Maharashtra Board Class 5 Hindi Solutions Chapter 12 बचत

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 5 Hindi Solutions Sulabhbharati Chapter 12 बचत Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 5 Hindi Sulabhbharati Solutions Chapter 12 बचत

5th Standard Hindi Digest Chapter 12 बचत Textbook Questions and Answers

1. सोच समझकर दैनिक उपयोग करो:

प्रश्न 1.
सोच समझकर दैनिक उपयोग करो:

Maharashtra Board Class 5 Hindi Solutions Chapter 12 बचत

Hindi Sulabhbharati Class 5 Solutions Chapter 12 बचत Additional Important Questions and Answers

1. निम्नलिखित प्रश्नों के उत्तर दीजिए:

प्रश्न 1.
क्या आपके घर में बिना ज़रूरत के भी बिजली पंखा चलता रहता है?
उत्तरः
नहीं।

प्रश्न 2.
क्या आपने भोजन बर्बाद होते हुए देखा है ? कहाँ ?
उत्तरः
हाँ! शादी, उत्सव, मेला इत्यादि स्थानों पर।

प्रश्न 3.
क्या आप दाँत साफ करते समय नल खुला छोड़ देते
उत्तरः
नहीं।

प्रश्न 4.
क्या आप कभी अपनी कॉपी के पन्ने फाड़ते हैं? क्यों?
उत्तरः
नहीं, क्योंकि हमें कॉपी की बचत करनी चाहिए।

Maharashtra Board Class 5 Hindi Solutions Chapter 12 बचत

प्रश्न 5.
क्या आप पैसे जमा करते हैं? यदि हाँ, तो उसे कहाँ रखते हैं?
उत्तर:
हाँ, गुल्लक में।

प्रश्न 6.
पानी की बचत कैसे कर सकते हैं? कोई दो उपाय बताइए?
उत्तरः
1. जब आवश्यकता न हो तो नल बंद कर देना चाहिए।
2. बोतल में बचे हुए पानी को फेंकने की बजाय पेड़- पौधों में डाल देना चाहिए।

सही विकल्प के सामने ✓ और गलत के सामने ✗ का निशान लगाइए:

प्रश्न 1.
आपकी कॉपी में लिखते हुए गलती हो गई तो ……………………
(क) पन्ना फाड़कर फेंक देंगे।
(ख) गलत शब्द काटकर, आगे लिखेंगे।
उत्तरः
गलत शब्द काटकर, आगे लिखेंगे।

प्रश्न 2.
आपको रूमाल धोने के लिए कहा जाए तो ……………….
(क) एक बाल्टी पानी का उपयोग करेंगे।
(ख) दो मग पानी में धुल जाएगा।
उत्तरः
दो मग पानी में धुल जाएगा।

प्रश्न 3.
आपका घर ऐसे स्थान पर है, जहाँ पर प्राकृतिक हवा खूब अच्छी बहती है तो …………………
(क) खिड़की दरवाज़े खुले रखकर पंखा बंद रखेंगे।
(ख) खिड़की दरवाज़े बंद करके पंखा चलाएँगे।
उत्तरः
खिड़की दरवाजे खुले रखकर पंखा बंद रखेंगे।

Maharashtra Board Class 5 Hindi Solutions Chapter 12 बचत

प्रश्न 4.
यदि आपके पास पैसे आते हैं तो ………………
(क) आप अपनी मनपसंद चीज़ खरीदेंगे।
(ख) अपनी गुल्लक में डालेंगे।
उत्तरः
अपनी गुल्लक में डालेंगे।

प्रश्न 5.
आप अभ्यास – कक्ष में पढ़ने के लिए ………………..
(क) टेबल-लैंप का प्रयोग करेंगे।
(ख) ट्यूब लाइट का प्रयोग करेंगे।
उत्तरः
टेबल-लैंप का प्रयोग करेंगे।

प्रश्न 6.
निम्नलिखित परिस्थितियों के लिए दो चित्र दिए गए हैं, अनुचित चित्रों पर × का निशान बनाइए:
1. कार धोने के लिए
Maharashtra Board Class 5 Hindi Solutions Chapter 12 बचत 1
2. एक जगह से दूसरी जगह जाने के लिए
Maharashtra Board Class 5 Hindi Solutions Chapter 12 बचत 2
3. खाना खाते समय बच जाने पर
Maharashtra Board Class 5 Hindi Solutions Chapter 12 बचत 3
4. स्कूल से लौटते समय बोतल में पानी बच जाने पर
Maharashtra Board Class 5 Hindi Solutions Chapter 12 बचत 4
उत्तरः

  1. बाल्टी और मग
  2. साइकिल
  3. कुत्ता
  4. गमला

Maharashtra Board Class 5 Hindi Solutions Chapter 12 बचत

एक वाक्य में उत्तर लिखिए:

प्रश्न 1.
अनाज की बचत कैसे कर सकते हैं?
उत्तर:
जितनी ज़रूरत हो, उतना ही खाना परोसें। बचे हुए खाने को गरीबों में बाँटा जा सकता है।

प्रश्न 2.
अन्न कौन उगाता है? और कहाँ ?
उत्तर:
अन्न किसान खेतों में उगाता है।

प्रश्न 3.
घर में पानी की बचत कैसे हो सकती है?
उत्तर:
दाल, सब्जी, चावल धोने के बाद निकला पानी पौधों में डालने से पानी की बचत कर सकते हैं।

प्रश्न 4.
पानी का उपयोग कहाँ होता है?
उत्तर:
पीने, कपड़े धोने, नहाने और खाना पकाने में पानी का उपयोग होता है।

प्रश्न 5.
अगर पानी न हो तो क्या होगा?
उत्तर:
जीवन मुश्किलों से भर जाएगा।

प्रश्न 6.
पैसों की बचत कैसे होगी?
उत्तर:
बच्चों, अपनी जेब खर्च से कुछ रुपये रोज़ बचाकर गुल्लक में डालकर पैसों की बचत कर सकते हैं। फिजूल खर्च कम करके पैसे बचाए जा सकते हैं।

प्रश्न 7.
कागज़ के क्या उपयोग हैं?
उत्तर:
कागज़ लिखने के काम आता है। कागज़ के छोटे बैग बनते हैं।

प्रश्न 8.
कागज़ की बचत कैसे होगी?
उत्तर:
नोट बुक पूरी भरने के बाद ही नई खरीदें। जितना कम कागज़ का उपयोग होगा, उतने अधिक पेड़ कटने से बच जाएँगे।

Maharashtra Board Class 5 Hindi Solutions Chapter 12 बचत

प्रश्न 9.
बिजली के क्या उपयोग हैं?
उत्तर:
बिजली के कारण हमें पंखों से हवा मिलती है और बल्ब से रोशनी मिलती है।

प्रश्न 10.
बिजली की बचत कैसे होगी?
उत्तर:
दिन के समय लाइट बंद रखें। खिड़कियाँ खुली रखें। सूरज की रोशनी अंदर आने दें। वॉशिंग मशीन में कपड़े न सुखाएँ। धूप में सुखाएँ।

व्याकरण:

प्रश्न 1.
निम्न कोष्ठकताले शब्दों से वाक्य बनाइए:
(अन्न, पेन्सिल, पत्ता, बच्चे, प्लास्टिक, भविष्य, सब्जी, स्कूल, विभिन्न, बल्ब)
उत्तर:

  1. हमें अन्न की बचत करनी चाहिए।
  2. पेन्सिल से कॉपी में लिखो।
  3. पत्ता पेड़ से गिरा।
  4. स्कूल में बच्चे हैं।
  5. मेरे पास प्लास्टिक की बोतल है।
  6. भविष्य के लिए पैसों की बचत करो।
  7. राम को कोई भी सब्जी दो, वह खा लेता है।
  8. बच्चे रोज़ सुबह स्कूल जाते हैं।
  9. बगीचे में विभिन्न फूल हैं।
  10. बल्ब से रोशनी मिलती है।

प्रश्न 2.
समानार्थी शब्द लिखिए:

  1. अनाज
  2. दुनिया
  3. जीवन
  4. समय
  5. बारिश
  6. स्कूल
  7. विभिन्न

उत्तर:

  1. अन्न
  2. संसार
  3. ज़िंदगी
  4. वक्त
  5. बरसात
  6. विद्यालय
  7. अलग

Maharashtra Board Class 5 Hindi Solutions Chapter 12 बचत

प्रश्न 3.
विपरीत अर्थ नाले शब्द लिखिए:

  1. आबाद
  2. छोटा
  3. अँधेरा
  4. दिन

उत्तर:

  1. बरबाद
  2. बड़ा
  3. उजाला
  4. रात

बचत Summary in Hindi

पाठ का परिचयः

प्रस्तुत पाठ के द्वारा अन्न, जंगल, बिजली, पानी और पैसों के महत्त्व के बारे में बताया गया है। साथ ही यह भी संदेश दिया गया है कि हमें इन सब चीज़ों की बचत करनी चाहिए। अपने जीवन को सुंदर बनाना चाहिए।

Maharashtra Board Class 5 Hindi Solutions Chapter 12 बचत

शब्दार्थ:

  1. बचत – बचाना (saving)
  2. बरबाद – खराब करना (waste)
  3. महत्त्व – अहमियत (importance)
  4. गमला – (flowerpot)
  5. समीप – नज़दीक (near)

మంగళ హారతి పాటలు

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 9 Money Market and Capital Market in India

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 9 Money Market and Capital Market in India Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board 12th Economics Important Questions Chapter 9 Money Market and Capital Market in India

1. A. Choose the correct option:

Question 1.
Money Market is a market for lending and borrowing of ………….. funds.
(a) long term
(b) medium-term
(c) short term
(d) all of these
Answer:
(c) short term

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 9 Money Market and Capital Market in India

Question 2.
The financial system of the country is responsible for ………….. of funds.
(a) mobilization and allocation
(b) distribution of investment
(c) optimum resources
(d) all of these
Answer:
(a) mobilization and allocation

Question 3.
………….. is the only active money market centre in India.
(a) Nagpur
(b) Madras
(c) Mumbai
(d) Kolkata
Answer:
(c) Mumbai

Question 4.
Central Bank has the ………….. of cash reserve of commercial Bank in the country.
(a) monopsony
(b) monopoly
(c) oligopoly
(d) autopsony
Answer:
(b) monopoly

Question 5.
The Central Bank acts as a ………….. of cash reserve of Commercial Bank in the country,
(a) head
(b) leader
(c) custodian
(d) protector
Answer:

Question 6.
………….. is the apex body of the monetary and banking system of Commercial Banks in the country.
(a) Commercial Bank
(b) Central Bank
(c) Government
(d) Co-operative Bank
Answer:
(b) Central Bank

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 9 Money Market and Capital Market in India

Question 7.
Bank rate is ………….. measure of credit control.
(a) quantitative
(b) qualitative
(c) selective
(d) effective
Answer:
(a) quantitative

Question 8.
Reserve Bank of India was established in …………..
(a) 1937
(b) 1936
(c) 1935
(d) 1934
Answer:
(c) 1935

Question 9.
The operation of direct buying and selling of securities by central bank in the money market is called …………..
(a) open market operation
(b) credit creation
(c) moral suasion
(d) closed market operation
Answer:
(a) open market operation

Question 10.
………….. account is opened by businessmen, corporate bodies, etc.
(a) Saving
(b) Current
(c) Fixed
(d) Recurring
Answer:
(b) Current

Question 11.
………….. is a primary function of commercial banks.
(a) Safe deposit vault
(b) Letter of credit
(c) Accepting deposits
(d) Transfer of funds
Answer:
(c) Accepting deposits

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 9 Money Market and Capital Market in India

Question 12.
Every loan creates .
(a) deposits
(b) credit
(c) profit
(d) debit
Answer:
(a) deposits

Question 13.
Enactment of the Co-operative Credit Societies Act .
(a) 1903
(b) 1904
(c) 1905
(d) 1906
Answer:
(b) 1904

Question 14.
was the 1st Development Financial Institution to be established in 1948.
(a) IFCI
(b) IDBI
(c) ICICI
(d) HSCBI
Answer:
(a) IFCI

Question 15.
DFHI was set up on the recommendation of the committee.
(a) Narsimhan
(b) Vaghul
(c) Vaghale
(d) Tandon
Answer:
(b) Vaghul

Question 16.
The activities of unorganized money market are largely confined to the areas.
(a) city
(b) urban
(c) rural
(d) none of these
Answer:
(c) rural

Question 17.
important source of funds in unbanked areas which provide loans directly to agriculture, trade and industry.
(a) Indigenous bankers
(b) EXIM Bank
(c) IDBL
(d) HSCB Bank
Answer:
(a) Indigenous bankers

Question 18.
charge high rate of interest to the people.
(a) RBI
(b) Commercial Bank
(c) Money lenders
(d) LIC
Answer:
(c) Money lenders

Question 19.
………………. short term instruments issued by the RBI on behalf of the government to meet temporary liquidity shortfalls.
(a) Commercial papers
(b) Call money market
(c) Treasury Bills
(d) Commercial Bills
Answer:
(c) Treasury Bills

(B) Complete the Correlation 

  1. RBI was set up : Hilton Young Commission :: DFHI was set up : ………………..
  2. Open market operation : ……………….. :: Moral suasion : Qualitative method
  3. Deposits that are repayable after a certain period of time : Time deposits :: Deposits that are withdrawable on demand : ………………..
  4. Commercial Banks : Credit creation :: ……………….. : Controller of credit
  5. SEBI : 1998 :: NSE : ………….

Answer:

  1. Vaghul committee
  2. Quantitative method
  3. Demand deposits
  4. RBI
  5. 1992

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 9 Money Market and Capital Market in India

(C) Suggest the economic terms for the given statements.

(1) Account that are operated by salaried class and small traders.
(2) Accounts is opened by businessmen, corporation or trust.
(3) Source of funds in unbanked areas which provide loans directly to agriculture, trade and industry.
(4) It is unsecured negotiable instrument in bearer form issued by Commercial banks and Development Finance Institutions.
(5) It is also known as the gilt-edged market.
(6) Market deals with securities already issued by companies.
(7) It act as a link between the investors and the borrower to meet the financial objectives of both the parties.
(8) It deals with the shares and debentures issued by old and new companies.
(9) Market for long term funds.
(10) Fund to promote investors awareness.
Answer:

  1. Saving A/c
  2. Current A/c
  3. Indigenous bankers
  4. Certificates of deposits
  5. Government Securities
  6. Secondary Market
  7. Financial intermediaries
  8. Industrial Securities Market
  9. Capital Market
  10. IEPF

(D) Find the odd word

(1) Financial Instruments :
Bonds, Demand, Equity Shares, Derivatives.
Answer:
Demand

(2) Unorganised Sector :
Indigenous Bankers, Money lenders, Unregulated Non-Bank Financial Intermediaries, Co-operative Banks.
Answer:
Co-operative Banks

(3) Functions of RBI:
Collection and Publication of Data, Controller of Credit, Credit Creation, Bankers Bank.
Answer:
Credit Creation

(4) Functions of Commercial Bank :
Acceptance of Deposits, Lending loans and advances, Credit Creation, Banker’s Bank.
Answer:
Banker’s Bank

(5) Co-operative Credit Structure : State level, District level, Secondary level, Primary level
Answer:
Secondary Level

(6) Money Market Instruments :
Treasury Bills, Certificate of Deposits, Commercial Bills, Discount and Finance House of India.
Answer:
Discount and Finance House of India

(E) Complete the following statements.

(1) Method of withdrawing money without going to the bank is by
Answer:
ATM

(2) The Account in which certain amount of money is deposited every month regularly for a fixed duration is .
Answer:
Recurring A/c

(3) Credit creation is an important function of Bank.
Answer:
Commercial

(4) Saving Bank Account is suitable for people
Answer:
salaried

(5) Higher rate of interest is paid on deposits.
Answer:
Fixed

(6) Currency rate of India to other currency means
Answer:
exchange rate

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 9 Money Market and Capital Market in India

(7) system economies the use of cash.
Answer:
Clearing House

(8) The works as friend, philosopher and guide to Commercial Bank.
Answer:
Central Bank

(9) Bank grants loans to government.
Answer:
Central

(10) When money is borrowed or lent for a day, it is known as
Answer:
Call / Notice money

(11) A well-developed money market ensures successful implementation of the policy.
Answer:
monetary

(F) Choose the wrong pair :

I.

Group ‘A’ Group ‘B’
1. Central Bank Apex Banking Institution
2. Clearing House system Specialised institution for agriculture
3. Credit Control Quantitative measure
4. Money Market Short term fund

Answer:
Wrong pair : Clearing House system Specialised institution for agriculture

II.

Group ‘A’ Group ‘B’
1. Commercial Bank Acceptance of Deposit
2. IFCI 1948
3. Co-operative Credit Society Act 1904
4 Discount and Finance House of India 1980

Answer:
Wrong pair : Discount and Finance House of India – 1980

(G) Assertion and Reasoning.

Question 1.
Assertion (A) : Illegal practices have also affected the smooth functioning of capital market. :
Reasoning (R) : Price manipulation or ( price rigging on the other hand means to simply raise the prices of shares through ) buying and selling of shares within certain individual themselves for personal gains. ;
(i) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(ii) (A) is false but (R) is true
(iii) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(iv) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
Answer:
(iv) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation

(H) Choose the correct pair :

I.

Group ‘A’ Group ‘B’
Demat Account (a) Commercial Bank
Overdraft (b)Ancillary function
Credit creation (c) 1949
Banking Regulation Act (d) 1935
(e) Amount withdrawn above the actual balance

Ans.
(1)-(b), (2)-(e), (3)-(a), (4) – (c)

II.

Group ‘A’ Group ‘B’
Local area Banks (a) RBI
Liquidity Adjustment Facility (LAF) (b) Primary and Secondary markets
Industrial Securities market (c) Money Market
Stock Exchange (d) Capital Market
(e) August, 1996

Answer:
(1)-(e), (2)-(a), (3)-(b), (4) – (d)

Q.2.[A] Identify and explain the concept from given illustrations.

Question 1.
Santosh invested money in share market and the broker does fraud in company.
Answer:
Concept: Financial Scams
Explanation : Financial scams are the frauds and manipulations done by the stock brokers for their personal benefits. Increasing number of financial frauds have resulted in irreparable loss for the capital market.
It also leads to public distrust and loss of confidence among the individual investors.

Question 2.
XYZ Bank Provides cash credit, overdraft facility and loan to its customer.
Answer:
Concept: Providing loans and advances by Commercial Bank
Explanation : Commercial Bank mobilize savings and lend these funds to institutions and individuals for various purposes.
Based on tenures, loans include call loans, short term, medium term and long term loans.
Longer the duration of the loans, greater will be the rate of interest.
Beside this bank also provide cash credit, overdraft facility as well as discounting of bills of exchange.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 9 Money Market and Capital Market in India

(B) Distinguish between:

Question 1.
Central Bank and Commercial Bank.
Answer:
Central Bank:

  1. The central bank is the apex banking institution whose main function is to control, regulate and stabilise the monetary system of the country in the national interest.
  2. The main function of central bank is to control, regulate and stabilise the banking and monetary system of the country.
  3. It does not deal with public directly. It acts as the banker to government and bankers bank.
  4. It enjoys the monopoly right to print and issue currency notes.
  5. Central Bank controls the credit.
  6. There is only one Central Bank in India. R.B.I. is owned by Government.

Commercial Bank:

  1. A commercial bank is abusiness organisation which basically accepts deposits from public and lends to others who need fund and create credit.
  2. The main function commercial bank is to accept deposits and lend loans and advances.
  3. It deals with the public directly. They are banker to general public.
  4. Commercial banks do not possess such rights.
  5. Commercial banks create credit.
  6. Owned by private or government. There are several commercial banks like State Bank of India, ICICI Bank, Canara Bank, etc.

Question 2.
Quantitative Credit Control and Qualitative Credit Control. (Mar. ’18)
Answer:
Quantitative Credit Control:

  1. This method aims at controlling credit by expanding or contracting the volume of credit in the banking system.
  2. The important quantitative measures to control credit are
    (1) Bank Rate
    (2) Open Market Operation
    (3) Varying Cash Reserve ratio.
  3. During inflation quantitative measures adopt the strategy of contracting the volume of credit so as to reduce money supply. During inflation such methods are applied to encourage expansion of credit and expand money supply.
  4. They are macro economic in nature and influence the whole economy.

Qualitative Credit Control:

  1. It aims at controlling credit by checking the purpose or use of the credit.
  2. Selective control measures include the following:
    (1) Changing the market.
    (2) Regulation of consumer credit
    (3) Issue of directives
    (4) Rationing of credit
    (5) Moral suasion.
  3. The main strategy of selective credit control measures is to ensure that credit money does not reach undesirable and non – productive channels.
  4. They are micro in nature and do not influence the whole economy.

Question 3.
Current Account and Saving Account.
Answer:
Current Account:

  1. This account is usually opened by businessmen, industrial enterprises, public bodies, etc.
  2. This account facilitates regular business transactions.
  3. There is no interest paid on current account.
  4. There is no restriction on withdrawals.

Saving Account:

  1. This account is held by the households, salaried class, small traders, etc.
  2. The main purpose of saving account is to encourage saving habits among people.
  3. The saving account earns a nominal rate of interest.
  4. Withdrawals are allowed subject to certain restrictions.

