in specific behavioural patterns while development denotes qualitative changes.
- Maturation changes are genetic and cannot be speeded up. On the other hand, development results from an interaction between maturation and exposure to training as well as environmental factors.
Prenatal and post-natal stages of development
- A period between conception till birth is called the prenatal period while the period after birth till death is called a post-natal period.
- The stages in the prenatal period are the germinal stage, embryonic stage, and fetal stage while the post-natal period consists of a neonatal stage, early childhood, late childhood, adolescence, early adulthood, late adulthood, and old age.