Question 4.
Fixed Deposits and Saving Deposits.
Answer:
Fixed Deposits:

  1. Fixed Deposits are time bound deposits, where money is deposited for a specific period of time.
  2. The main objective is to earn high interest and to get lumpsum amount on maturity.
  3. It cannot be withdrawn before maturity but one can close the account before maturity with loss of interest.
  4. The rate of interest is high. It can be 6% to 10% depending upon the period of deposit.

Saving Deposits:

  1. Saving deposits are a kind of demand deposits, which is held by households or individuals for the purpose of savings.
  2. Safety is the major objective of saving accounts.
  3. Withdrawals are allowed subject to certain restrictions.
  4. The saving account earns nominal rate of interest. At present it is about 4 to 4.5% per annum.

Question 5.
Current Deposits and Recurring Deposits.
Answer:
Current Deposits:

  1. It is a kind of demand deposit which is mostly held by companies, institutions, government and individual for the sake of business transactions.
  2. It is suitable for business firms for the purpose of transactions.
  3. There are no restrictions on withdrawals.
  4. There is no interest paid.

Recurring Deposits:

  1. These are deposits under which people pay a specified amount at a regular interval of time for a given period of time.
  2. It is suitable for the salaried, poor and lower middle class who can save a certain amount of money regularly every month.
  3. The amount can be withdrawn after a specific period of time.
  4. The interest rate is higher.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 9 Money Market and Capital Market in India

Question 6.
Current Deposits and Fixed Deposits,
Answer:
Current Deposits:

  1. It is a kind of demand deposit which is usually held by companies, institutions, government and individuals for the sake of business transactions.
  2. There are no restriction on withdrawals.
  3. No interest is paid to current account or deposits.
  4. The main purpose of current account is to facilitate regular transactions.

Fixed Deposits:

  1. Fixed deposits are a kind of time deposits which is deposited for a specific period.
  2. The amount deposited cannot be withdrawn before maturity period.
  3. The rate of interest paid is high.
  4. The main purpose is to get a lumpsum amount on the maturity of the deposit.

3. Answer the following questions :

Question 1.
Explain the reforms introduced in the capital market.
Answer:
Reforms introduced in the Capital Market are as follows :

  • SEBI was established in 1988 and given statutory power in 1992 to protect interest of investors.
  • NSE, the leading stock exchange in India was established in 1992.
  • Introduction of Computerised Screen Based Trading System (SBTS).
  • Introduction of Demat A/c in 1996 to facilitate easy purchase and sale of securities.
  • Increased access to global funds, Indian companies was permitted through ADRs and GDRs.
  • Investors Education and Protection Fund (IEPF) was created in 2001 to promote awareness among investors and protecting the interest of the investors.

Question 5.
What are the reforms introduced in the money market?
Answer:
Following are the reforms introduced in the Money Market:

  • Introduction of New Money Market Instruments : In order to widen and diversify the Indian money market, RBI has introduced many new money market instruments such as 182 Days treasury bills, 364 day treasury bills, CDs and CPs. Through these instruments, the government, commercial banks, financial institutions and corporates can raise funds through the money market.
  • Liquidity Adjustment Facility (LAF) : RBI has introduced LAF for adjusting liquidity through repos and reverse repos to stabilise the short-term interest rates or call rates.
  • Deregulation of Interest Rates : Ceiling on interest rates on the call money and inter bank short term deposits was removed and the rates were permitted to be determined by the market forces.
  • National Electronic Fund Transfer (NEFT) and Real Time Gross Settlement (RTGS) were introduced as an improved payment infrastructure.
  • Electronic dealing system was introduced.

4. State with reasons whether you : agree or disagree with the following statements :

Question 1.
There is four tier co-operative credit l bank structure in India.
Answer:
No, I do not agree with this statement.
There are three tier of credit co- operative bank structure i.e. at –
Primary Level – Primary Co operative Credit Societies.
District Level – District Central Co operative Banks.
State Level – State Co operative Banks.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 9 Money Market and Capital Market in India 1

Question 2.
Moneymarket consist only unorganised sector in India.
Answer:
No, I do not agree with this statement.
Money market consist organized as well as unorganized sector in India
The organized sector of money market consist of the RBI, Commercial Banks Co-operative Banks, Development Financial Institutions (DFIs) and Discount and Finance House of India (DFHI) and the unorganized sector of money market consist of Indigenous Bankers, Money lenders and Unregulated Non-Bank Financial Intermediaries.

Question 3.
Unit Trust of India was the first development financial institution in India.
Answer:
No, I do not agree with this statement.
Development Financial Institution are agencies that provide medium and long term financial assistance.
They help in the development of industry, agriculture and other key sectors.
In includes many financial institutions, like – ICICI, IDBI, IIBI and UTI.
IFCI was the first development financial institution established in 1948.

Question 4.
Compared to advanced countries, the Indian money market is less developed.
Answer:
Yes, I do agree with this statement.
Indian money market is relatively underdeveloped, when compared to advanced markets like London and New York money markets.
Its main weaknesses are explained as below:

Following are the problems of money market in India:
(a) Shortages of Funds : Generally, there is shortage of funds in Indian Money Market on account of various factors like inadequate banking facilities, low savings, lack of banking habits, existence of parallel economy,- etc. have also been responsible for the paucity of funds in the money market.

(b) Existence of Unorganised Money Market : This is one of the major defects of Indian Money Market. It does distinguish between short term and long term finance, and also between the purposes of finance. Since it is outside the control and supervision of RBI. It limits the RBI’s control over money market.

(c) Delays in technological up-gradation: Use of advanced technology is a pre requisite for the development and smooth functioning of financial markets. Delays in up-gradation of technology hampers the working of the money market.

(d) Absence of Well Organized Banking Sector : Branch expansion was very slow before bank nationalization in 1969. Even now the banks are largely concentrated in large towns and small cities. There is lack of movement of funds. Indian banking system is not yet a well organized sector.

(e) No Uniformity in the rates of interest:
There exists too many rates of interest in the Indian Money Market such as the borrowing rate of government, deposits and lending rates of co-operatives and commercial banks, lending rates of financial institutions, etc. This is due to lack of mobility of funds from one section of the money market to another.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 9 Money Market and Capital Market in India

5. Answer in detail:

Question 1.
Explain the role of money market in India ?
Answer:
(A) Meaning:
Money market is a market for lending and borrowing short term funds.
It is a market for near money.
It deals in short term instruments like trade bills, government securities, promissory notes, etc.
Money market centres are located at Mumbai, Delhi and Kolkata. Money market consists of organised as well as unorganised sector.

Role of Money Market in India :
1. Portfolio Management : Money market deals with different types of financial instruments which are designed to suit the ( risk and return preferences of the investors. This enables the investors to hold a portfolio of different financial assets which in turn, helps in minimizing risk and maximizing returns.

2. Implementation of monetary policy :
Various monetary policies are implemented by the Central Bank, with an aim to manage the quantity of money, to meet the requirements of different sectors of the economy and to increase the pace of economic growth. Money market ensures successful implementation of these monetary policies. It also guides the central bank in developing an appropriate interest policy.

3. Growth of Commerce, Industry and Trade : Money market facilitates discounting bills of exchange to local and international traders who are in urgent need of short-term funds. It also provides working capital for agriculture and small scale industries.

4. Financial requirements of the Government : Money market helps the Government to fulfil its short term financial requirements on the basis of Treasury Bills.

5. Economizes the use of cash : Money market deals with various financial instruments that are close substitutes of money and not actual money. Thus, it economizes the use of cash.

6. Equilibrating mechanism : Money market helps to establish equilibrium between the demand for and supply of short term funds by allocating rationally the available resources and thus mobilizing the savings of public into fruitful investment channels.

7. Liquidity Management : Money Market, through the monetary authorities facilitates better management of liquidity and money in the economy. This, in turn, leads to economic stability and development of the country.

8. Short-term requirements of borrowers :
Money market provides short-term financial needs of the borrowers at reasonable prices.

Question 4.
Write note on Recent Developments in banking sector.
Answer:
Recent developments in banking sector :

(a) Small Finance Banks : The main aim of small finance banks is to promote financial assistance to small business units, small and marginal farmers, micro and small industries and other unorganised sectors of the economy.
It also assists with high technology at low cost of operations.

(b) Payments Banks : Payment banks are like other banks only, but they operate on a smaller scale without involving any credit risk.
It can carry almost all banking operations but cannot advance loans or issue credit cards.
It can accept deposits upto ₹ one lakh.
It can offer following services to its customers – remittance services, mobile payments, ATM facility, Debit cards, net banking, etc.

(c) Universal Banks : Universal banks refer to those banks that offer a wide range of financial services like commercial banking and investment banking and also offer other services, especially insurance service. It is a multipurpose and multi-functional financial supermarket providing both banking and financial services through a single window.

(d) Local Area Banks : Local area bank scheme was introduced in August, 1996. It was established to mobilize rural savings by private local banks and make them available for investments in the local areas. This helps to bridge the gap in credit availability and strengthens the institutional credit system in the rural and semi-urban areas.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.2 On Saying “Please”

Balbharti Yuvakbharati English 12th Digest Chapter 1.2 On Saying “Please” Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.2 On Saying “Please”

12th English Digest Chapter 1.2 On Saying “Please” Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
List the words of courtesy that we use in our daily life. Discuss them with your partner and explain the purpose of using each.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.2 On Saying “Please” 1
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.2 On Saying “Please” 2

Question 2.
Listed below are a few character traits of people. Some are positive traits, while others are not. Tick [✓] the ones you feel are desirable.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.2 On Saying “Please” 3
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.2 On Saying “Please” 4

Question 3.
Etiquette and manners are very important for a person to live in the society. Read the following and put them in proper columns:

  1. To receive phone calls while you are in a lecture or class.
  2. To knock before you enter your Principal’s office.
  3. To thank the person who offers you tea or coffee.
  4. To be polite and courteous to others.
  5. To leave the classroom without the teacher’s permission.
  6. To occupy the seats reserved for ladies or physically challenged or elderly people on a bus or a train.

Answer:

Appropriate Inappropriate
1. To knock before you enter your Principal’s office. 1. To receive phone calls while you are in a lecture or class.
2. To thank the person who offers you tea or coffee. 2. To leave the classroom without the teacher’s permission.
3. To be polite and courteous to others. 3. To occupy the seats reserved for ladies or physically challenged or elderly people on a bus or a train.

(A1)

Question (i)
Form groups and explain the following words with examples:
Answer:
1. Humility: being free from pride and arrogance – greatest example our former President Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam – remember that ‘pride comes before a fall’ – always realize that there are people better than you are – Socrates said ‘One thing only I know, and that is that I know nothing. ’
2. Self-esteem: self-respect; confidence in one’s own worth or abilities – accept oneself as one is – everyone is different and unique – highly positive quality – leads to achievements, success, healthy relationships – can be developed with a little effort.
3. Gratitude: thankfulness for something that you have got – ready to show appreciation for something – towards the Almighty, towards those who have helped you – strengthens relationships with others – creates positivity.
4. Courtesy: means good manners and polite behavior – means being kind and compassionate towards others – should be real, not artificial – creates good impression – one will be liked by all – human quality not present in animals.
5. Generosity: kindness; big-heartedness – the act of being kind, selfless and giving towards others – very positive trait – influences others – when one is generous, one feels good – many religions consider this a great virtue – encourage charity.
6. Sympathy: feelings of pity and sorrow for someone else’s misfortune – leads to stronger relationships – offering condolences when someone dies – helps us to bond with others-makes the other person’s distress less – beautiful emotion – should be developed.
7. Empathy: the ability to understand and share the feelings of another – putting yourself in the shoes of the other person – different from kindness or pity – listen when people talk – see things from the other person’s point of view – makes one a very humane person.

Question (ii)
Have a Group Discussion on the topic ‘The need of soft skills at the workplace’. Use the following points:
Answer:
(a) Written and verbal communication (writing notes, letters, memos, reports, instructions, speeches, presentations, etc.)
(b) Ways of interacting with others (showing courtesy, sympathy, cooperation, empathy, strictness, gratitude, humility, team work, etc.)
(c) Creative abilities (preparing reports, presentations, letters, etc.)
(d) Emotional intelligence (showing understanding, compassion, empathy, team work, motivation, self-awareness, etc.)

(A2)

Question (i)
Read the text and state whether the following statements are True or False. Correct the False statements.
(a) Bitter problems in day-to-day life can be solved by sweet words.
(b) Great wars could have been avoided by a little courtesy.
(c) Observance of etiquette in a normal situation is important but more important is their observance when the situation is adverse.
(d) Words like ‘please’ and ‘thank you’ help us in making our passage through life uneasy.
(e) The law permits anybody to use violence, if another person is discourteous.
Answer:
True statements:
(a) Bitter problems in day-to-day life can be solved by sweet words.
(b) Great wars could have been avoided by a little courtesy.
(c) Observance of etiquette in a normal situation is important but more important is their observance when the situation is adverse.

False statements:
(d) Words like ‘please’ and ‘thank you’ help us in making our passage through life uneasy.
(e) The law permits anybody to use violence, if ; another person is discourteous.

Corrected statements :
(d) Words like ‘please’ and ‘thank you’ help us in making our passage through life easy.
(e) The law does not permit anybody to use violence, if another person is discourteous.

Question (ii)
Select the most appropriate sentences which suggest the theme of the essay.
(a) The essay tells us about courtesy, civility, morality, responsibility and control.
(b) The essay explores the difficulties that can be incurred by an individual when dealing with the public.
(c) One can keep one’s peace of mind without having to lower themselves to the level of the perceived offender.
(d) People with low self-esteem are generally difficult to work with and they look down upon others to get a feeling of superiority.
Answer:
(a) The essay tells us about courtesy, civility, morality, responsibility and control.
(c) One can keep one’s peace of mind without having to lower themselves to the level of the
perceived offender.

(iii)

Question (a)
Find the reasons for the liftman’s uncivilized behaviour.
Answer:
Reasons for the liftman’s uncivilized behaviour when the passenger was rude and ill-mannered towards him:

  1. he was acutely hurt by the slur cast by the passenger on his social status
  2. the passenger’s discourtesy was a wound to his self-respect
  3. he felt insulted by the passenger’s discourtesy.

Question (b)
List the people and their behaviour that made the passenger rude and ill- mannered.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.2 On Saying “Please” 5
Answer:
The people who made the passenger rude and ill-mannered:
[housemaid] → [cook] → [employer’s wife] → [employer] → [passenger] → [lift-man]

Question (iv)
Good manners are required in our daily life for making our social contacts more cooperative and friendly. Illustrate the behaviour of the polite conductor with different people in various situations.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.2 On Saying “Please” 6
Answer:

Situation Behaviour
1. The writer’s sensitive toe was trampled on The conductor said sorry with an apology and courtesy.
2. In the rainy season dealing with people He would run up the stairs to give someone the tip that there was “room inside”.
3. Dealing with old people He was as considerate as a son.
4. Dealing with children He was as solicitous as a father.
5. Dealing with young people He always indulged in some merry jest with them.
6. Dealing with a blind man He set him down safely on the pavement and then took him wherever he wanted to go, after telling the driver to wait for a while.

Question (v)
Discuss and Write the impact of good temper and kindliness on society in the light of the good-mannered conductor.
Answer:
The conductor was always cheerful and kind-hearted to everyone in the bus. This spread to his passengers and they too became cheerful and good-humored. They would naturally pass on this feeling after getting off the bus. Thus, in society, if people are good-tempered, cheerful and kind, it will spread to others and they too will start behaving in a similar manner. This will lead to a happy and compassionate society.

Question (vi)
‘A modest calling can be made dignified by good temper and kindly feeling’. Explain the statement with examples.
Answer:
This means that whatever career or job one has, however simple or modest, it can be made more dignified by behaving in a good- tempered and cheerful manner and with kindliness towards the people one comes in contact with. For example, even a simple job like that of a security guard at a mall can be made pleasant and dignified if the guard smiles and says ‘Thank you’ or ‘Good morning’ every time he/she checks a person.

A sweeper’s job can also be made more dignified if he/she just nods and smiles at passers-by or helps them if they are in need.

Question (vii)
The service of the police is necessary for the implementation of law in our society. Do you think you require this service for a good social environment? Discuss and write.
Answer:
No, we cannot have the police monitoring us for social and moral offences. For example, one cannot be punished if one refuses to smile at an acquaintance or say Thank you’. One cannot be punished if one doesn’t hold the door open for the person who is following.

These are good manners, or courtesy, and they have to be taught right from childhood, and they will change in different cultures and different circumstances. Whether a person follows them or not depends on the individual. However, if these little courtesies are followed, life will become much simpler and more pleasant for everyone.

(A3)

Question (a)
Find out the words in Column B which collocate with the words in Column A:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.2 On Saying “Please” 7
Answer:

A B Answer
regular meal regular exercise
mid day concept mid-day meal
key food key concept
fast exercise fast food
try decorated try hard
richly hard richly decorated
free jam free time
traffic time traffic jam
social animal social justice
wild justice wild animal

Question (b)
Learning collocations is essential for making your English sound fluent and natural. Make the following collocations and use them in your own sentences.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.2 On Saying “Please” 8
Sentences:
(1) BIG:

  1. It was a big mistake to hold a party on a rainy day.
  2. “Did you get a big surprise when you saw me?” asked the little girl to her mother.
  3. There was a big welcome waiting for the winning team.
  4. The hungry beggar prayed that he would get a big meal at the rich man’s home.
  5. Writing the difficult exam was no big deal for the intelligent boy.
  6. Rohan realized that it would be a big challenge for him to win the match.
  7. The discovery of a new element was big news in the scientific community.
  8. Losing the beauty contest was a big shock for the arrogant girl.

(2) WELL :

  1. The well-dressed man jumped over the puddle carefully.
  2. The advice the teacher gave Rita was well-meant, but Rita did not like it.
  3. The cook was happy to see the well-stocked cupboard.
  4. Little Naina was well-pleased with her birthday gift.

Question (ii)
Sometimes while using a word in a sentence, we have to change its word class. we can make several more words from the root word.
we can make several new words from the root word.
I asked Sumit to ……………. my pencil for me. (sharp).
I asked Sumit to sharpen my pencil for me.

Question 1.
Now read the following sentences and use the words given in the brackets. Change the word class and rewrite the sentences.
(a) Leena was eating a very …………. apple and obviously enjoying it. (crunch)
(b) This picture looks …………… (colour)
(c) I’m afraid that your behaviour is just not ……………. (accept)
(d) I like my elder brother. He is very ……………. (help)
Answer:
(a) Leena was eating a very crunchy apple and obviously enjoying it.
(b) This picture looks colourful.
(c) I’m afraid that your behaviour is just not acceptable.
(d) I like my elder brother. He is very helpful.

Complete the following table. Put a cross if a word class does not exist.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.2 On Saying “Please” 9

Question (iii)
Write appropriate expressions and words you have to use while facing an interview :
Answer:
(a) May I come in?
(b) May I have a seat?
(c) Thank you.
(d) I’m sorry, but I did not catch what you said.
(5) Please let me know

Question (b)
You are writing a letter of complaint. List the proper expressions that you would like to write.
Answer:

  1. I disagree.
  2. I’m sorry to say that….
  3. I would like to suggest….
  4. This was not expected from a company like yours.
  5. Please replace the defective piece as soon as possible.

Question (iv)
Distinguish between a legal offence and a moral offence on the basis of the extract.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.2 On Saying “Please” 10
Answer:

Legal offence Moral offence
Burglary Rude behaviour
Assault Discourtesy
Battery Haughtiness
Laceration of one’s feelings

Question (v)
Find out the meaning of the phrase ‘give and take’ and use it in your own sentence.
Answer:
give-and-take – Meaning: exchange of ideas Sentence – The TV stars engaged in an interesting give-and-take which was enjoyed by the audience.

Question (vi)
Complete the table with polite expressions that we must use in our day-to-day life:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.2 On Saying “Please” 11
Answer:

Don’ts Dos
I want a cup of tea. I would like to have a cup of tea.
Send me the mail. Please send me the mail.
Go away or leave me alone. Please let me be by myself.
You are wrong. Are you sure you’re right?
That’s a bad idea. That is not a very good idea, is it?
Your work isn’t good. Your work can do with some improvement

(A4)

Question (i)
Edit the given paragraph using a/ an/the wherever necessary:
Rakesh is a/an ideal son who remains devoted to his father as he grows professionally to become a/the famous doctor. As his father grows old, he takes care to spend time with his father, bringing him tea in a/the morning and taking him out for a/the walk in an/the evening.
Answer:
Rakesh is an ideal son who remains devoted to his father as he grows professionally to become a famous doctor. As his father grows old, he takes care to spend time with his father, bringing him tea in the morning and taking him out for a walk in the evening.

Question (ii)
Spot the errors in each of the following sentences and correct the incorrect ones:

Question (a)
Radha brought pens and distributed them between her five children.
Answer:
Radha bought pens and distributed them among her five children.

Question (b)
Jayshree and Sujata sat besides each other in complete silence.
Answer:
Jayshree and Sujata sat beside each other in complete silence.

Question (c)
His best friend Vijay was blind within one eye.
Answer:
His best friend Vijay was blind in one eye.

Question (d)
One could dare to encroach on his rights.
Answer:
One could not dare to encroach on his rights.

Question (e)
She was taken with surprise when she saw the famous Taj Mahal.
Answer:
She was taken by surprise when she saw the famous Taj Mahal.

Question (f)
It is not possible to exchange the goods once the sale has been completed.
Answer:
It is not possible to exchange goods once the sale has been completed, (‘the’ is deleted.)

Question (g)
Dr. Sengupta has been trying to master the craft for the last five years.
Answer:
No error in this sentence.

Question (h)
The top-ranking candidates will be appointed in senior jobs in banks.
Answer:
The top-ranking candidates will be appointed | to senior jobs in banks.

Question (i)
She knows very well what is expected from her but she is unable to perform.
Answer:
She knows very well what is expected of her but she is unable to perform.

Question (j)
They will put on a note in this regard for your consideration.
Answer:
They will put up a note in this regard for your consideration.

Question (iii)
Read the following.
Santosh purchased a computer. He read the operating manual and followed the instructions.
(a) He linked the monitor, keyboard and printer.
(b) He plugged in the main cable.
(c) He switched on the monitor at the back.
(d) When the light appeared on the screen, he placed the Day Disk in Drive A.
(e) He pushed in the disk until the button clicked out.
(It took about 30 seconds for the computer to load the program.)
(f) He pressed the Drive button and the disk shot out.
(g) He replaced the Day Disk with the Document Disk.
(h) He pressed function key 7.
Convert these sentences into passive voice by filling in the blanks.

Firstly the monitor, keyboard and printer were linked up. Then the main cable was plugged in. The monitor was switched on at the back. When the light appeared on the screen, the Day Disk was placed in Drive A. The disk was pushed in until the button clicked out. It took the computer 30 seconds to load the program. The drive button was pressed and the disk shot out. The Day Disk was replaced with the Document Disk. Finally, the function key 7 was pressed. The word processor was then ready to use.

(A5)

Question (i)
Write a speech on ‘Courtesy is the light of life’ with the help of the following points.
(a) People have a good impression of you.
(b) You will be acknowledged and appreciated by all.
(c) You will he happier and contented with life.
Answer:
Courtesy is the light of life
Dear friends,

Good morning. You may be surprised with the topic I have chosen for this speech, for today the word ‘Courtesy’ seems to be an old-fashioned word for us. But it is really the light of life. I, Shivam Goswami, would like to say a few words on why I think so.

First of all, what does courtesy mean? It means good manners and polite behaviour. It means being kind and compassionate towards someone. When you are courteous, people have a good impression of you; but that is not the reason for being courteous. Politeness should be real, and not artificial.

A courteous person will be appreciated by all. People will like to spend time with him/her and find pleasure in the person’s company. Someone may ask ‘What is courteous behaviour’? Saying simple words like ‘Please’, ‘Thank you’, ‘Excuse me’ and ‘Sorry’ is courteous behaviour. Helping a person who has fallen is courteous behaviour. Holding the lift door open for someone is courteous behaviour.

When a person is courteous, people are automatically courteous in return. This leads to a more polite and happier society. As I conclude, I would like to ask all of you to do something for a week: Be courteous. Then you will see the returns and realize the truth of what I am saying. Thank you for listening to me so patiently. Bye.

Question (ii)
‘Manners maketh man’ – Expand the idea in your own words with proper examples.
Answer:
Manners maketh man

‘Manners maketh Man’ : so goes a famous saying. In the world of today, people are judged by their manners and conduct. Manners distinguish us from animals, and make us human. A person who is courteous and considerate towards others is said to possess good manners. Such a person is respectful to his superiors, courteous to his equals and sympathetic towards his subordinates. He always shows concern for the well-being and comfort of others. He uses words like ‘Please’, ‘Thank you’ and ‘Sorry’ while talking to others; he helps senior citizens and those in need.

Everyone likes a person who speaks and behaves politely and treats others respectfully. Good manners cost practically nothing but can buy everything. They win us friends and help us influence people. They make the world a happier place to live in by reducing friction and avoiding tension.

When we meet a person for the first time, it is the person’s courtesy which impresses us deeply. Good manners are generally taught by parents at home, and by teachers in school. Manners that are learnt during childhood generally remain with us throughout our lives. They become a part of our personality. Hence, it is desirable that good manners are instilled in children when they are very young, so that they grow up to become courteous, considerate adults.

(A6)

Question (i)
Read A. G. Gardiner’s essay “The Open Window’ and compare its theme with the essay ‘On Saying “Please.”

Question (ii)
‘Nothing clears up my spirits like a fine day’ – Keats. Collect information of the poet Keats and write it in your notebook.

(A7)

Question (i)
Soft skills are required in all walks of life including careers and industries. They are increasingly becoming the essential skills of today’s workforce. Soft skills are an integral part of finding, attracting and retaining clients also. Highly developed presentation skills, networking abilities, and etiquette awareness can help you win new clients and gain more work. The following are considered the most important soft skills.
image

Question (ii)
Following are some of the institutions where you will get the courses related to soft skills.
(a) Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, Gujarat
(b) Indian School of Business Management, Hyderabad
(c) XLRI – Xavier School of Management, Jamshedpur
(d) Indian Institute of Foreign Trade, New Delhi
Jobs available at –

  • Customer service centre
  • Management schools
  • Hotel industry, etc.

Yuvakbharati English 12th Digest Chapter 1.2 On Saying “Please” Additional Important Questions and Answers

Read the extract and complete the activities given below.:

Global Understanding:

Question 1.
Read the following sentences and find out True and False sentences. Correct the false sentences:
1. The liftman invited the passenger into the lift.
2. If you knock down a burglar, the law will acquit you.
3. There is no legislation against bad manners.
4. The complainant had to pay a fine.
Answer:
True sentences:
2. If you knock down a burglar, the law will acquit you.
3. There is no legislation against bad manners.

False sentences:
1. The liftman invited the passenger into the lift.
4. The complainant had to pay a fine,

Corrected sentences:
1. The liftman threw the passenger out of the lift.
4. The liftman had to pay a fine.

Question 2.
Explain the penalty, if any, that one has to pay if one is rude or boorish.
Answer:
There is no penalty to pay if one is rude or boorish except the penalty of being called a ill-mannered person.

Question 3.
The behaviour of the people who made the passenger rude and ill-mannered:
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.2 On Saying “Please” 12

Question 4.
Complete the following:
(The answers are given directly and underlined.)
Answer:

  1. The first requirement of civility is that we should acknowledge a service.
  2. The Underground Railway Company insists that their employees are civil.
  3. The words which make life smooth are ‘please’ and ‘thank you’.
  4. The job of a bus conductor is very difficult and sometimes painful.

Question 5.
Tick mark the correct words:
(The answers are marked directly.)
Answer:

  1. The author finally found/did not find the money for the ticket.
  2. The author thought he had left home with/ without any money.
  3. The conductor gave/did not give the author a ticket.
  4. The author was pleased/displeased with the conductor.

Question 6.
Complete the web by choosing the correct words from the brackets that describe the conductor: (mean cheerful considerate grumpy patient solicitous impatient polite irritable good-tempered haughty good-natured kind)
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.2 On Saying “Please” 13

Question 7.
Complete the following :
(The answers are given directly and underlined.)
Answer:

  1. A modest career can he made dignified by good temper and kindly feeling.
  2. The law can only protect us against material) attack.
  3. The narrator says he does not want to apologise for praising an unknown bus conductor.
  4. A man who is polite may lose material advantage but he always has the spiritual victory.

Complex Factual:

Question 1.
Explain what the liftman wanted the passenger to do, and what happened afterwards.
Answer:
The passenger, on entering the lift, said ‘Top’. The liftman wanted him to say ‘Top please’. The passenger refused to do so. The liftman, instead of taking him to the top floor, threw him out of the lift.

Question 2.
Explain the sentence: The pain of a kick on the shins soon passes away but the pain of a wound to our self-respect or our vanity may poison a whole day.
Answer:
This means that if we are physically attacked i and injured, the pain of the wounds will soon heal and be forgotten. But if our self-respect or pride is hurt, it may poison our lives and behaviour for a much longer time.

Question 3.
It is not possible for the law to become the guardian of our private manners. Explain.
Answer:
The area of moral offences is quite vast and no laws or commandments can cover this area. In addition, social civilities, speech and manners are of so many types and the interpretation of these (whether they are good or bad) is so different that no court could administer a law which governed them. Hence, it is not possible for the law to become the guardian of our private manners.

Question 4.
Mention a couple of ways to keep the machine of life oiled and running sweetly.
Answer:
We can keep the machine of life oiled and running sweetly by using courteous words like ‘Please’ and ‘Thank you’ to acknowledge a service.

Question 5.
Complete the following:
(The answer is given directly and underlined.)
Answer:
The public owes much to the Underground Railway Company because they insist on a certain standard of civility in their employees, and take care that the standard is observed.

Question 6.
Complete the table:
Answer:

The words Who said! To whom When
1. “I haven’t a copper on me.” The narrator The conductor When the conductor and the narrator found that he had left home without any money in his pocket.
2. “Oh, you’ll see me some day alright.” The conductor The narrator When the narrator address) he could send the borrowed asked where (to which money.
3. “Where shall I send the fare?” The narrator The conductor When the narrator wanted to repay the ticket money to the conductor.
4. “Where do you want to go?” The conductor The narrator When the narrator explained that he did not have any money on him, and the conductor

Question 7.
Write the narrator’s opinion about how the liftman should have dealt with the passenger’s uncivility. Give reasons for the same.
Answer:
In the opinion of the writer, the liftman, instead of throwing the passenger out of the lift, should have treated him with elaborate politeness. He would have then had the victory not only over the rude passenger, but also over himself, and that was the spiritual victory that was more important. His revenge would then have been more subtle and effective.

Inference/Interpretation/Analysis :

Question 1.
Name the ‘unpleasant specimen’ mentioned in the extract and describe his behaviour.
Answer:
The ‘unpleasant specimen’ mentioned in the extract is the type of bus conductor who regards his passengers as natural enemies whose chief purpose on the bus is to cheat him, and who can only be kept honest by using a loud voice and an aggressive manner.

Question 2.
Describe the stale old trick, according to the conductor.
Answer:
Pretending that you have forgotten your purse at home, and hence do not have the fare for the ticket is a stale old trick, according to the conductor. (The conductor does not say this the narrator only imagines that he may do so.)

Question 3.
Describe the reactions of the bus conductor.
Answer:
No, the conductor did not think that the narrator was dishonest. He cheerfully accepted what the narrator said without doubting him and offered him a free ticket.

Question 4.
Describe the experience which made the narrator comfortable in the bus.
Answer:
The conductor had trampled on the narrator’s sensitive toe, causing him pain and agony. However, the conductor had then explained matters and apologized so profusely that the narrator forgot his pain and anger. After this experience, the narrator always observed his constant good nature and cheerful behaviour with pleasure and felt comfortable in his presence.

Question 5.
Describe the narrator’s justification of his praise of the conductor.
Answer:
The narrator says that if the famous poet Wordsworth could gain wisdom from a poor leech-gatherer, he sees no reason why ordinary people should not take lessons on conduct from a bus conductor, who shows how a modest job can be made more dignified by behaving in a good-tempered and cheerful manner and with kindliness towards the people one comes in contact with.

Personal Response:

Question 1.
Describe a person you have come across who is always polite and helpful. What do you think about him/her?
Answer:
The security guard of our building is always polite and helpful. He will help senior citizens get in and out of their cars or into the lift; he will help any person who has heavy bags. He also replies politely to any question asked by anyone. We all like him very much and often share our chocolates and biscuits with him. We also give him books, stationery and toys for his little child.

Question 2.
Describe a pleasant/unpleasant experience you have had with a bus conductor.
Answer:
This is an experience I had when I was new to Mumbai. I got into a bus and asked the conductor for a ticket to Dadar. The conductor shook his head and told me that I had got into the bus going in the wrong direction. He patiently explained that I would have to get off at the next stop, cross the road, and catch a bus having the same number but going in the opposite direction. He even pointed out the bus stop to me. Though I felt a bit embarrassed, I thanked him for his kindness.

Question 3.
Give your opinion about the conductor’s behaviour.
Answer:
The conductor was really a good and kind human being who saw the best in everyone and believed everyone. He was ready to pay the fare for the narrator’s ticket himself, even though he was not sure whether it would be returned. It is difficult to find such generous and helpful people in the world today, and it leaves a very pleasant feeling in the heart when you do.

Language Study:

Question 1.
The law does not compel me to say ‘Please’.
(Rewrite as an interrogative sentence.)
Answer:
Does the law compel me to say ‘Please’?

Question 2.
It was a question of ‘Please’.
(Add a question tag.)
Answer:
It was a question of ‘Please’, wasn’t it?

Question 3.
It will permit me to retaliate with reasonable violence.
(Pick out the finite and non-finite verbs.)
Answer:
will permit – finite verb;
to retaliate – non-finite verb (infinitive)

Question 4.
The pain of a wound to our self-respect may poison a whole day.
(Pick out the auxiliary and state its function.)
Answer:
may – possibility

Question 5.
For there are few things more catching than bad temper.
(Write the part of speech of the underlined word.)
Answer:
Gerund

Question 6.
Bad manners probably do more to poison the stream of general life than all the crimes in the calendar. (Rewrite in the present perfect tense.)
Answer:
Bad manners have done probably more to poison the stream of general life than all the crimes in the calendar.

Question 7.
There is a social practice much older and much more sacred than any law which enjoins us to be civil.
(Rewrite using ‘not only … but also… ’)
Answer:
There is a social practice not only much older but also much more sacred than any law which enjoins us to be civil.

Question 8.
Most people will have a certain sympathy with him. (Rewrite using the verb form of the underlined word.)
Answer:
Most people will sympathize with him.

Question 9.
Here and there you will meet an unpleasant specimen who regards the passengers as his natural enemies. (Replace the verb in the future tense with a modal auxiliary showing possibility.)
Answer:
Here and there you might meet an unpleasant specimen who regards the passengers as his natural enemies.

Question 10.
I had left home without any money in my pocket. (Pick out the verb and state the tense.)
Answer:
had left-past perfect tense.

Question 11.
I know that stale old trick.
(Rewrite beginning ‘That stale old trick ’.)
Answer:
That stale old trick is known to me.

Question 12.
I said it was very kind of him.
(Identify the clauses.)
Answer:
I said – main clause
it was very kind of him – subordinate noun clause

Question 13.
I began to observe him whenever I boarded his bus. (Pick out the subordinate clause and state the type.)
Answer:
subordinate clause – whenever I boarded his bus; adverb clause of time.

Question 14.
He seemed to have an inexhaustible fund of patience and a gift for making his passengers comfortable. (Rewrite using ‘as well as…’)
Answer:
He seemed to have an inexhaustible fund of patience as well as a gift for making his passengers comfortable.

Question 15.
In lightening their spirits he lightened his own task. (Rewrite using the verb form of the underlined word.)
Answer:
When he lightened their spirits he lightened his own task.

Question 16.
A very modest calling may be dignified by good temper and kindly feeling. (Rewrite as an interrogative sentence.)
Answer:
Can’t a very modest calling be dignified by good temper and kindly feeling?

Question 17.
“I never give the wall to a scoundrel,” said a man who met Chesterfield one day in the street. “I always do,” said Chesterfield, stepping with a bow into the road. (Rewrite using reported speech.)
Answer:
A man who met Chesterfield one day in the street said that he never gave the wall to a scoundrel. Chesterfield, stepping with a bow into the road, replied that he always did.

Question 18.
The polite man may lose the material advantage, but he always has the spiritual victory. (Rewrite beginning ‘Though’)
Answer:
Though the polite man may lose the material advantage, he always has the spiritual victory.

Vocabulary:

Find out the meanings of the following phrases and use them in your own sentences.

Question 1.
knock someone down –
Answer:
Meaning: to hit someone forcefully so that he/she falls down
Sentence: The young boy was so angry with the bully that he knocked him down.

Question 2.
to comply with :
Answer:
Meaning: to obey.
Sentence: We must comply with the laws of the country we live in.

Question 3.
Find out 2 words with prefixes and 2 with suffixes from the extract and write them down.
Answer:
1. Words with prefixes : discourtesy, uncivil.
2. Words with suffixes : instruction, reasonable.

Question 4.
Complete the following:
Answer:

  1. A liftman is a person who is employed to operate a lift.
  2. An assailant is a person who attacks another person.
  3. A complainant is a person who makes a formal complaint in a law court.
  4. A burglar is a person who illegally enters houses and steals things.

Question 5.
Write the meanings of the following words :

  1. redress
  2. henpecked
  3. black eye.

Answer:

  1. redress – to set right to remedy.
  2. henpecked – being controlled by and frightened of one’s wife.
  3. black eye – an area of skin around the eye that has gone dark because it has been hit.

Question 6.
Use the phrase ‘a black eye’ in your own sentence.
Answer:
When I saw my friend with a black eye, I knew that he had been in a fight with someone.

Question 7.
Find out 2 words with suffixes and 2 compound words from the extract and write them down.
Answer:
1. words with suffixes: vanity, really.
2. Compound words: breakfast, housemaid.

Question 8.
Write the meaning of the following words:

  1. endorse
  2. verdict
  3. resentment
  4. calling

Answer:

  1. endorse – express support
  2. verdict – judgement
  3. resentment – anger
  4. calling – vocation or profession.

Question 9.
Find out 2 words with suffixes from the extract and write them down.
Answer:
Words with suffixes : sympathy, requirement.

Question 10.
Find out two words with prefixes and two with suffixes from the extract and write them down.
Answer:
1. Words with prefixes: unfriendliness, inconvenience
2. Words with suffixes: existence, discovery

Question 11.
Pick out four adverbs of manner from the extract.
Answer:
coldly, cheerfully, luckily, easily.

Question 12.
Write the meanings of the followings words:

  1. countenance
  2. treading
  3. assured (someone)
  4. benediction
  5. uncouth

Answer:

  1. countenance – face.’
  2. treading – walking on.
  3. assured (someone) – made something certain to someone.
  4. benediction – a blessing.
  5. uncouth – impolite, unrefined.

Question 13.
Find out 2 words with prefixes and 2 with suffixes from the extract and write them down.
Answer:
1. words with prefixes: inexhaustible, unusually
2. words with suffixes: investment, cheerful

Question 14.
Write the meaning of ‘moral affront’.
Answer:
moral affront: a deliberate offence or insult to one’s dignity or self-respect.

Question 15.
Find out the meaning of the following phrase and use it in your own
sentence: lower than the angels
Answer:
lower than the angels – Meaning : less than perfect
Sentence: The unexpected behaviour of the religious men was somewhat lower than the angels.

Question 16.
Write four words with suffixes from the extract and write them down.
Answer:
agreement, politeness, institution, sweeten.
Note: Students can find more words on their own.

Vocabulary:

A Collocation is a combination of words in a language that often go together. They habitually occur together and hence convey some meaning by association, e.g. early morning, hot dinner, fast train.

Non-Textual Grammar:

Do as directed:

Question 1.
Hearing the sound of music from a side street, Mona had an idea.
(Rewrite as a compound sentence.)
Answer:
Mona heard the sound of music from a side-street and had an idea.

Question 2.
Siddharth could not ask his father for a cricket bat.
(Rewrite using the antonym of ‘able’.)
Answer:
Siddharth was unable to ask his father for a cricket bat.

Question 3.
“I will try,” the lady smiled.
(Rewrite in indirect speech.)
Answer:
The lady smiled and said that she would try.

Spot the error in the following sentences and rewrite them correctly:

Question 1.
I picked some of the lovely, tasty fruits and had eaten my fill of them.
Answer:
I had picked some of the lovely, tasty fruits and had eaten my fill of them.

Question 2.
I miss my friends a lots.
Answer:
I miss my friends a lot.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Solutions Chapter 9 Money Market and Capital Market in India

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Economics Solutions Chapter 9 Money Market and Capital Market in India Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Economics Solutions Chapter 9 Money Market and Capital Market in India

1. Complete the following statements:

Question 1.
Development financial institutions were established to …………………
a) provide short-term funds.
b) develop industry, agriculture, and other key sectors.
c) regulate the money market.
d) regulate the capital market.
Answer:
b) develop industry, agriculture, and other key sectors.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Solutions Chapter 9 Money Market and Capital Market in India

Question 2.
The money market faces a shortage of funds due to
a) inadequate savings.
b) growing demand for cash.
c) presence of unorganized sector.
d) financial mismanagement.
Answer:
a) inadequate savings.

Question 3.
Individual investors have lost confidence in the
capital market due to
a) lack of financial instruments.
b) high transaction costs.
c) low returns.
d) financial scams.
Answer:
d) financial scams.

Question 4.
Commercial banks act as intermediaries in the financial system to
a) make profits
b) accelerate the country’s economic growth.
c) mobilize the savings and allocating them to various sectors of the economy.
d) control the credit.
Answer:
c) mobilize the savings and allocating them to various sectors of the economy.

2. Complete the correlation:

1) Money market : Short term funds :: …………….. : Long term funds
2) …………….. : Central Bank:: SBI : Commercial Bank
3) Co-operative banks : Organized sector :: Indigenous bankers : ……………..
4) Primary market : …………….. :: Secondary market : Old issues
Answers:

  1. Capital market
  2. RBI
  3. Unorganised sector
  4. New issue

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Solutions Chapter 9 Money Market and Capital Market in India

3. Find the odd word:

Question 1.
Types of Bank Accounts:
Answer:
Saving A/c, D-mat A/c, Recurring A/c, Current A/c.

Question 2.
Unregulated Financial Intermediates:
Answer:
Mutual fund, Nidhi, Chit fund, Loan Companies.

Question 3.
Financial Assets:
Answer:
Bonds, Land, Government Securities,
Derivatives.

Question 4.
Quantitative Tools:
Answer:
Bank Rate, Open Market Operation, Foreign Exchange Rate, Variable Reserve Ratio.

4. Assertion and Reasoning:

Question 1.
Assertion (A) : Money market economizes use of cash
Reasoning (R) : Money market deals with financial instruments that are close substitutes of money
Options: 1) (A) is True, but (R) is False
2) (A) is False, but (R) is True
3) Both (A) and (R) are True and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
4) Both (A) and (R) are True and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
Answer:
3) Both (A) and (R) are True and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Solutions Chapter 9 Money Market and Capital Market in India

Question 2.
Assertion (A) : Regional stock exchanges have witnessed a sharp decline in the volume of trade.
Reasoning (R) : Investors prefer to trade in securities listed in premier stock exchanges like BSE, NSE etc.
Options:
1) (A) is True, but (R) is False
2) (A) is False, but (R) is True
3) Both (A) and (R) are True and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
4) Both (A) and (R) are True and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
Answer:
3) Both (A) and (R) are True and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

Question 3.
Assertion (A) : The unorganized sector of the money market lacks transparency.
Reasoning (R) : Activities of the unorganized sector are largely confined to rural areas.
Options:
1) (A) is True, but (R) is False
2) (A) is False, but (R) is True
3) Both (A) and (R) are True and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
4) Both (A) and (R) are True and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
Answer:
4) Both (A) and (R) are True and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)

Question 4.
Assertion (A) : Foreign exchange management and control is undertaken by commercial banks.
Reasoning (R) : RBI has to maintain the official rate of exchange of rupee and ensure its stability.
Options:
1) (A) is True, but (R) is False
2) (A) is False, but (R) is True
3) Both (A) and (R) are True and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
4) Both (A) and (R) are True and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
Answer:
3) Both (A) and (R) are True and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Solutions Chapter 9 Money Market and Capital Market in India

5. Identify and explain the concepts from the given illustrations:

Question 1.
Raghu’s father regularly invests his money in stocks and bonds.
Answer:
Concept: Financial Market
Explanation : Financial Market refers to a market where financial assets such as bonds, stocks, derivatives, government securities foreign currency, etc. are sold and purchased.

Question 2.
Sara makes a monthly contribution to a fund jointly created by her friends. The collected fund is then given to a chosen member through lucky draw.
Answer:
Concept: Chit fund
Explanation : Under chit fund, members make regular contribution to the fund, bids or draws are made on the basis of a criteria mutually agreed upon by members.

Question 3.
Tina deposited a lurnpsurn amount of 50,000 in the bank for a period of one year.
Answer:
Concept: Fixed deposit
Explanation : Fixed deposit refers to a lumpsum amount deposited by a customer for a specified period of time. Compared to all other deposits, fixed deposits carry a high rate of interest.

Question 4.
ABC bank provides d-mat facility, safe deposit lockers, internet banking facilities to its customers.
Answer:
Concept: Ancillary function of Commercial Bank
Explanation : Ancillary services are those services of commercial banks which are provided beside the primary services of bank. Ancillary services are transfer of j funds collection of money, making periodical payments on behalf of the customer, merchant banking, foreign exchange, safe deposits lockers, D-mat facility, internet banking.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Solutions Chapter 9 Money Market and Capital Market in India

6. Distinguish between:

Question 1.
Money market and Capital market.
Answer:

Money Market Capital Market
(a) Money market is a market for lending and borrowing of short term funds. It is a market for “near money”. (a) Capital market is a market for long-term funds both equity and debt, raised within and outside the country.
(b) Money market is divided into 2 structure  Organised sector of money market Unorganised sector of money market (b) Capital market is divided into 4 parts.
Government securities

  1. Industrial securities market
  2. Development financial institutions
  3. Financial Intermediaries.

Question 2.
Demand deposit and Time deposit.
Answer:

Demand Deposits Time Deposits
(a) Deposits that are withdrawable on demand are known as demand deposits. (a) Deposits that are repayable after a certain period of time are known as time deposits.
(b) Example :
1. Current Account
2. Saving Account
(b) Example :
1. Recurring Deposits
2. Fixed Deposits

Question 3.
Organized sector and Unorganized sector of money market.
Answer:

Organized Sector Unorganized Sector
(a) The organized sector of the money market is within the direct purview of RBI regulation. (a) This market is unorganized because its activities are not systematically co-ordinated by the RBI.
(b) It consist of Reserve Bank of India. Commercial Bank, Co-operative Bank, Regulated Financial Intermediaries, etc. (b) The unorganized Indian Money market is largely made up of indigenous bankers, money lenders and unregulated non-bank financial intermediaries.

7. Answer the following:

Question 1.
Explain the problems faced by the money market in India.
Answer:
Following are the problems of money market in India:
(a) Shortages of Funds : Generally, there is shortage of funds in Indian Money Market on account of various factors like inadequate banking facilities, low savings, lack of banking habits, existence of parallel economy,- etc. have also been responsible for the paucity of funds in the money market.

(b) Existence of Unorganised Money Market : This is one of the major defects of Indian Money Market. It does distinguish between short term and long term finance, and also between the purposes of finance. Since it is outside the control and supervision of RBI. It limits the RBI’s control over money market.

(c) Delays in technological up-gradation: Use of advanced technology is a pre requisite for the development and smooth functioning of financial markets. Delays in up-gradation of technology hampers the working of the money market.

(d) Absence of Well Organized Banking Sector : Branch expansion was very slow before bank nationalization in 1969. Even now the banks are largely concentrated in large towns and small cities. There is lack of movement of funds. Indian banking system is not yet a well organized sector.

(e) No Uniformity in the rates of interest:
There exists too many rates of interest in the Indian Money Market such as the borrowing rate of government, deposits and lending rates of co-operatives and commercial banks, lending rates of financial institutions, etc. This is due to lack of mobility of funds from one section of the money market to another.

(f) Seasonal fluctuations : The seasonal stringency of money and high rate of interest during the busy season (November to June) is striking feature of Indian Money market. There are wide fluctuation in the interest rates from one season to another. Money Market add money into the money market during the busy season and withdraw funds during the slack seasons.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Solutions Chapter 9 Money Market and Capital Market in India

Question 2.
Explain the functions of commercial bank.
Answer:
(A) Meaning A bank is a dealer in credit. Any institution that accepts deposits from public who have more cash than it needs immediately and gives loans to those who are need is called as a bank. Commercial bank performs all these functions for earning profit. Commercial banks play an important role in mobilizing savings and allocating ) them to various sectors of the economy. It includes both scheduled commercial banks l and non scheduled commercial banks.

(B) Definition of Commercial Bank :
Banking Regulation Act 1949 “”Banking means the accepting for the purpose of lending or investment of deposits of money from public repayable on demand or otherwise and withdrawable by cheque, demand draft, order or otherwise.
The above definition clearly indicates the essential function of a bank is mainly dealing in money and credit.

(C) Functions of a Commercial Bank :
Commercial Bank performs a variety of functions to satisfy the needs of the various S sectors of the economy.

The functions of Commercial Banks are as follows:

(I) Accepting Deposits:
The most significant and traditional function of commercial bank is accepting ? deposits from public. A commercial bank acts as the custodian of public deposits. This l function is very important because it helps in the mobilisation of funds from households to businessman for production purposes, Commercial banks act as intermediary by accepting deposits and paying interest on them and giving loans and charging interest) from borrowers at a high rate. The difference j between the two is the profit of the bank. Commercial bank accepts the following types of deposits :

(A) Demand Deposits
(B) Time Deposits

(A) Demand Deposits : The deposits which ; are withdrawable on demand, are known as demand deposits. They are of two types (1) Current Account Deposits (2) Saving) Account Deposits

(1) Current Account Deposits : Current j account deposits are usually held by businessmen, industrial enterprises, public bodies for business transactions. Money deposited in current account can be withdrawn in part or full at any time and any number of times by the depositors without any prior notice. Overdraft facilities and agency service are provided by the bank to the current account holders. Very low or no interest is paid on these accounts as the banks cannot utilise these short term deposits. Banks may charge certain amount of service charges on account holders.

(2) Saving Account Deposits : Saving account deposits are opened by salaried class or people with fixed income for holding their short term savings. Money deposited in these accounts retain high degree of liquidity. At the same time it earns nominal interest. It is a kind of demand deposits which is generally kept by people for sake of safety.

(B) Time Deposits : These are deposits, which are repayable after a certain period of time. They are of two types – (1) Recurring Deposits (2) Fixed Deposits

(1) Recurring Deposits : These are deposits under which people deposit a fixed amount at regular interval for specified period of time. These deposits encourage savings and carry high rate of interest.
(2) Fixed Deposits : Fixed deposits are time deposits or term deposits, which attract fund for a specific period. It is a time bound deposit as the amount deposited cannot be withdrawn before the maturity of the period. However, loans can be taken from the bank against the security of this deposit, within that period. These deposits earn a higher rate of interest.

(II) Advancing / Granting Loans :
The second major function of a commercial bank is to make loans and advances out of the money, which comes to it from the public by way of deposits. Direct loans and advances are given to all types of persons particularly to businessmen and investors against personal security, gold, silver and other assets. The profit earning capacity of commercial banks depends on this function of lending. Generally banks grant loans and advances to the borrowers in the following forms :
(1) Loans (2) Cash Credit (3) Overdraft facility (4) Discounting of bills.

(III) Ancillary Functions :
Commercial Banks also provide variety of ancillary services like – transfer of funds, j collection of money, making periodical ( payments on behalf of the customer, merchant banking, foreign exchange, safe deposit lockers, D-mat facility, internet banking, mobile banking, ATM facility, purchase and sale of securities, etc.

(IV) Credit Creation :
It is an important function of commercial banks. Commercial banks are the creators  of credit.
Commercial Bank collects deposits from public which is called as primary deposits. After deducting required reserves, bank lends money to the borrower which is called j as secondary deposits or derivative deposits. This procedure is followed by entire banking [ system in a country leading to creation of credit.
Thus, every loan creates deposits and every deposits creates loans.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Solutions Chapter 9 Money Market and Capital Market in India

Question 3.
Explain the role of capital market in India.
Answer:
Role of Capital Market:

  1. Mobilizes long term savings : Capital market helps to mobilize long term savings from various section of the population through the sale of securities.
  2. Provides equity capital : Capital market provides equity capital or share capital to entrepreneurs which will be used by entrepreneurs to purchase business assets and also to fund the business operations.
  3. Operational efficiency : Capital market helps to achieve operational efficiency by lowering the transaction costs, simplifying transaction procedures, lowering settlement timings in purchase and sale of stocks.
  4. Quick valuation : Capital market helps to determine a fair and quick value of both equity (shares) and debt (bonds, debentures) instruments.
  5. Integration : Capital market brings integration among real and financial sectors, equity and debt instruments, government and private sector, domestic and external funds, etc.

Question 4.
Explain the problems of capital market in India.
Answer:
Following are the problems of capital market in India :

  • Scams : It is observed that different types of financial scams in the stock exchange have affected the confidence of individual investors in the securities market. Scams involve manipulation of larger amount of money, which results in public distrust and loss of confidence among the individual investors.
  • Inadequate debt instruments : There is less trading in debt securities due to narrow investor base, high cost of issue, lack of accessibility to small and medium enterprises.
  • Lack of informational efficiency : Indian stock markets lacks informational efficiency as compared to advanced countries.
  • Decline in volume of trade : There is sharp decline in the volume of trade in regional stock exchanges. This is due to investors preferring trading in securities listed in premier stock exchanges like BSE and NSE.

8. Answer in detail:

Question 1.
Explain the role of money market in India.
Answer:
(A) Meaning:
Money market is a market for lending and borrowing short term funds.
It is a market for near money.
It deals in short term instruments like trade bills, government securities, promissory notes, etc.

Money market centres are located at Mumbai, Delhi and Kolkata. Money market consists of organised as well as unorganised j sector.

Role of Money Market in India :

(a) Portfolio Management : Money market deals with different types of financial instruments which are designed to suit the risk and return preferences of the investors. This enables the investors to hold a portfolio of different financial assets which in turn, j helps in minimizing risk and maximizing returns.

(b) Implementation of monetary policy :
Various monetary policies are implemented by the Central Bank, with an aim to manage the quantity of money, to meet the requirements of different sectors of the economy and to increase the pace of economic growth. Money market ensures successful implementation of these monetary policies. It also guides the central bank in developing an appropriate interest policy.

(c) Growth of Commerce, Industry and Trade : Money market facilitates discounting bills of exchange to local and international traders who are in urgent need of short-term funds. It also provides working capital for agriculture and small scale industries.

(d) Financial requirements of the Government : Money market helps the Government to fulfil its short term financial requirements on the basis of Treasury Bills.

Economizes the use of cash : Money market deals with various financial instruments that are close substitutes of money and not actual money. Thus, it economizes the use of cash.

Equilibrating mechanism : Money
market helps to establish equilibrium between the demand for and supply of short term funds by allocating rationally the available resources and thus mobilizing the savings of public into fruitful investment channels.

Liquidity Management : Money Market, through the monetary authorities facilitates better management of liquidity and money in the economy. This, in turn, leads to economic stability and development of the country.

Short-term requirements of borrowers :
Money market provides short-term financial needs of the borrowers at reasonable prices.

Question 2.
Explain the functions of RBI.
Answer:
(A) Introduction: Central Bank is the apex or the supreme monetary banking authority and occupies an important position in the monetary and banking structure of the country.
The guiding principle of a Central Bank is to act only in public interest and for the welfare of the country without regards to profit as primary consideration.
In India, The Reserve Bank of India is the Central Bank. It was established as shareholder’s bank on 1st April, 1935. It was nationalized on 1st January, 1949.

(B) Definitions :
(1) According to M. H. de Kock –
“A Central Bank is one which constitutes the apex of the monetary and banking structure of the country. ”

“(2) According to Prof. W. A. Shaw –
“Central Bank is a bank which controls credit.”

(C) Functions of Central Bank :
(1) Issue of Currency Notes : The Central i Bank has been authorised to print and issue ; currency notes. The RBI enjoys the monopoly of note issue of all denominations except one rupee note. The one rupee note and coins are issued by the Ministry of Finance of the government of India but their distribution is undertaken by RBI.

(2) Banker to the Government: The Central Bank acts as (A) a banker, (B) advisor, and (C) agent to the government. It performs all these functions which commercial banks do for their customers.
As a banker to the government, central bank transacts the business of Central and State governments. It accepts money and makes payments on behalf of these governments.
As an advisor, central bank advises the government on various economic issues and policies.
As an agent, central bank acts as a representative of central bank and attends l the international meetings of IMF and World Bank.
In short, it is a friend, philosopher and guide to the government.

(3) Bankers’ Bank : It supervises, co-ordinates j and controls the operations and activities of the commercial banks. As their bank it undertakes the following functions:
(a) acts as custodian of cash reserve.
(b) acts a lender of the last resort.
(c) provides clearing house function.

(4) Controller of Credit or Money Supply : Central Bank regulates the volume of credit and money supply in the country. The main objective behind this is to maintain price and ; economic stability in the country.
There are various methods which Central Bank uses to control the supply of credit in : the economy. They are –

  • Quantitative Measures control the quantity or volume of credit created by the commercial banks. They are bank rate, open market operation and cash reserve ratio.
  • Qualitative Measures or Selective Measures deal with the purpose and direction of credit. They are – varying margin requirements, regulation of credit, moral suasion and direct action.

(5) Custodian of Foreign Exchange Reserve of the Country: The Central Bank is also a custodian of country’s gold and major foreign currencies like US dollar, Euro the British Pound, etc. obtained by government from international trade.
The central bank also maintains international liquidity.

(6) Developmental and Promotional Functions : In developing countries like India, a very important function of Central Bank is to promote economic development.

  • To promote banking habits among the poor people.
  • To provide agriculture finance through NABARD and to promote rural and agricultural development.
  • To provide industrial finance through IDBI, SFC and IFCI and boost the growth of industrial sector.
  • To provide export – import finance through EXIM bank.
  • To encourage small savings through Unit Trust of India.

(7) Data Collection and Publicity : The Central Bank also collects and publishes information relating to agriculture, industrial and financial sectors of the economy, exports and imports, banking, trends in money and capital market, etc.
Its main publications include – Report on Currency and Finance, RBI Bulletin, RBI Journals and various research papers.

Intext Questions

Try this (Textbook Page 81)

Identify the type of finance into – Personal finance, Corporate finance or Public finance.
Answer:

Personal Finance Corporate Finance Public Finance
Building a retirement corpus. Raising share capital through sale of equity shares. Collection of tax revenue.
Clearing home loan through EMI (Equated Monthly Instalment) Managing working capital needs. Expenditure on social infrastructure such as health and education.

Find out (Textbook Page 83)

Find out names of the Central Banks of the following countries.

(1) USA
(2) Canada
(3) Russia
(4) Germany
(5) China
(6) UK (United Kingdom)
(7) Sweden
(8) France
(9) Japan
(10) Australia
Answer:
(1) USA : Federal Reserve System ;
(2) Canada : Bank of Canada
(3) Russia : Central Bank of Russia
(4) Germany : Deutsche Bundes bank
(5) China : People’s Bank of China
(6) UK (United Kingdom) : Bank of England
(7) Sweden : Sveriges Riksbank
(8) France : Banque de France
(9) Japan : Bank of Japan
(10) Australia : Reserve Bank of Australia

Try this (Textbook Page 85)

Pair the logos given with their respective banks as given in the bracket below :
(State Bank of India, HSBC Bank, Union Bank of India, Axis Bank, Standard Chartered Bank, HDFC Bank)
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Solutions Chapter 9 Money Market and Capital Market in India 1
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Solutions Chapter 9 Money Market and Capital Market in India 2

Try this (Textbook Page 85)

Collect information of Co-operative banks in your region at different levels.
Answer:
[Students should do this activity by themselves]

Find out (Textbook Page 90):

List the regional stock exchanges in India.
Answer:

  • Regional Stock Exchanges in India :
  • Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE)
  • National Stock Exchange (NSE)
  • Calcutta Stock Exchange (CSE) Metropolitan Stock Exchange (MSE)
  • India International Exchange (India INX)
  • NSE IFSC Ltd.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board 12th Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India

1A. Complete the following statements by choosing the correct alternative given in the brackets and rewrite it.

Question 1.
___________ led the famous home rule movement in India. (Lala Lajpat Rai, Annie Besant, Mahatma Gandhi)
Answer:
Annie Besant

Question 2.
The Quit India Resolution was passed in the year ___________ (1944, 1942, 1956)
Answer:
1942

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India

Question 3.
The Feminist Network, ___________ was published to bring women’s issues to the forefront. (Kesari, Gulamgiri, Manushi)
Answer:
Manushi

Question 4.
___________ is recognised as the Father of the Indian Workers’ Movement. (Lala Lajpat Rai, Meghaji Lokhande, Mahatma Gandhi)
Answer:
Meghaji lokhande

Question 5.
All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC) was established under the chairmanship of ___________ (Lala Lajpat Rai, Mahatma Gandhi, Shahapuri Bengalee)
Answer:
Lala Lajpat Rai

Question 6.
The Bombay Textile Labour Union was under the leadership of ___________ (Narayan Meghaji Lokhnde, N. M. Joshi, S. A. Dange)
Answer:
N. M. Joshi

Question 7.
In the year 1947, ___________ was formed. (National Trade Union Federation, The Indian National Trade Union Congress, Hind Mazdoor Sabha)
Answer:
The Indian National Trade Union Congress

Question 8.
The Kisan Sabha movement started in Bihar under the leadership of ___________ (P. N. Dhanagare, Raja Mahendra Pratap, Swami Sahajanand Saraswati)
Answer:
Swami Sahajanand Saraswati

Question 9.
The Chipko Movement began in the year ___________ (1983, 1973, 1992)
Answer:
1973

Question 10.
22nd April is celebrated as ___________ all over the world. (Child Labour Day, Earth Day, Environmental Day)
Answer:
Earth Day

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India

Question 11.
One of the prominent federations in the country which represents labour at a national level is the ___________ (Central Trade Union organisation, All Indian Kisan Sabha, Self-employed Women’s Association)
Answer:
Central trade union organisation

Question 12.
___________ is a major weapon in the hands of labour. (Strike, Dispute, Conciliation)
Answer:
Strike

Question 13.
___________ established the Women Indian Association in Madras. (Aruna Asaf Ali, Margaret Cousins, Sarala Devi)
Answer:
Margaret Cousins

Question 14.
___________ are the collective actions to change the existing Social System. (Social relationships, social pattern, Social Movement)
Answer:
Social Movement

Question 15.
The ___________ of 1947, allowed the usage of mechanisms like conciliation, arbitration, and adjudication to mitigate the conflict between workers and management. (Factories Act, Industrial Disputes Act, Trade Union)
Answer:
Industrial Disputes Act

Question 16.
The ___________ economy was primarily based on agriculture and forest produce. (mixed, subsistence, market)
Answer:
subsistence

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India

Question 17.
___________ led the struggle of poor farmers against the British government in Kheda. (Datta Samant, Mahatma Gandhi, Charan Singh)
Answer:
Mahatma Gandhi

Question 18.
___________ may imply rapid change in values, ideas and expectations in society. (Cultural diffusion, Cultural drift, Cultural lag)
Answer:
Cultural drift

Question 19.
The term Social Movement was introduced by the German Sociologist ___________ (Lorenz Von Stein, Auguste Comte, Durkheim)
Answer:
Lorenz Von Stein

Question 20.
Organised social movements for reform started since the ___________ century. (20th, 19th, 17th)
Answer:
19th

Question 21.
___________ strived for the progress of women and eradication of illiteracy. (Swami Dayanand Saraswati, Mahatma Gandhi, Raja Rammohan Roy)
Answer:
Swami Dayanand Saraswati

Question 22.
The Female Infanticide (Prevention) Act was enacted in ___________ (1856, 1891, 1870)
Answer:
1870

Question 23.
___________ worked for Women’s Suffrage. (Sarojini Naidu, Kasturba Gandhi, Vijayalakshmi Pandit)
Answer:
Sarojini Naidu

Question 24.
The ‘Bombay Mill Hands Association’ was started under the guidance of ___________ (Narayan Meghaji Lokhande, Shapurji Bengalee, Shripad Amrut Dange)
Answer:
Narayan Meghaji Lokhande

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India

Question 25.
The ‘Great Depression adversely affected the ___________ Movement in India. (Women’s, Worker’s, Tribals)
Answer:
Workers

Question 26.
The Indian National Trade Union Congress (INTUC) was formed in the year ___________ (1948, 1947, 1950)
Answer:
1947

Question 27.
Chipko Movement was started by ___________ (Amrita Devi, Medha Patkar, Sunderlal Bahuguna)
Answer:
Amrita Devi

Question 28.
In 1985, the Narmada Bachao Andolan emerged as one of the powerful movements under the leadership of ___________ (Medha Patkar, Amrita Devi, Sunderlal Bahuguna)
Answer:
Medha Patkar

1B. Correct the incorrect pair and rewrite it.

Question 1.
(a) The Sati Prohibition Act – 1817
(b) The Widow Remarriage Act – 1856
(c) The Female Infanticide (Prevention) Act – 1870
(d) The Age of Consent at Marriage Act – 1891
Answer:
(a) The Sati Prohibition Act – 1829

Question 2.
(a) Narmada Bachao Andolan – Medha Patkar
(b) Chipko Movement – Sunderlal Bahuguna
(c) The Indian Workers’ Movement – Narayan Meghaji Lokhande
(d) Farmers’ Movement in Punjab – Charan Singh
Answer:
(d) Farmers’ Movement in Punjab – Raja Mahendra Pratap

Question 3.
(a) The ‘Bombay Mill Hands Association’ – Meghaji Lokhande
(b) All India Trade Union Congress – Lala Lajpat Rai
(c) The Bombay Textile Labour Union – Charan Singh
(d) The Great Bombay Textile Act – Datta Samant
Answer:
(c) The Bombay Textile Labour Union – N. M. Joshi

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India

Question 4.
(a) The threats to ecological balance – Environmental Movement
(b) The practice of discriminatory customs – Women’s Movement
(c) The exploitation of workers – Tribal Movement
(d) The unrest and of peasant – Farmers’ Movement
Answer:
(c) The exploitation of workers – Workers’ Movement

Question 5.
(a) The Brahmo Samaj – Raja Rammohan Roy
(b) The Arya Samaj – Maharshi Karve
(c) The Satya Shodhak Samaj – Jyotirao Phule
(d) The Depressed Classes Education Society – Dr. B. R. Ambedkar
Answer:
(b) The Arya Samaj – Swami Dayanand Saraswati

Question 6.
(a) “Educate, organise, and agitate” – Dr. B. R. Ambedkar
(b) The SNDT Women’s University – Rajarshi Shahu Maharaj
(c) The abolition of Sati 1929 – Raja Rammohan Roy
(d) Swaraj (self-rule) – Mahatma Gandhi
Answer:
(b) The SNDT Women’s University – Maharshi Karve

1C. Identify the appropriate term from the given options in the box and rewrite it against the given statement.

S. A. Dange, Sarala Devi, Medha Patkar, Greater depression, Forest conservation, Women Movement, Raja Mahendra Pratap, Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh, Charansingh, Datta Samant, Mahatma Gandhi, Cultural drift, Vishaka Guidelines, Chipko Movement.

Question 1.
A rapid change in values, ideas, and expectations in society.
Answer:
Cultural Drift

Question 2.
It ensures a safe and healthy work environment for women.
Answer:
Vishaka Guidelines

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India

Question 3.
Shapurji Bengaleeis recongnised as the Father of the Indian Workers’ Movement.
Answer:
Meghaji Lokhande

Question 4.
It is marked by the Gandhian principle of non-violence.
Answer:
Chipko Movement

Question 5.
The Great Bombay Textile Strike 1982 under the leadership.
Answer:
Datta Samant

Question 6.
The world economic crisis is known as.
Answer:
Great Depression

Question 7.
Participated in the non-violence movement.
Answer:
Sarala Devi

Question 8.
The movement that thrives to achieve equality for women.
Answer:
Women’s Movement

Question 9.
The farmer’s movement in Punjab was under the leadership of.
Answer:
Raja Mahendra Pratap

Question 10.
Answer:
Forest Conservation

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India

Question 11.
The largest trade union in India.
Answer:
Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh

Question 12.
Gram Swarajya was based on the principles of
Answer:
Mahatma Gandhi

Question 13.
The leader opposed industrialisation and championed low capital investment in agriculture.
Answer:
Charan Singh

1D. Correct underlined words and complete the statement.

Question 1.
Chipko stands for chop the trees.
Answer:
Chipko stands for Hug the trees.

Question 2.
Radical Marxism views environmental degradation as rooted in the equalities in society.
Answer:
Radical Marxism views environmental degradation as rooted in the inequalities in society.

Question 3.
The Blue Movement in Germany north America plays an important role in the proceeding and preserving the Earth.
Answer:
The Green Movement in Germany north America plays an important role in the proceeding and preserving the Earth.

Question 4
Maharshi Karve’s mission was to end untouchability and achieve swaraj.
Answer:
Mahatma Gandhi’s mission was to end untouchability and achieve swaraj.

Question 5.
All India Women’s Conference was established in the year 1936.
Answer:
All India Women’s Conference was established in the year 1926.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India

Question 6.
Mahatma Gandhi referred to dams as ‘Temples of Modern India’.
Answer:
Jawaharlal Nehru referred to dams as ‘Temples of Modern India’.

Question 7.
The historical Great Bombay Textile Strike started in August 1960.
Answer:
The historical Great Bombay Textile Strike started in January 1982.

Question 8.
A social movement is individual in nature.
Answer:
A social movement is collective in nature.

2. Write short notes.

Question 1.
Factors or Causes of Social Movements
Answer:
There are various factors of social unrest that lead to a social movement, they are as follows:
Cultural drift: A cultural drift may imply a rapid change in values, ideas, and expectations in society. When the gap between what is expected and what is accepted widens beyond the permissible range in a given society, conflict emerges, resulting in the possibility of a social movement. In the course of cultural drift, the people develop new ideas. To get these ideas operative in society they organize movements.
Example: Development of democratic society, the emancipation of women, removal of the caste system.

Social disorganisation: A changing society is to some extent disorganised because changes in different parts of society don’t take place simultaneously. One part changes and the other is left behind. Industrialisation and urbanisation brought uneven and inequitable growth in society which in turn caused a number of social problems in the already existing norms. New norms clash with the already established norms, which brings confusion and uncertainty.

Perceived social injustice: When a group of people develops a sense of dissatisfaction and discontent towards certain decisions taken by the authority, they feel frustrated and unhappy. Such a feeling can result in a sense of social injustice, eventually developing into a movement. Frustration and alienation can result in social movement, e.g., workers’ movement.

Rigidity in the normative structure: Social norms are set behaviour pattern that is seen every society to maintain order and stability. However, in certain cases, these norms lose their flexibility and thus do not match the expectations of the masses. Behaviour Patterns have to match with the normative structure of the society. Rigidity in the normative structure demands transformation in the social system, thus social movements arise where ever there is discontent and social unrest in the society.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India

Question 2.
Chipko Movement
Answer:
It was started by Amrita Devi, marked by the Gandhian principle of non-violence, and is known for the active participation of women in it. Chipko stands for ‘hug-the-tree’. The movement was started in 1973, in Chamoli district, under the leadership of Sunderlal Bahuguna.

It is said that the villagers hugged or embraced or stuck to the trees in the forest to prevent them from being cut by the contractors. The livelihood of inhabitants residing there is closely linked to the forests. However, demographic and economic factors led to indiscriminate use of forests resulting in deforestation.

Processes of industrialisation and development led to improvement in the means of transport and communication. People involved in developmental projects challenged the established claim of local people on forests. Loss of means of livelihood affected and angered people leading to the emergence of the movement.

In April 1973, when the contractors along with the workers reached Mandal village to cut trees and to clear jungles spaces allotted to them by the State government, the inhabitants resisted this action of the government, and to mark their protest they hugged the trees. The action happened at a mass level, as a result of which the authorities had to retreat. The women of the village also participated in the protest. This incident boosted the morale of several other groups facing similar problems to get together and to protest against deforestation.

Later on, the government set up a committee to look into the matter which eventually ruled in favour of the villagers, here Chipko Movement became a turning point in the history of eco-development struggles in the region and around the world.

Question 3.
Workers’ Movement in India
Answer:
With the advent of the factory system, there emerged two classes in society namely, the industrialists and the labourers. Since modern industry thrives on profit maximisation, the exploitation of workers in terms of extraction of work, minimisation of wages, long hours of work, delays in promotion, reduced wages, poor work conditions, became a feature of industrialising societies. Such situations prompted workers to get together to protest against the system in India.

The course of the industrial working-class movement can broadly be divided into four phases.
(i) Emergence of the Workers’ Movement (1850 to 1918)
The first phase of protests was by groups of workers without prior planning and organisation.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India

In March 1875 Shapurji Bengalee revolted against the bad conditions of labour, which resulted in the enactment of the First Factories Act in 1881.

The first workers’ organisation in India, the ‘Bombay Mill Hands Association’ was started on 23rd September 1884 under the guidance of Narayan Meghaji Lokhande who is recognised as the Father of the Indian Workers’ Movement.

He organised a conference of mill workers in the Bombay Presidency to consolidate the demands and problems of workers and passed resolutions to improve the conditions.

The second phase was marked by a conscious understanding of the issues and problems faced by workers which led to the formation of Trade Unions. According to many scholars, it was more like a movement for workers, than a movement by workers

(ii) Rise of Pressure Groups (1918 to 1947)
After World War I, several changes in the economy and industry took place. However, the wages and work conditions for workers did not improve. This resulted in mass discontent and unrest.

Several strikes from the period 1918 to 1920 made workers’ dissatisfaction intense.

The emergence of Trade Unions as a pressure group can be said to be a very important development in the Workers’ movement. All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC) was established under the chairmanship of Lala Lajpat Rai. Inl926, the government passed the Indian Trade Union Act whereby all registered unions were granted constitutional recognition. The Bombay Textile Labour Union which operated under the leadership of N. M. Joshi was the first union to get its recognition under the Act in 1926.

The period also witnessed the emergence of the Leftist ideology with a prominent influence of Marxian thought in the Workers’ Movement. The world economic crisis is known as the ‘Great Depression’ adversely affected. The strikes increased and leaders like Muzaffer Ahmed and Shripad Amrut Dange played an important role in intensifying workers’ struggle. The Trade Unions diversified according to different ideological orientations. In order to bring in coordination, the National Trade Union Federation (NTUF) was established.

(iii) Role of INTUC (1948 to 1960)
In the year 1947, the Indian National Trade Union Congress (INTUC) was formed. In1948 a separate organisation, independent of political affiliation, to safeguard and promote the rights of workers was established. It was known as Hind Mazdoor Sabha (HMS). Those who did not agree with the principles of HMS consequently established a parallel body called United Trade Union Congress UTUC) in 1949. The Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh (BMS) was established in the yearl955. When Congress came to power inl947 the activities of Trade Unions were scrutinised and even criticised.

In the subsequent years strike continued to be used as a mechanism by workers, against industrialists. In thel960s the grievances among the workers were pertaining to wages, bonuses, overtime – which consequently changed to suspension from work, unfair dismissal, and workers’ rights. Every established political party developed its own Trade Union wing with the purpose of having an element of control on workers and expanding its vote bank.

Similarly, a split in a party resulted in the division of unions. For example, when the Communist wing split into CPI and CPM, the Union was taken over by CPI and the latter established a separate body called the Centre for Indian Trade Unions (CITU).

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India

(iv) Consolidation and Diversification of the Movement (after 1960)
The 1960s witnessed a lull in economic growth and expansion. The Industrial Disputes Act 1947, was passed to ensure industrial peace and harmony by providing a mechanism and procedure for the investigation and settlement of industrial disputes. The Workers’ Movement lost its momentum after the 1970s.

The historical Great Bombay Textile Strike started in January 1982, by the mill workers in Mumbai, under the Union leader Datta Samant. In all 65 textile mills, which implied 250,000 workers, stopped working. Along with the demand for a wage hike, Datta Samant also demanded scrapping of the Bombay Industrial Act of 1947. The then, the government firmly rejected the demand of the workers’ unions. The strike continued for years, resulting in a major loss for the industry and extreme pauperisation among workers.

As per the Report of Labour Bureau of the Ministry of Labour, Government of India, 2012, there were approximately 16,154 Trade Unions in India. Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh continues to be the largest Trade Union in India Certain prominent Central Trade Union Organisations recognized by the Ministry of Labour, Government of India are AITUC (All India Trade Union Congress), INTUC (Indian National Trade Union Congress), and SEWA (Self Employed Women’s Association). The trade unions are often affiliated with larger federations.

Question 4.
Significant Environmental Movements in India
Answer:
The environmental movement surrounds issues related to ecology, health, human rights, tribal rights eco-feminism, etc. Harsh Sethi has presented five prominent categories of struggles associated with environmentalism, namely

  • forest and forest resources
  • land use
  • water
  • anti-dam
  • against different types of pollution and marine resources.

Some significant environmental movements are mentioned below:
(i) Chipko Movement
It was started by Amrita Devi, marked by the Gandhian principle of non-violence, and is known for the active participation of women in it. Chipko stands for ‘hug-the-tree’. The movement was started in 1973 in Chamoli district, under the leadership of Sunderlal Bahuguna.

The livelihood of inhabitants residing there is closely linked to the forests. However, demographic and economic factors led to indiscriminate use of forests resulting in deforestation.

Processes of industrialisation and development led to improvement in the means of transport and communication.

People involved in developmental projects challenged the established claim of local people on forests. Loss of means of livelihood affected and angered people leading to the emergence of the movement.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India

In April 1973, when the contractors along with the workers reached Mandal village to cut trees and to clear jungles spaces allotted to them by the State government, the inhabitants resisted this action of the government, and to mark their protest they hugged the trees. The action happened at a mass level, as a result of which the authorities had to retreat. The women of the village also participated in the protest. This incident boosted the morale of several other groups facing similar problems to get together and to protest against deforestation.

(ii) Narmada Bachao Andolan
In the post-Independence period, several large-scale dam projects were sanctioned. The impact of building dams in most cases is displacement, which leads to loss of livelihood for tribal and local people.

Narmada is the largest West-flowing river supporting the habitat, which includes tribal and rural pockets also. The construction of the Sardar Sarovar Dam on the river Narmada would have generated huge revenue for the government. The supporters claimed that it would have been a source of power and drinking water to the neighbouring settlement, villages, and towns.

When it was realised that the building of a dam would deprive local inhabitants of their livelihood and displace them, the need to mobilise and protest against such a venture was felt. In 1985, the Narmada Bachao Andolan (NBA) emerged as one of the powerful resistance movements under the leadership of Medha Patkar.

It became an international movement and thousands of_ activists from India and abroad joined hands against the construction of this dam. In October 1994, Medha Patkar went on an indefinite dharna to pressurise the three State governments.

The movement suggested the use of alternative methods for the generation of electricity and adequate rehabilitation of the displaced.

The Narmada Bachao Andolan has brought issues of sustainable development to the forefront. It has questioned the validity of policy decisions about development and the utility of the same.

3. Write differences.

Question 1.
Social change and Social movement
Answer:

Social change Social movement
(i) Meaning: A social change is a change in social structure and social relationships. (i) Meaning: A social movement is a collectivity or a collective enterprise to establish a new order of life.
(ii) Feature: Social change is a continuous and ongoing process. (ii) Feature: Social movements are directed towards some specific goals.
(iii) Direction: Social change does not follow any sequence. (iii) Direction: A social movement has a life cycle – it emerges, operates for the specified cause, and declines.
(iv) Planned/Unplanned: Social change is embedded in society, it may not always be a deliberate and conscious struggle. (iv) Planned/Unplanned: A social movement is an organized and planned activity.
(v) Universality: Social change is universal and inevitable in society. (v) Universality: Social movements cannot be said that they are universally present all the time in all societies.
(vi) Effects: Social change effects are seen in all social, economic, political, and cultural aspects of society. (vi) Effects: Social movement’s effects are seen in certain specific aspects of society.

4. Explain the following concepts with examples.

Question 1.
Women’s Empowerment
Answer:

  • Women’s Empowerment includes the action of raising the status of women through education, raising awareness, literacy, and training.
  • Women’s empowerment is equipping and allowing women to make life-determining decisions through the different problems in society.
  • The basic objectives of women’s empowerment is equal rights for women elimination of discriminatory practices, realisation, and actualisation of women’s potential to empower themselves.
  • Example – Women from different professions like journalism, academics, medicines, and corporates have enthusiastically joined in the mission of empowering women.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India

5A. Complete the concept map.

Question 1.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India 5A Q1
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India 5A Q1.1

Question 2.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India 5A Q2
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India 5A Q2.1

Question 3.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India 5A Q3
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India 5A Q3.1

Question 4.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India 5A Q4
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India 5A Q4.1

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India

Question 5.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India 5A Q5
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India 5A Q5.1

5B. State whether the following statements are True or False with reasons.

Question 1.
Social movements are individual actions.
Answer:
This statement is False.

Social movements are not an individual action it involves collective action. Social movements take place when a large group of people comes together to achieve a common goal to promote or resist change in society.

A single individual cannot demonstrate or struggle alone to change the social system. It is a type of group, of action that involves the collective action of individuals or organisation.

When a group of people develops a sense of dissatisfaction and discontent towards certain decisions taken by the authority, they feel frustrated and unhappy. Such a feeling can result in a sense of social injustice, eventually culminating in a movement.

For example, the roots of the Women’s Movement can roughly be traced to the beginning of the 19th century, when small groups of women and a few enlightened (progressive) men addressed the issue of the unequal status of women in India. Thus, a social movement is a collective effort.

Question 2.
A social movement is oriented toward bringing about social change.
Answer:
This statement is True.

Social movements and social change are interconnected. This implies that every social movement aims to alter society and thus is instrumental in bringing about change.

The social movement demands change. Social movements when takes place it aims to alter society.

The social change may be to establish a new order of life or it resists change initiated by authorities thus social movement’s promises to bring about social change. It takes decades to bring about change in the way things have always been done or sometimes to prevent such a change from coming about.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India

The Women’s Movement started in the British period with social reforms, brought about changes for women The Workers’ Movement focuses on sees the emergence of trade unions to protect the rights of the workers in an industrializing society.

These are examples of social movements establishing a new order of life. The Environmental Movement has concentrated on the various issues affecting the environment is an example of resisting change.

Question 3.
The national movement witnessed decreased participation of women.
Answer:
This statement is False.

The Nationalist Movement witnessed increased participation of women. The impact of Gandhiji on the thought and participation of women was manifold. Women became aware of their rights and mobilised to fight for political independence. Women participated in large numbers in protests and agitations during the independence struggle. When men freedom fighters were imprisoned their women counterparts handled the difficult and challenging circumstances.

Women activities participated in the national movement, women leaders like Kasturba Gandhi, Yijayalakshmi Pandit, Annie Besant, and Sarojini Naidu and many more participated in various movements like Civil Disobedience Movement, Women Suffrage, (right to vote) Home Rule Movement, etc. In addition, Muthulaxmi Reddy, Rajkumari Amrit Kaur, Sarala Devi, Sucheta Kriplani, Aruna Asaf Ali participated in the Non-violence Movement. The Quit India Resolution passed in the year 1942, addressed women as ‘Disciplined Soldiers of Indian Freedom.

Mahatma Gandhi was an instrumental force in bringing women into the fold of the national movement. His thoughts influenced women to fight for political independence thus participation of women in various freedom struggles made them speak up for their rights and the importance of living life as conscious human beings.

Question 4.
The scope of the environmental movement is limited in bringing about changes in society.
Answer:
This statement is False.

The scope of the movement is wide and inclusive in the sense it has incorporated within its folds, categories that are marginalized for different reasons, like tribal, farmers, and women. The movement has utilized non-violent yet, assertive means to present its agenda of preservation of the environment.

Environmentalism is a broad philosophy. It is centered on a genuine concern for the conservation and improvement of the habitat around us, more specifically the environment and civilization. Several direct and indirect threats to the well-being of human life are perceived as an inevitable consequence of modernisation and industrialisation.

Thus, the scope of environmental movements is not limited, as it covers a wide range of issues.
The Movement stressed on protection of the environment, save forest life, ecology, health, and human rights issues, etc.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India

This movement inspired many activists from different backgrounds and villagers. They came together to fight for their rights and save the environment.

The spatial scope of various environmental movements ranges from being local to almost global level bringing about drastic changes in the society.

Question 5.
Several revolts by peasants and farmers took place during the early part of British rule.
Answer:
This statement is True.

The early part of British rule was marked by an exploitative revenue system. The farmers and peasants had to rely on money-lenders to pay Lagaan (Taxes) to the British authorities. During this phase, the Zamindari system became prevalent, through which landlords could snatch away land from poor farmers when the farmers were unable to pay taxes.

Many small cultivators lost their rights over their hereditary land and resources. The problem was further compounded by famines and natural calamities during this period. Indebtedness increased and exploitation multiplied.

This led to massive discontent among farmers. Several revolts took place during this period. To name a few, the Deccan riots against money lenders, the upsurge by Bengal tenants against Zamindari, the Punjab Kisan struggles against money lenders, etc. During 1917-18 two peasant struggles led by the National Congress are important, namely, the Champaran Struggle in Bihar against indigo planters and the Satyagraha Movement of the peasants in Kaira against the collection of land revenue in a situation of crop failure. The Congress formed Peasant Committees to take note of the unrest and demands of peasant grievances.

Question 6.
The Post-Independence period witnessed a slowing down of the Women’s Movement.
Answer:
This statement is True.

The Post- Independence period witnessed a slowing down of the Women’s Movement because political independence overshadowed its focus and purpose. The Constitution of India incorporated several clauses highlighting equality and justice to the Indian citizens, men, and women alike.

Several issues like tribal unrest, economic crisis, and student agitation led to collective struggles and protests, thus taking away the singular focus of the women’s movement.

A committee was formed to study the status ‘Towards Equality’ addressed issues of invisibility of women, patriarchy, and violence against women.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India

The committee published its report in the year 1974. The findings of the report proved to be of pivotal importance because they brought to the forefront the discriminatory and exploitative practices against women in Post-Independent India.

This phase of the Women’s Movement focused more on violence against women, sex stereotyping, and further legislative demands for the equality of women.

6. Answer the following question in detail in about 150 words.

Question 1.
“Farmers continue to suffer in India”.
With reference to this statement, Discuss the Farmers’ struggle in India is documented with reference to the following important phases and comment on how the movement has affected them
(i) Emergence of Kisan Sabhas
(ii) Post-Independence period
Answer:
India is predominantly an agricultural country. A majority of the Indian population follows agriculture-related occupations. Farmers are a geographically scattered category.

Unequal distribution of land, the uncertainty of rainfall, shortage of quality seeds, pesticides, etc., lead to less yield and is the root cause of farmers’ poor situation, it seems due to industrialisation, urbanisation, and globalisation primary sector is neglected and farmers are forced to commit suicide. However, instances of the consolidation of their power as a response to unrest and suppression are documented in Indian history.

(i) Emergence of Kisan Sabhas (1922 to 1946)
The initiative by the Congress party to support the interests of landlords and Zamindars triggered a protest among the farmers. The Congress supporting the capitalists did not go down well with a section of struggling farmers.

In 1926-27 many Kisan Sabhas were organised in Bengal, Punjab, and Uttar Pradesh with revolutionary plans in mind. The Kisan Sabha movement started in Bihar under the leadership of Swami Sahajanand Saraswati, with the purpose of -raising voices against the Zamindari system. The representatives of the Kisan Sabhas from Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, presented a memorandum in the All-Party Conference, covering the major demands.

Two struggles of the peasantry of Bardoli district (Gujarat) broke out in succession; the first in 1928-29 and the second in 1930-31. The movement gathered momentum in the 1930s. In 1935, the first Kisan Congress was held which was successful in putting forth the unrest and agony of farmers. This resulted in the formation of the All India Kisan Sabha.

The struggle spread to the other parts of India as well. In Punjab, the farmers’ movement erupted under the leadership of Raja Mahendra Pratap. The Ghadar party played a very important role in mobilising farmers and peasants of Punjab together. In Gujarat, Mahatma Gandhi led the struggle of poor farmers against the British government in Kheda. In the Southern belt (e.g. in Andhra Pradesh), the struggle erupted against the Forest Law. This phase is also characterised by the worsening of peasant position, consequently culminating in a series of revolts and rebellious actions.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India

(ii) Post-Independence period
Political independence did not translate into the improvement of the conditions for peasants and farmers. The emergence of the farmers’ movement in the Post-Independence era can be located somewhere in the 1970s. Understandably the unrest was felt in the States that was agriculturally, commercially developed States, in their economic orientation. E.g. Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu. New Ideological perspectives influenced the course of the movement in the Post¬Independence era.

In the 1960s and 70s, the movement became more organised. Charan Singh became a very important name in the farmers’ struggle. He opposed heavy mechanisation and industrialisation; and championed low capital investment in agriculture. He formed the Bharatiya Kranti Dal (BKD) and the Bhartiya Lok Dal (BLD) in 1974.

By the 1970s farmers started forming their groups, without the backing of any political organisation. In 1973 a convention of farmers was held in New Delhi; it was followed by yet another convention in 1978. It presented a 20-point charter of demands to the government. Demands like representation of farmers on decision-making bodies, bridging the imbalance between agriculture and industry, etc., were included during this time.

Tamil Nadu and Punjab witnessed the emergence of strong farmers’ organizations. In 1980, the formation of the Shetkari Sangatana under the leadership of Sharad Joshi a d Karnataka Rajya Ryot Sangh under the leadership of M. D. Nanjundaswamy are milestones in the Farmers’ movement in India.

With the processes of industrialisation and globalisation, conditions have changed rapidly for farmers. With seasonal fluctuations apathy of the government and negligence by the masses, farmers continue to suffer in India. Farmer’s suicide has become a common affair. In March 2018 thousands of farmers from different parts of Maharashtra got together to march to Azad Maidan (Mumbai), to convey to the government their grievances and frustrations.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India

For the first time ever, the term ‘Farmers’ Strike’ was used by media personnel, when farmers ignored the market in disgust, throwing agricultural produce on roads. A radically new chapter was added to the farmers’ movement in India.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.5 The New Dress

Balbharti Yuvakbharati English 12th Digest Chapter 1.5 The New Dress Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.5 The New Dress

12th English Digest Chapter 1.5 The New Dress Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Write in Column ‘B’ the description of the clothes you would choose to wear for the occasions given in Column ‘A’:
Answer:

A B
A birthday party Casual jeans and a T-shirt
A prize distribution ceremony at school Formal shirt and trousers
A picnic Colourful casuals, or Shorts and T-shirt
An entertainment show Good jeans and a good T-shirt

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 2.
Discuss the criterion of the choice of your clothes with the help of given points:
Answer:
(a) Occasion: whether it is a birthday, wedding, picnic, college festival, etc.
(b) Society (people you may meet at the venue): friends, relatives, classmates, visitors, students from other colleges, etc.
(c) Availability: bought at a store, tailored, borrowed, etc.
(d) Fashion: designer clothes, casual, Indian formal, Western formal, etc.
(e) Your wish/whim: colour of my choice, style, etc.
(f) A suggestion or advice by someone (mother, sister, friend, etc.): Only advice by friends
(g) Any other than the above mentioned reasons: I would choose a dress that would suit me and set off my looks in the best possible way, even if it may be out of fashion. I would not go by whether it is expensive or branded.

Question 3.
Divide the class into groups. Discuss the role of costumes in enhancing your personality:
Answer:
(Points: clothes very important – first impressions important – colours, cut that suit a person – if the clothes are suitable, confidence level increases – however, it is not the cost of clothes but suitability to the wearer and occasion that are important – your clothes also depend on the culture and place.)

Question 4.
State whether you agree or disagree with the following statements and discuss the reasons:
Answer:
(a) A simple dress makes one’s personality look dull.
(Disagree – if the cut is good, the cloth is good – it suits the wearer – a simple dress can be excellent.)

(b) We should not judge ourselves from the comments we receive from others.
(Agree – we should have self-esteem – trust our judgement – do not have to seek approval from others – people may be envious, etc.)

(c) A fashionable and costly dress makes you look rich, intelligent and beautiful.
(Disagree – the dress must suit the wearer – should be worn with confidence – wearer should have good posture – accessories should be well-matched, etc.)

(d) We should choose a dress according to the fashion rather than our choice.
(Disagree – if we choose according to fashion, may not be comfortable – the fashion may not suit us-we may feel self-conscious – hence choose a dress according to our choice.)

Maharashtra Board Solutions

(A1)

Question (i)
There are a few other characters mentioned in this extract. Discuss the way their reactions help us to understand the inferiority complex of Mabel.
Answer:
Mabel told Robert Haydon that she felt like some dowdy, decrepit, horribly dingy old fly. She said it to reassure herself and appear detached and witty, and to show that she did not feel in the least out of anything.

Robert Haydon probably replied something to praise her, which Mabel felt was just politeness, and that he was being insincere. Though she was constantly looking for approval from others, she always felt suspicious when someone actually praised her, or said something in her favour. This shows that she has no self-esteem and a very big inferiority complex.

(A2)

Question (i)
Pick out the sentence/s from the extract which describe the ambience of the party at Mrs. Dalloway’s place.
Answer:
1. If she had been dressed like Rose Shaw, in lovely, clinging green with a ruffle of swansdown.
2. For she would not join Charles Burt and Rose Shaw, chattering like magpies and perhaps laughing at her by the fireplace.

Question (ii)
Mabel is thinking too much about her dress. Pick out two sentences supporting the above statement.
Answer:
1. It seemed to her that the yellow dress was a penance which she had deserved.
2. Then Mrs Holman was off, thinking her the most dried-up, unsympathetic twig she had ever met, absurdly dressed, too, and would tell every one about Mabel’s fantastic appearance.

Question (iii)
Critically analyze Mabel’s weak economic conditions in the past as one of the reasons that led her to choose the old-fashioned dress.
Answer:
Mabel did not belong to a rich family. She was one of a family of ten. They always had to be careful about their expenses, always counting the pennies. Her mother had to carry big cans the linoleum on the stairs was worn off, and there was always some minor domestic tragedy taking place.

Even when they went to seaside resorts, they stayed at lodges which never faced the sea directly, but at an odd angle, so that they had to squint to see the sea. Maybe indirectly she was still fighting with her weak economic conditions of the past, and this had made her choose the old-fashioned dress or it could have been some memories of the past that made her do it.

Question (iv)
The cause of Miss Mabel’s disappointment is not only her poor background in the past but her too much bookishness also Substantiate.
Answer:
To a certain extent this is true. She keeps thinking about the depressing lines she has read written by Shakespeare; she also keeps thinking of the story of the fly and the saucer, and how she is a fly and the others are dragonflies, butterflies and beautiful insects. Probably her over-active imagination, which led to her continuous disappointment with various things, was also due to extensive reading.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question (v)
Do you appreciate Mabel’s tendency of deciding her own value from the comments given by others? Explain your views.
Answer:
No, I don’t. We all have our own likes and dislikes; we should wear what we like and behave in the manner we think is appropriate. We should not depend on the approval and comments of others to decide our value and worth. This is done only by those who have no confidence in themselves and no self-esteem.

(A3)

Question (i)
Write the synonyms for the word ‘dress’ by filling appropriate letters in the blanks. One is done for you.
Answer:
(a) a t t i r e
(b) g a r b
(c) c o s t u m e
(d) g a r m e n t
(e) o u t f i t
(f) a p p a r e l

Question (ii)
Conchology means the scientific study or collection of mollusc shells. Find out the meanings of:
1. Etymology
2. Archaeology
Answer:
1. Etymology – the study of the origin and history of words.
2. Archaeology – the scientific study of material remains (such as tools, pottery, jewelry, stone walls, and monuments) of past human life and activities.

(A4)

(i) Use the correct tense form of the verbs given in the brackets and rewrite the sentences.

Question (a)
She ………………….. (take/takes/took/had taken) that old fashion book of her mother a few months back.
Answer:
She had taken that book of her mother a few months back.

Question (b)
She ……………… (pecking/pecks/pecked) at her left shoulder for quite some time.
Answer:
She pecked at her left shoulder for quite some time.

Question (c)
One human should (done /doing/be doing) this for another always.
Answer:
One human should be doing this for another always.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question (d)
All this (will be/is/have been) destroyed in a few years.
Answer:
All this will be destroyed in a few years.

Question (e)
She (feels/felt/will be feeling) like a dressmaker’s dummy standing there.
Answer:
She felt like a dressmaker’s dummy standing there.

(ii) Do as directed:

Question (a)
Lata will sing tonight. (Make it less certain.)
Answer:
Lata may sing tonight.

Question (b)
You should wear your uniform. (Show ability.)
Answer:
You can wear your uniform.

Question (c)
Sandeep may study to clear the examination. (Make it obligatory/compulsory.)
Answer:
Sandeep must study to clear the examination.

Question (d)
I can do it. (Make a sentence seeking permission.)
Answer:
May I do it?

(iii)

Question (a)
Frame three rules for the students of your college. (Non-textual grammar)
Answer:
1. Students must wear identity cards in the college premises.
2. Students must not loiter near the college gate.
3. Every student must have at least 75% attendance in every subject.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question (b)
Frame three sentences giving advice to your younger brother.
Answer:
1. You should make a timetable for revision at least a month before the exams.
2. You should not eat junk food.
3. You should visit your dentist at least once every six months.

Question (iv)
Fill-in the blanks with appropriate modal auxiliaries according to the situation given in the following sentences:
Answer:
(a) Take an umbrella. It might rain later.
(b) People must not walk on the grass.
(c) May I ask you a question?
(d) The signal has turned red. You must wait.
(e) I am going to the library. I could find my friend there.

(A5)

Question (i)
Virginia Woolf has created many characters other than Miss Mabel with great skill. Write a character sketch of any one of them.
Answer:
One of the guests at Mrs. Dalloway’s party was Charles Burt. Mabel was impressed by him and longing for some praise from him. However, he was a malicious person, with no heart, no fundamental kindness and only a superficial appearance of friendliness. He liked to poke fun at people and see their reactions. He probably also liked to gossip about people and discuss them behind their backs, but his opinion made a great difference to Mabel.

Question (ii)
‘Clothes mean nothing until someone lives in them.’ Expand the idea in your own words.
Answer:
Clothes mean nothing until someone lives in them These are the words of Marc Jacobs, a fashion designer. It means that clothes gain importance and character only when someone is wearing them. The first impression that people have of a person is not only through the clothes that one is wearing but the way one is wearing those clothes.

The style a person adopts tells people a lot about his/her personality and character. The best and most expensive clothes can be unimpressive if the wearer does not carry himself/herself well. On the contrary, the simplest of clothes can look good and impressive if the wearer has good posture, self-confidence and self-esteem.

Hence, when we are buying clothes, we must not only be sure that they will suit us but that we will be comfortable in them and able to carry them well. So, we must choose clothes that make us feel good about ourselves, confident and happy.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

(A6)

Question 1.
Go to a library and read the following books:
(a) ‘A Haunted House’ by Virginia Woolf
(b) ‘Mrs. Dalloway’ by Virginia Woolf

(A7)

Question 1.
Find out information about career opportunities in the following fields:

  1. Fashion designing
  2. Dress designing
  3. Textile industry
  4. Garment industry
  5. Image consultancy
  6. Psychology and Psychiatry

Yuvakbharati English 12th Digest Chapter 1.5 The New Dress Additional Important Questions and Answers

Read the extract and complete the activities given below:

A1. Global Understanding:

Question 1.
Complete the following:
Answer:
1. What depressed Mabel was her appalling inadequacy, her cowardice and her mean, water-sprinkled blood.
2. The feeling that grew stronger as she went upstairs was that something was not quite right.
3. The eyelids of the guests flickered and then shut rather tight.

Question 2.
Complete the following:
Answer:

  1. According to Mabel, fashion means cut, style, and cost, at least thirty guineas.
  2. When Mabel was sitting over the teacups, she had thought that she could not be fashionable.
  3. The book Mabel had chosen was an old Paris fashion book of her mother’s, of the time of the Empire.
  4. Rose Shaw’s lips had a little satirical pucker.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 3.
Mabel knew that these were her main faults:
Answer:
envy and spite

Question 4.
Mable tried to imagine them like flies:
Answer:
Rose Shaw and all the other people

Question 5.
He stopped to listen to Mabel:
Answer:
Robert Haydon

Question 6.
She, Mabel, was a fly but the others were:
Answer:
dragonflies, butterflies, beautiful insects

Question 7.
Complete the following:
Answer:
1. Miss Milan’s workroom was terribly hot, stuffy and sordid, smelling of clothes and cabbage cooking.
2. When Mabel looked at herself in the glass, she saw a grey-white, mysteriously smiling, charming girl, the core of herself.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 8.
Match the following and write the complete answers:

A B
1. Miss Milan wanted to know (a) pick a hemp seed from between her lips.
2. Miss Milan let the canary (b) to be so dependent on people’s opinions.
3. Mabel felt it was very weak (c) she suffered tortures and was awoken to reality.
4. When Mabel was in Miss Dalloway’s drawing-room. (d) about the length of the skirt.

Answer:

  1. Miss Milan wanted to know about the length of the skirt.
  2. Miss Milan let the canary pick a hemp
  3. Mabel felt it was very weak to be so dependent on people’s opinions.
  4. When Mabel was in Miss Dalloway’s drawing-room she suffered tortures and was awoken to reality.

Question 9.
Pick out the sentences that are false and write them correctly:
Answer:
1. Mabel was not at all confident when she went into the room.
2. Rose Shaw was actually looking very fierce and tragic.
3. Charles Burt wanted to talk to Mabel.
4. Charles Burt told Mabel that she was looking charming.
False sentences:
2. Rose Shaw was actually looking very fierce and tragic.
3. Charles Burt wanted to talk to Mabel.
4. Charles Burt told Mabel that she was looking charming.
Corrected sentences:
2. Mabel imagined that Rose Shaw would look very fierce and tragic.
3. Mabel wanted to talk to Charles Burt.
4. Mabel wished that Charles Burt had told her that she was looking charming.

Question 10.
Match the sentences from Box A and Box B and rewrite the completed sentences:
Answer:
A:
1. Mrs. Holman did not notice Mabel’s dress
2. Mabel was angry because
3. Mrs. Holman leaned forward and told Mabel
4. Mabel compared the clamour and greed of human beings for sympathy
B:
(a) Mrs. Holman treated her like a house agent or messenger boy.
(b) how her eldest boy had strained his heart running.
(c) to a row of cormorants, barking and flapping their wings.
(d) because she was worried about her family.
Answer:

  1. Mrs. Holman did not notice Mabel’s dress because she was worried about her family.
  2. Mabel was angry because Mrs. Holman treated her like a house agent or messenger boy.
  3. Mrs. Holman leaned forward and told Mabel how her eldest boy had strained his heart running.
  4. Mabel compared the clamour and greed of human beings for sympathy to a row of cormorants, barking and flapping their wings.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Answer in very brief:

Question 1.
What did Mabel do to look busy?
Answer:
punched the cushions

Question 2.
Who were chatting near the fireplace?
Answer:
Charles Burt and Rose Shaw

Question 3.
What was Rose Shaw wearing?
Answer:
a lovely, clinging green dress with a ruffle of swansdown

Question 4.
What type of job did Hubert have?
Answer:
a safe, permanent underling’s job in the Law Courts

Question 5.
Who was Mabel’s hero?
Answer:
Sir Henry Lawrence

Question 6.
Where did Mabel dream of living?
Answer:
in India

Question 7.
Choose the correct alternative and fill in the blanks:

  1. The children ……………. as they paddled. (shouted/cried)
  2. The Goddess was …………….. but ……………. (ugly/kind/beautiful/cruel)
  3. Mabel was years old. (fifty/forty)
  4. All Mabel’s brothers and sisters were …………….. people, (strong/weak)
  5. Mabel went to the seaside at ……………. .(Christmas/Easter)
  6. Now that Mabel was older, the stories about the fly and the saucer would come more ……………… (seldom/often)

Answer:

  1. The children shouted as they paddled.
  2. The Goddess was beautiful but cruel.
  3. Mabel was forty years old.
  4. All Mabel’s brothers and sisters were weak people.
  5. Mabel went to the seaside at Easter.
  6. Now that Mabel was older, the stories about the fly and the saucer would come more seldom.

Question 8.
Who said to whom:
OR
Complete the following table:
Answer:

The Words Who said To whom
“I have enjoyed myself.” Mabel Mr. Dalloway
“Lies, lies, lies!” Mabel To herself
“But it’s too early to go.” Mrs. Dalloway Mabel
“Right in the Saucer!” Mabel To herself

Complex Factual:

Question 1.
Pick out the sentences from the extract which describe the ambience of the party at Mrs. Dalloway’s place.
Answer:
Mrs. Barnet, while handing her the mirror and touching the brushes and thus drawing her attention, perhaps rather markedly, to all the appliances for tidying and improving hair, complexion, clothes, which existed on the dressing table.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 2.
Who was Mrs. Barnet? Describe her behaviour.
Answer:
Mrs. Barnet was probably the maid or housekeeper. She held the mirror, touched the brushes, and drew Mabel’s attention, rather markedly, to the appliances kept on the dressing table for improving one’s looks. She indirectly indicated to Mabel that something about Mabel’s looks was not quite right.

Question 3.
Mabel is thinking too much about her dress. Pick out a sentence supporting the above statement.
Answer:
She could not face the whole horror – the pale yellow, idiotically old-fashioned silk dress with its long skirt and its high sleeves and its waist and all the things that looked so charming in the fashion book, but not on her, not among all these ordinary people.

Question 4.
Pick out the sentences from the extract which describe the ambience of the party at Mrs. Dalloway’s place.
Answer:
Rose herself being dressed in the height of the fashion, precisely like everybody else, always.

Question 5.
Describe the dress Mabel was wearing, What had been Mabel’s thoughts about it earlier?
Answer:
The dress was a pale yellow, old-fashioned silk dress, with a long skirt and high sleeves and waist. It had looked so charming in the fashion book, but not on her. Mabel had thought earlier that the dress would I make her look modest, old-fashioned and charming.

Question 6.
Pick out the sentences from the extract which describe the ambience of the party at Mrs. Dalloway’s place.
Answer:
She was a fly, but the others were dragonflies, butterflies, beautiful insects, dancing, fluttering, skimming.

Question 7.
What did Mabel say to Robert Haydon, and why did she say it? Describe their interactions.
Answer:
Mabel said that she felt like some dowdy, decrepit, horribly dingy old fly. She said it to reassure herself and appear detached and witty, and to show that she did not feel in the least out of anything. Robert Haydon heard this and replied with some polite and insincere words.

Question 8.
Mabel is thinking too much about her dress. Pick out some sentences supporting the above statement.
Answer:
She looked at herself with the dress on, finished, an extraordinary bliss shot through her heart. Suffused with light, she sprang into existence.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 9.
Describe Miss Milan.
Answer:
Miss Milan was poor and hard-working. Her face was red and her eyes bulged. Her pleasures in life were few and cheap; one of them was allowing her pet canary to pick a hemp-seed from between her lips. She was patient and had to endure a lot of difficulties.

Question 10.
Mabel is thinking too much about her dress. Pick out a sentence supporting the above statement.
Answer:
She issued out into the room, as if spears were thrown at her yellow dress from all sides.

Question 11.
Pick out the sentence/s from the extract which describe the ambience of the party at Mrs. Dalloway’s place.
Answer:
……….. and not be whipped all around in a second by coming into a room full of people.

Question 12.
Describe Mabel’s behaviour as she entered the room.
Answer:
Mabel went out into the room, as if spears were thrown at her yellow dress from all sides. But instead of looking fierce or tragic, she looked foolish and self-conscious. She smiled in a silly way, like a schoolgirl, and slouched across the room, moving quietly, as if she were a beaten dog. She then stood by herself and looked at a picture-from shame, from humiliation.

Question 13.
What had been Mabel’s dreams before marriage? Did they come true?
Answer:
Mabel had dreamt of living in India, married to some hero like Sir Henry Lawrence, or some empire builder. However, she had failed utterly, and had married Hubert, who had an ordinary job in the Law Courts. They lived in a small house without proper maids.

Question 14.
Discuss Mabel’s opinion of herself as a wife and mother.
Answer:
Mabel felt that she had always been a fretful, weak, unsatisfactory mother, and an unsteady and uncertain wife. She felt that she was hanging about lazily in a kind of twilight existence with nothing very clear or very bold, or standing out.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 15.
Describe the actions of the fly in Mabel’s imagination. Would the fly behave in the same way (as it did in her imagination), now that she was forty?
Answer:The fly in her imagination suddenly struggled out sometimes. But now that she was forty, she felt that the fly, and she, Mabel, would gradually cease to struggle any more.

Question 16.
Pick out the sentences from the extract which describe the ambience of the party at Mrs. Dalloway’s place.
Answer:

  1. “But it’s too early to go,” said Mrs. Dalloway, who was always so charming.
  2. “I have enjoyed myself,” she said to Mr. Dalloway, whom she met on the stairs.
  3. She thanked Mrs. Barnet for helping her.

Question 2.
Describe Mabel’s plans and expectations for the next day.
Answer:
Mabel planned that she would go to the London Library the next day. She would find some wonderful, helpful, astonishing book, by a clergyman or by an American no one had ever heard of or she would walk down the Strand and drop into a hall where a miner was telling about the life in the pit, and suddenly she would become a new person. She would be transformed. She would wear a uniform; somebody would call her Sister : she would never give a thought to clothes again. And after that she would be perfectly clear about Charles Burt and Miss Milan forever.

Inference/Interpretation/Analysis:

Question 1.
There is another character mentioned in this extract. Discuss the way his/ her reactions help us to understand the inferiority complex of Mabel.
Answer:
Mrs. Barnet touched the brushes and drew Mabel’s attention, rather markedly, to the appliances kept on the dressing table for improving one’s looks. She indirectly indicated to Mabel that something about Mabel’s looks was not quite right. Mabel immediately lost whatever confidence she had. This shows us that Mabel’s inferiority complex was so deep and strong that even a housekeeper’s hint rattled her and made her lose confidence.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 2.
Complete the following:
‘RIGHT’ signifies ………………. .
Answer:
‘RIGHT’ signifies the suitability of the dress for the occasion.

Question 3.
Complete the following:
She was afraid of looking in the mirror/glass because
Answer:
She was afraid of looking in the mirror/glass because she felt that she looked horrible in the pale yellow, old-fashioned silk dress, with a long skirt and high sleeves and waist.

Question 4.
There is another character mentioned in this extract. Discuss the way his/her reactions help us to understand the inferiority complex of Mabel.
Answer:
Rose Shaw looked at Mabel up and down, twisting her lips in a sarcastic manner, Mabel had expected her to do this. Mabel also felt that Rose and all the others present were dressed, as always, in the height of fashion. This shows us how sensitive Mabel was to the behaviour of others and how she thought j that they were always right in fashion, while she was not. This indicates Mabel’s lack of self-esteem and self-worth.

Question 5.
What was Mabel’s imagination about flies?
Answer:
Mabel felt that we are all like flies trying to crawl over the edge of the saucer, some crawling slowly with their wings stuck together. In order to make the other people at the party look insignificant and unimportant, she tried hard to visualize them as poor, struggling flies, trying to pull themselves out of something or into something.

However, her inferiority complex was so strong that she ultimately saw only herself as a fly trying to drag itself out of the saucer. She saw the others as dragonflies, butterflies, beautiful insects, dancing, fluttering and skimming lightly.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 6.
Complete the following:
Answer:
Mabel’s eyes were filled with tears because she felt sorry for poor Miss Milan, who had such few pleasures in life. Those too were cheap ones, like allowing her pet canary to pick a hemp-seed from between her lips. Miss Milan was helping Mabel to become fashionable, and hence Mabel felt very fond of her and full of pity for her condition.

Question 7.
Discuss different pessimistic thoughts in Mabel’s mind.
Answer:
Mabel felt that all the thrill she had felt in her dress had vanished when she entered Mrs. Dalloway’s drawing room, and her eyes were opened to the reality of the dress. She felt depressed and weak that at her age, and with two children, she cared so much about the opinions of other people and did not have any principles or convictions of her own. She was upset that she could not take things lightly, as others did. She found plenty of faults in herself.

Question 8.
There is another character mentioned in this extract. Discuss the way his/ her reactions help us to understand the inferiority complex of Mabel.
Answer:
Mabel told Charles Burt that ‘it’ was old- fashioned, hoping that he would think it was the picture she was talking about, and not her dress. She longed for Charles’ approval, and hoped he would say that she looked charming. But Charles Burt laughed at her, and this upset her tremendously.

She wished she had the confidence to be sure that Miss Milan was right about her dress and Charles was wrong, but unfortunately that was not so, and Charles’ laughter and his malice made her feel even more humiliated and inferior than before. This shows us that Mabel depended heavily on the approval of others and had no self-esteem.

Question 9.
There is another character mentioned in this extract. Discuss the way his/her reactions help us to understand the inferiority complex of Mabel.
Answer:
When Mrs. Holman asked her questions about Elmthorpe and other things, Mabel was furious to be treated like a house agent or a messenger boy, to be made use of. It shows that she is insecure about herself, and feels that people are always humiliating her. Even a person like Mrs. Holman, who is having a difficult time with her family, can make Mabel feel insecure and inferior.

Question 10.
There are a few other characters mentioned in this extract. Discuss the way their reactions help us to understand the inferiority complex of Mabel.
Answer:
Mabel thought that Charles Burt and Rose Shaw were chatting together by the fireplace and laughing at her. She could not hear them, but this was her imagination and inferiority complex which made her think so. Mabel even felt that poor Mrs. Holman was laughing at her dress, and that she would tell everyone about it. Mrs. Holman had so many of her own problems that she probably never even thought of it, but Mabel’s lack of confidence made her feel so.

Question 11.
Describe Mabel’s ‘delicious/divine’ and ‘flat’ moments. Was there a reason for them?
Answer:
The delicious moments of Mabel’s life were reading contentedly in bed, or being down by the sea in the sun and sand at Easter, listening to the melody of the waves and the happy shouts of the children paddling in the water. Also, sometimes she had these moments with Hubert, when he was carving the mutton for Sunday lunch, opening a letter, or coming into the room. On the other hand, sometimes, when everything was arranged – music, weather, holidays – and there was every reason for happiness, it turned suddenly flat.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 12.
Complete the following:
The last sentence suggests that
Answer:
The last sentence suggests that however hard Mabel tries to be stylish or fashionable, she is ultimately a middle-class, ordinary woman. She did not have enough money to buy a new cloak. She could not have competed with the rich, stylish people at the party. However, she did not want to accept this fact gracefully, but always felt inferior.

Question 13.
“I have enjoyed myself,” said Mabel. Was this the truth? Give reasons for your answer.
Answer:
This was not the truth. Though Mabel tells Mr. and Mrs. Dalloway that she has enjoyed herself, she says “Lies, lies, lies!” to herself while going down the stairs. She also mentions that she, like the fly, is right back in the saucer, implying that she would again have to struggle unhappily to climb out of it.

Personal Response:

Question 1.
List the criteria you use to choose a dress/outfit.
Answer:
When I buy a dress, the first thing I look at is the price. If it is beyond my budget, I don’t even think of buying it, however much I like it. I then look at the colour and cut. I do not go in for branded stuff as I feel they are unnecessarily expensive. I am careful while buying clothes as I have limited pocket money. I try to buy things which I can mix and match.

Question 2.
Describe the kind of clothes you wear to college. Do you feel that your clothes do not match to those worn by your friends?
Answer:
I normally wear jeans and T-shirts to college. Everyone else wears the same. All my friends belong to middle-class families, and none of us go in for very fashionable or expensive clothes. I only try to choose colours that I know will look good on me. So, I am quite comfortable with my clothes and know that I look what I am – a young college student!

Question 3.
Do you look for approval from others when you do something/wear something?
Answer:
Yes, to a certain extent I do. After all, we are not solitary human beings, we live in society. When I wear a dress that I think is good, I like others to approve of it too. But I do not get upset if they don’t, because I know that everybody’s tastes are different. In the same way, if I do something outstanding and no one notices it, I do get a bit upset but then I console myself that I am happy, and that is what matters.

Question 4.
Name some simple things that make you feel really happy. Explain why it is so.
Answer:
I feel really happy at the beginning of spring. Just outside my bedroom window there are a few trees which lose their leaves in winter, but get fresh, tender green leaves in March. I watch the increase of leaves daily, and feel very happy. It sort of makes me feel that there is hope and life everywhere, even after a dreary winter.

Question 5.
Does your attention often wander when people are talking to you? Give examples.
Answer:
No, in general it does not. I try to pay full attention when someone is talking to me. But if the person is very slow, or is talking on a very boring topic or boasting, then my attention does wander. For example, the other day my neighbour Aditya was telling me in great detail about some great thing that he did. Aditya is a big liar, and exaggerates everything, so my attention wandered and he got upset with me!

Question 6.
Do you feel nervous/confident when you are at a party? Give examples.
Answer:
If I am attending a party where I do not know the people very well, then I feel nervous. For example, I was invited to a party at my school teacher’s house, in the next building. I did not know anyone there except my teacher, and I felt quite nervous. But when I attend a friend’s party, or a family gathering then I do not feel nervous at all. In fact, I look forward to such parties.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 7.
Describe your relationship with your siblings/cousins.
Answer:
I have an elder sister, who is two years older than me. I get along very well with her, because she is kind and very loving. She helps me a lot in my studies, and in choosing my clothes. She has many friends, and I know all of them and get along well with them. We enjoy watching movies at home and listening to music.

Question 8.
Describe one fulfilled/unfulfilled dream of yours.
Answer:
I am an avid reader. I have read many books written by English authors, in which they have described places in England and Scotland, and the beautiful green scenery. It had been my dream to see all this at least once, but it had seemed impossible, as it would have been very expensive. Then one fine day, a cousin got married in Scotland, and she wanted all of us to be present. My parents decided to go and take me along. We toured UK for fifteen days after the wedding, and my dream was fulfilled.

Language Study:

Question 1.
Mabel had her first serious suspicion that something was wrong as she took her cloak off.
(Frame a wh-question to get the underlined part as the answer.)
Answer:
When did Mabel have her first serious suspicion that something was wrong?

Question 2.
What a fright she looks! What a hideous new dress! (Rewrite as assertive sentences.)
Answer:
She looks a real fright. The new dress is very hideous.

Question 3.
Rewrite as an assertive sentence:
“How dull!”
Answer:
It was very dull.

Question 4.
She dared not look in the glass. She could not face the whole horror.
(Rewrite as affirmative sentences.)
Answer:
She was afraid to look in the glass. She was unable to face the whole horror.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 5.
If she could say that over often enough, she would become numb, chill, frozen, dumb.
(Pick out the clauses and state their type.)
Answer:
she would become numb, chill, frozen, dumb – main clause
If she could say that over often enough – adverb clause of condition

Question 6.
“Lies! Lies! Lies!” (Rewrite as an assertive sentence.)
Answer:
It was all lies.

Question 7.
Now she could see flies crawling slowly out of a saucer of milk. (Rewrite using ‘able’.)
Answer:
Now she was able to see flies crawling slowly out of a saucer of milk.

Question 8.
It smelt of clothes and cabbage cooking; and yet, when Miss Milan put the glass in her hand, an extraordinary bliss shot through her heart. (Rewrite using ‘though’.)
Answer:
Though it smelt of clothes and cabbage cooking, when Miss Milan put the glass in her hand, an extraordinary bliss shot through her heart.

Question 9.
She felt much, much fonder of Miss Milan than of any one in the whole world.
(Rewrite using ‘asfond … as’.)
Answer:
She did not feel as fond of anyone in the whole world as she felt of Miss Milan.

Question 10.
Suffused with light, she sprang into existence. (Rewrite as a compound sentence.)
Answer:
She was suffused with light and sprang into existence.

Rewrite in indirect speech:

Question 1.
If he had only said, “Mabel, you’re looking charming tonight!” it would have changed her life.
Answer:
If he had only told Mabel that she was looking charming that night, it would have changed her life.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 2.
“Mabel’s got a new dress!” he said.
Answer:
He said that Mabel had got a new dress.

Question 3.
“Why,” she asked herself, “can’t I feel one thing always, feel quite sure that Miss Milan is right, and Charles wrong and stick to it?”
Answer:
She asked herself why she couldn’t feel one thing always, feel quite sure that Miss Milan was right, and Charles wrong and stick to it?

Question 4.
Then Mrs. Holman, seeing her standing there, bore down upon her. (Rewrite as a complex sentence.)
Answer:
Then Mrs. Holman, who saw her standing there, bore down upon her.

Question 5.
Mrs. Holman looked at it suspiciously.
(Frame a wh-question to get the underlined word as the answer.)
Answer:
How did Mrs. Holman look at it?

Question 6.
Though Mrs. Holman was leaning forward and telling her how her eldest boy had strained his heart running, she could see her, too, quite detached in the looking glass. (Rewrite using ‘yet’.)
Answer:
Mrs. Holman was leaning forward and telling her how her eldest boy had strained his heart running; yet, she could see her, too, quite detached in the looking glass.

Question 7.
She knew that she was condemned.
(Identify the clauses.)
Answer:
She knew – main clause
that she was condemned – subordinate noun clause

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 8.
She would not join Charles Burt and Rose Shaw, chattering like magpies and perhaps laughing at her by the fireplace.
(Rewrite using ‘who’.)
Answer:
She would not join Charles Burt and Rose Shaw, who were chattering like magpies and perhaps laughing at her by the fireplace.

Question 9.
She had married Hubert, with his safe, permanent underling’s job in the Law Courts, and they managed tolerably in a smallish house, without proper maids.
(Pick out the verbs and state their tense.)
Answer:
had married – past perfect tense; managed – simple past tense.

Question 10.
By degrees she would cease to struggle any more. (Rewrite using an adverb of the same meaning in place of the underlined expression.)
Answer:
Gradually, she would cease to struggle any more.

Question 11.
It didn’t matter so long as one never said them. (Rewrite using ‘unless’)
Answer:
It didn’t matter unless one said them.

Question 12.
With Hubert sometimes she had divine moments.
(Rewrite beginning ‘Divine moments…’.)
Answer:
Divine moments were had with Hubert sometimes.

Question 13.
‘I have enjoyed myself,” she said to Mr. Dalloway, whom she met on the stairs. (Rewrite using indirect speech.)
Answer:
She told Mr. Dalloway, whom she met on the stairs, that she had enjoyed herself.

Question 14.
She thanked Mrs. Barnet for helping her.
(Rewrite using ‘because’.)
Answer:
She thanked Mrs. Barnet because she had helped her.

Question 15.
She would never give a thought to clothes again. (Add a question tag.)
Answer:
She would never give a thought to clothes again, would she?

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Vocabulary:

Question 1.
Pick out two words from the extract formed by using prefixes.
Answer:
inadequacy, dissatisfaction

Question 2.
Write the noun forms of:

  1. improve
  2. suspect
  3. attend
  4. depress

Answer:

  1. improve – improvement
  2. suspect – suspicion
  3. attend – attendance
  4. depress – depression

Question 3.
Write the adjective forms of the following words :

  1. fashion
  2. style
  3. horror
  4. thought

Answer:

  1. fashion – fashionable
  2. style – stylish
  3. horror – horrible
  4. thought – thoughtless/thoughtful

Question 4.
Write the meanings of:
1. satirical
2. chastised
Answer:
1. satirical – sarcastic
2. chastised – punished

Question 5.
Pick out four infinitives from the extract.
Answer:
to make, to hear, to reassure, to crawl.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 6.
Pick out four words ending in ‘ing’ from the extract.
Answer:
trying, crossing, crawling, listening

Question 7.
Write the antonyms of the following words using prefixes:

  1. endurable
  2. polite
  3. sincere
  4. real

Answer:

  1. endurable × unendurable
  2. polite × impolite
  3. sincere × insincere
  4. real × unreal

Question 8.
Pick out four abstract nouns from the extract.
Answer:
bliss, existence, patience, endurance.

Question 9.
Pick out four adjectives from the extract:
Answer:
stuffy, sordid, charming, miserable.

Question 10.
Write the verb forms of:

  1. opinion
  2. endurance
  3. bulging
  4. hot

Answer:

  1. opinion – opine
  2. endurance – endure
  3. bulging – bulge
  4. hot-heat

Question 11.
Guess the meanings:
1. suffused
2. wrinkles
Answer:
1. suffused – filled with.
2. wrinkles – folds or creases in the skin.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 12.
Match the words in Column A with their meanings in Column B:

A B
1. simpered (a) moving quietly and stealthily
2. slouched (b) pushed
3. slinking (c) smiled in an affectedly coy or silly manner
4. shoved (d) moved in a lazy, drooping way
5. ruffled (e) superficial appearance
6. veneer (f) loss of calmness.

Answer:

  1. simpered – smiled in an affectedly coy or silly manner
  2. slouched – moved in a lazy, drooping way
  3. slinking – moving quietly and stealthily
  4. shoved – pushed
  5. ruffled – loss of calmness.
  6. veneer – superficial appearance

Question 13.
Guess the meanings:
1. scarlet fever
2. self-loathing
Answer:
1. scarlet fever – a bacterial illness; symptoms are a bright red rash that covers most of the body, a sore throat and a high fever.
2. self-loathing – self-hatred.

Question 14.
Write the verb forms of the following :

  1. humiliation
  2. agony
  3. suspicious
  4. grudgingly

Answer:

  1. humiliation – humiliate
  2. agony – agonise
  3. suspicious – suspect
  4. grudgingly – grudge

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 15.
Match the adjectives in Column A with the nouns in Column B, based on the extract:

A B
1. domestic (a) twig
2. unsympathetic (b) house
3. feeble (c) tragedy
4. smallish (d) creature

Answer:

  1. domestic – tragedy
  2. unsympathetic – twig
  3. feeble – creature
  4. smallish – house

Question 16.
Pick out two compound words from the extract:
Answer:
backwater, seaside

Question 17.
Find the meaning:
1. crest of a wave
2. by degrees
Answer:
1. crest of a wave – the top of a wave
2. by degrees – gradually

Question 18.
Write two adjectives from the extract for each of the following, and write down which are the present participles from these:

  1. moments
  2. sky
  3. life
  4. wife

Answer:

  1. moments → divine, delicious
  2. sky → blue, smooth
  3. life → creeping, crawling
  4. wife → fretful, weak

Present participles: creeping, crawling.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Non-Textual Grammar:

Do as directed:

Question 1.
Speechless, she smiled happily and gathered her daughter into her arms.
(Rewrite using the infinitive form of ‘speak’.)
Answer:
Unable to speak, she smiled happily and gathered her daughter into her arms.

Question 2.
He wiped the water off and gently wrapped it in pink paper. (Rewrite as a simple sentence.)
Answer:
Wiping the water off, he gently wrapped it in pink paper.

Question 3.
Dhruv had never received such a gift.
(Rewrite as an affirmative sentence.)
Answer:
It was the first time that Dhruv had received such a gift.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Spot the error in the following sentences and rewrite them correctly:

Question 1.
Not only did his speech improve and his expression also became clearer.
Answer:
Not only did his speech improve but his expression also became clearer.

Question 2.
Must you pass me the salt, please?
Answer:
Can you pass me the salt, please?

Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.3 The Cop and the Anthem

Balbharti Yuvakbharati English 12th Digest Chapter 1.3 The Cop and the Anthem Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.3 The Cop and the Anthem

12th English Digest Chapter 1.3 The Cop and the Anthem Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Suppose you have gone to a place where the winter season is very severe. Discuss with your partner the ways in which you would protect yourself in the cold climate. (The answer is given and underlined.)
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.3 The Cop and the Anthem 1
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.3 The Cop and the Anthem 2

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 2.
When you see a cop approaching, you feel either ‘relieved’ or ‘scared’. Discuss with your partner and write down the situations when you feel ‘relieved’ or ‘scared’.
Answer:
Relieved:
(a) You are walking alone in a dark street.
(b) There is a fight taking place near you.
(c) A group of rough-looking people are coming towards you on a lonely road.
Scared:
(a) You are riding a bike without a valid driving licence.
(b) You have broken a traffic signal.
(c) You have been involved in a fight.

Question 3.
Discuss some of the motivating things that can change a person’s life :
Answer:
(a) Listening to an inspiring speech
(b) Reading motivating books and biographies of great people
(c) Reading epics and religious books
(d) Observing successful/happy people or watching biopics of their lives.

(A1)

Question (i)
Discuss with your partner and find out the different ways in which Soapy tried ; to get arrested. The first one is given.
Answer:
(a) Tried to enter a luxurious cafe.
(b) Threw a stone and broke a shop window.
(c) Ate heartily at a restaurant and then said he had no money.
(d) Shouted and howled and raved and danced on the sidewalk.
(e) Stole an umbrella.

Question (ii)
Describe the atmosphere when Soapy reached near the Church.
Answer:
(a) A soft light glowed through the violet-stained window.
(b) Sweet music drifted out of the quaint, old church.
(c) There was a full, radiant moon, and few vehicles and pedestrians.
(d) Sparrows twittered sleepily in the eaves.

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(A2)

Question (i)
Read the story and match the incidents given in Column A with the consequences given in Column B.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.3 The Cop and the Anthem 3
Answer:

  1. Soapy tried to enter a cafe – Strong and ready hands of the head waiter turned him around.
  2. Soapy broke a glass window – The cop ran after another man.
  3. Two waiters pitched Soapy on the callous pavement – He stood up slowly beating the i dust from his clothes.
  4. Soapy heard the anthem being played in the Church – Suddenly a wonderful change came in his heart.
  5. Cop arrests Soapy for hanging around. – Dream of turning around in life was shattered.

Question (ii)
Give reasons and complete the following: (The answers are given directly and underlined.)
Answer:
(a) Soapy had confidence in himself because he was shaven, his coat was trim and he had a neat, black bow. The portion of him that showed above the table looked respectable and would raise no doubt in the waiter’s mind.
(b) The head waiter of the luxurious cafe did not allow Soapy to enter because he saw Soapy’s tattered trousers and old, worn out shoes, and knew that Soapy would not have money to pay for a meal.
(c) The cop did not arrest Soapy for breaking the glass window because Soapy was standing calmly and talking to him. The policeman felt that men who smash glass windows do not remain to chat with the police.
(d) The cop did not arrest Soapy for shouting and dancing because it was the time of celebrations for the local college boys. They were generally noisy but harmless, and he had been told by his superiors to let them be.

(iii) Pick out the lines from the text which show that:

Question (a)
Soapy wants to enter the cafe for two reasons.
Answer:
1. A roasted mallard duck, thought Soapy, would be about the thing with a bottle of wine and then some cheese, a cup of coffee and a cigar.
2. The meat would leave him filled and happy for the journey to his winter island.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question (b)
Soapy was afraid that he won’t be able to enter the prison.
Answer:
It seemed that his route to the coveted island was not to be an easy one. Some other way of entering the limbo must be devised.

Question (c)
Soapy was not caught by the cop for throwing stones at the glass.
Answer:
1. The policeman refused to accept Soapy even as a clue.
2. The policeman saw a man half-way down the block running to catch a car. With drawn club he joined in the pursuit.

Question (d)
Soapy actually did not want the umbrella.
Answer:
He hurled the umbrella angrily into the excavation.

Question (e)
Listening to the anthem, Soapy remembered his good old days.
Answer:
He had known it well in the days when his life contained such things as mothers and roses and ambitions and friends and immaculate thoughts and collars.

Question (iv)
‘He would make a man of himself again’ – The word ‘man’ in the sentence means ……………….. .
Answer:
‘He would make a man of himself again’ – The word ‘man’ in the sentence means a responsible and worthy human being.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question (v)
Soapy’s earlier life was much different from his present life. Complete the table to show this contrast. One is done for you.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.3 The Cop and the Anthem 4
Answer:

Earlier life Present life
(a) contained friends and roses (a) unworthy desires
(b) eager ambitions (b) dead hopes, degraded days
(c) clean thoughts and clothes (c) wrecked faculties and base motives

Question (vi)
After listening to the sweet and solemn organ notes, Soapy decides to:
Answer:
1. pull himself out of the mire, conquer the evil that had enslaved him and make a man of himself again
2. resurrect his old eager ambitions and pursue them without faltering
3. go into the roaring downtown district and find work

Question (vii)
Write an incident in which you did something wrong and repented for it later. Give reasons.
Answer:
A lady who stayed in my building used to shout at me for playing noisily under her window. One day, she shouted at me as usual from her window and went inside. I suddenly got angry and threw a stone at her window. The stone hit the glass which broke. I heard a loud shout of pain and ran away. I later came to know that she had been badly injured by the shattered glass. I repented for what I had done. Though I did not tell her that I was the culprit, I was very good to her after that.

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(A3)

Question (i)
O’Henry has used different words to indicate prison where Soapy wants to reach. Make a list of those words from the extract.
Answer:
the island

Question (ii)
Find out the words used for the ‘degraded state of Soapy’.
Answer:

  1. the pit into which he had tumbled
  2. the degraded days
  3. unworthy desires
  4. dead hopes
  5. wrecked faculties
  6. base motives
  7. mire
  8. evil that had enslaved him.

Question (iii)
The specific meaning of word ‘anthem’ in the content of the story is:
Answer:
Anthem – a rousing or uplifting song.

(A4)

Question (i)
Convert the following sentences into the negative without changing their meanings:
(a) The policeman refused to accept Soapy even as a clue.
(b) Soapy drifted along, twice unsuccessful.
(c) Soapy stopped his unavailing racket.
(d) The island seemed very far away.
(e) The island seemed an unattainable Arcadia.
Answer:
(a) The policeman did not accept Soapy even as a clue.
(b) Soapy drifted along, twice not successful.
(c) Soapy stopped his racket which was not successful.
(d) The island seemed not at all near.
(e) The island seemed an Arcadia which was not attainable.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question (ii)
Convert the following sentences into the affirmative without changing their meanings :
(a) Men who smash windows do not remain to chat with the police.
(b) On the opposite side of the street was a restaurant of no great pretensions.
(c) Why don’t you call a cop?
(d) Noisy; but no harm.
(e) They seemed to regard him as a King who could do no wrong.
Answer:
(a) Men who smash windows refrain from remaining to chat with the police.
(b) On the opposite side of the street was a very ordinary restaurant.
(c) Please call a cop.
(d) Noisy; but harmless.
(e) They seemed to regard him as a King who was always right.

(A5)

Question (i)
‘Forgiveness is often better than punishment’. Write two paragraphs – one for and another against this notion.
Answer:
1. To err is human, to forgive is divine.

We all make mistakes. Nobody is perfect. That is why we are human. However, mistakes should be forgiven if there is sufficient repentance. Forgiveness will make the guilty person feel ashamed of his conduct and he will not repeat it. It is easy to punish but very difficult to forgive someone. It needs a big heart and a lot of kindness. If we punish the guilty person we will only make him more defiant. If punishing someone could have solved the problem, criminals who have been jailed would never have repeated the crime. But this is not found to be so. Just as God forgives us our mistakes, we should forgive others their mistakes too.

2. Punishment is the only answer

Forgiveness may work in certain cases, but there are hardened criminals who will not respond to forgiveness. They will only be stopped by punishment. If a person has murdered another in cold blood, will he improve by forgiveness? Never. He has to be punished severely so that he does not repeat it and society feels safe.

People only fear punishment. It can be easily seen at traffic signals – if there is no policeman to punish you, most people will break the signal. Then there will be chaos. If there is no punishment and no prisons, people will do whatever they want – rob, kill, etc. – and go off freely. No, in a society where it is not possible to expect everyone to have high values, punishment for misdeeds is the only solution.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question (ii)
You are the class representative and you have been asked by the Principal to conduct an interview of a cop. Frame 8-10 questions with the help of the following points, give introduction and conclusion.

  • reasons for joining the department
  • special trainings
  • developing the skill to identify and locate criminals
  • dealing with criminals
  • achievements and awards

Answer:
Good morning, Mr. Pawar. Congratulations on your excellent work in finding the bank robbers. May I ask you a few questions about your life? Thank you.

  1. When did you join the police department?
  2. Which examinations did you have to clear for the post?
  3. What were your reasons for joining the department?
  4. Did you have to go through any special training sessions?
  5. What type of criminals do you come across most in this area-thieves, killers, molesters,
    etc?
  6. How do you identify or locate criminals?
  7. Once you catch the culprit-say a thief-how do you deal with him?
  8. Can you tell me something about your achievements and awards?
  9. How can you motivate others to join the force?
  10. Any message to college students?

Thank you, Sir, for sparing the time for this interview. It will be published in our school magazine. Good day.

(A6)

Question (i)
Make a list of jobs which would give you an opportunity to help the society or serve the country. Also mention the different ways in which they can be beneficial to the people and also the country,

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question (ii)
Go to your school/college library and read some other stories by O’Henry like, ‘The Gift of the Magi’, ‘The Last Leaf and ‘After Twenty years’. Write the stories in short in your notebook.

Yuvakbharati English 12th Digest Chapter 1.3 The Cop and the Anthem Additional Important Questions and Answers

Read the extract and complete the activities given below:

Global Understanding:

Question 1.
Name the following:
Answer:

  1. This is where Soapy stopped at a luxurious cafe
  2. This had been a gift to Soapy: a neat, black bow
  3. This is what Soapy wanted to eat: a roasted mallard duck, some cheese a bottle of wine, a cup of coffee
  4. This is what Soapy wanted to drink: Soapy’s tattered
  5. This is what the head waiter noticed:trousers and old shoes
  6. This is where Soapy was left by the head: on the sidewalk

Question 1.
Write if the following sentences are True or False. Correct the False sentences:
1. Soapy broke the glass of the shop window.
2. Nobody heard the breaking of the window.
3. The policeman chased Soapy.
4. Soapy did not run away from the place.
5. The restaurant Soapy entered was an ordinary one.
6. The policeman ate beefsteak, flapjacks, doughnuts and pie.
Answer:
True sentences:
1. Soapy broke the glass of the shop window.
4. Soapy did not run away from the place.
5. The restaurant Soapy entered was an ordinary one.

False sentences:
2. Nobody heard the breaking of the window.
3. The policeman chased Soapy.
6. The policeman ate beefsteak, flapjacks, doughnuts and pie.

Corrected sentences:
1. A policeman as well as some people heard the breaking of the window.
2. The policeman chased a man running to catch a car.
3. Soapy ate beefsteak, flapjacks, doughnuts and pie.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 2.
Complete the table:
(The answers is given directly and underlined.)
Answer:

The Words mo said To whom
1. Noisy, but no harm A policeman A citizen
2. I took it. Soapy The umbrella man
3. You know how these mistakes occur. The umbrella man Soapy
4. Of course it’s mine! Soapy The umbrella man
5. We’ve instructions to let them be. A policeman A citizen
6. I hope you’ll excuse me. The umbrella man Soapy

Question 3.
Rearrange the following sentences according to their occurrence in the extract:

  1. Soapy decided to go into the downtown district and find work.
  2. A policeman caught Soapy’s arm.
  3. Soapy saw a quaint old church.
  4. Soapy’s ears caught sweet music.

Answer:

  1. Soapy saw a quaint old church.
  2. Soapy’s ears caught sweet music.
  3. Soapy decided to go into the downtown district and find work.
  4. A policeman caught Soapy’s arm.

Question 4.
Complete the following:
(The answers are given directly and underlined.)
Answer:

  1. A soft light glowed through one violet-stained window.
  2. Soapy came to a standstill on an unusually quiet corner.
  3. Soapy stood without moving near the iron fence listening to the anthem that the organist played.
  4. Soapy planned to resurrect his old eager ambitions.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Answer the following in a few words each:

Question 1.
Who was lighting a cigar?
Answer:
A well-dressed man

Question 2.
Who twirled his club?
Answer:
A policeman

Question 3.
Who grabbed the umbrella?
Answer:
Soapy

Question 4.
Whom did the policeman help?
Answer:
A tall blonde

Complex Factual:

Question 1.
Give reasons and complete the following:
(The answers are given directly and underlined.)
Answer:
Soapy was disgusted with the policeman because he refused to accept that Soapy had broken the window, and he rushed off to chase another man.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 2.
Complete the web:
(The answers are given directly and underlined.)
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.3 The Cop and the Anthem 5

Question 3.
Describe Soapy’s behaviour on the sidewalk.
Answer:
On the sidewalk Soapy began to yell drunken meaningless things at the top of his harsh voice. He danced, howled, spoke wildly and made a big disturbance.

Question 4.
Describe the wonderful change in Soapy’s soul.
Answer:
After listening to the anthem, Soapy remembers his earlier life, and is horrified to realize that he has indeed become a degraded person. He decides to pull himself out of the pit into which he has fallen and make a man of himself again. He determines to bring back to his life his old eager ambitions and pursue them. He makes up his mind to take up a job.

Question 5.
Describe the end of the story in your own words.
Answer:
Initially Soapy had felt that he would like to pass the winter months in prison, and he makes several efforts to get himself arrested. The notes of anthem transform him from within and he decides to give up his evil ways and become a man again. He resolves to work hard. At that very moment, ironically, a policeman arrests him for loitering and he is sent to prison for three months. Soapy faces the irony of fate as the moment he realizes that real freedom lies in a virtuous life, he is taken into confinement.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 6.
Complete the following:
Soapy was angry because ………..
Answer:
Soapy was angry because when he wanted to fall into the clutches of the policemen. In order to be arrested, they seemed to regard him as a king who could do nothing wrong.

Inference/Interpretation/Analysis:

Question 1.
Complete the following:
(The answers are given directly and underlined.)
Answer:
Soapy took a stone because he wanted to break the glass of the shop window. This would result in a policeman arresting him for this act, and he would be imprisoned for the winter, which was exactly what he wanted.

Discuss the hidden meaning in the expressions/sentences.

Question 1.
It catered to large appetites and modest purses.
Answer:
The restaurant prepared food for ordinary workers who had large appetites but very little money.

Question 2.
He told the waiter the fact that the minutest coin and himself were total strangers.
Answer:
He told the waiter that he did not have any money.

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Question 3.
A voice like butter cakes and an eye like the cherry in the Manhattan cocktail.
Answer:
A very smooth voice and a hard, stony eye (a tough person).

Question 4.
Discuss the meaning in the context:
He caught at the immediate straw of ‘disorderly conduct’.
Answer:
Soapy wanted to be arrested by a policeman and imprisoned. However, his efforts towards this end had been unsuccessful, and he was worried that he would continue to be unsuccessful. When he suddenly came upon a policeman lounging in front of a theatre, an idea struck him. He felt that if he shouted and screamed and made a lot of noise, he would be arrested for behaving in a dangerous and disturbing way in public, and would be imprisoned, which was what he wanted.

Question 5.
Complete the following:
(The answer is given directly and underlined.)
Answer:
Soapy was angry because even after he had stolen a man’s umbrella, the man did not report him to the police, but instead apologized and said that perhaps he (the umbrella man) had made a mistake.

Question 6.
The umbrella man did not call a policeman. Give reasons for this.
Answer:
The umbrella man had himself probably stolen the umbrella from somewhere. When Soapy picked up the umbrella, the man first thought that he could get it back. But when Soapy spoke about calling a policeman, the man thought that the umbrella was actually Soapy’s, and Soapy would hand him over to the police. Hence, he apologized quickly and walked away without calling a policeman.

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Personal Response:

Question 1.
Give your opinion about Soapy’s desire to enter prison.
Answer:
I find it very strange that a person can actually want to enter prison, whatever be the reason. At least, from what I know of prisons, they are terrible places, and one has a very difficult time there. However, Soapy has obviously been to prison before, and probably enjoys the free food and protection from the winter that he gets there.

Question 2.
Have you ever bought/eaten something and then found that you did not have enough money to pay for it? Describe your feeling at that time.
Answer:
Yes, it happened to me once. I went to a mall and bought a jacket for myself. I had been looking at a lot of jackets and I got confused with the prices. Finally, when the cashier was making the bill, I found that the jacket I had chosen was very expensive and I did not have enough money to pay for it. I was very embarrassed to tell the cashier this, but I had to. He gave me an angry look.

Question 3.
Have you ever stolen/wanted to steal anything? Narrate in brief.
Answer:
Yes, when I was about 12 years old, I stole my friend’s remote-controlled toy car, which his uncle had sent him from abroad. It was a beautiful car. However, when I was playing with it at home my mother saw me, and she made me return the car. I later felt very ashamed of myself, but fortunately my friend forgave me.

Language Study.

Question 1.
If only he could reach a table in the restaurant unsuspected, success would be his.
(Rewrite using ‘unless’.)
Answer:
Unless he could reach a table in the restaurant unsuspected, success would not be his.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 2.
One dollar for the cigar would be enough.
(Add a question tag.)
Answer:
One dollar for the cigar would be enough, wouldn’t it?

Question 3.
Some other way of entering the limbo must be devised.
(Use an infinitive in place of a gerund.)
Answer:
Some other way to enter the limbo must be devised.

Question 4.
He had set his silk umbrella by the door on entering. (Rewrite using the verb form of the underlined word.)
Answer:
He had set his silk umbrella by the door when he entered.

Question 5.
At length Soapy reached one of the avenues to the east. (Rewrite using another adverb phrase with the same meaning as the underlined phrase.)
Answer:
After a long time Soapy reached one of the avenues to the east.

Question 6.
On an unusually quiet corner, Soapy came to a standstill. (Rewrite using ‘that’.)
Answer:
Soapy came to a standstill on a corner that was unusually quiet.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Vocabulary:

Question 1.
Guess the meaning of the following in the context:
1. winter island
2. eye fell upon
Answer:
1. winter island – prison.
2. eye fell upon – saw or noticed.

Question 2.
O’Henry has used different words to indicate prison, where Soapy wants to reach. Make a list of those words from the extract.
Answer:

  1. winter island
  2. coveted island
  3. limbo

Question 3.
Make sentences using the following words/expressions :
1. eye fell upon
2. strolled
Answer:
1. My eye fell upon the clock, and I sat up with shock.
2. Seema strolled along the beach, enjoying the breeze.

Question 4.
Guess the meaning of:

  1. napery
  2. betook
  3. brass buttons

Answer:

  1. napery – table linen.
  2. betook – to cause oneself to go.
  3. brass buttons – the police.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 5.
O’Henry has used different words to indicate prison where Soapy wants to reach. Make a list of those words from the extract:
Answer:
the island

Question 6.
Fill in the blanks with the correct nouns from the extract:

  1. friendly
  2. electric
  3. large
  4. callous

Answer:

  1. friendly voice
  2. electric lights
  3. large appetites
  4. callous pavement

Question 7.
O’Henry has used different words to indicate prison where Soapy wants to reach. Make a list of those words from the extract.
Answer:
the island, Arcadia

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 8.
Pick out four verbs in the simple past tense from the extract.
Answer:
danced, howled, raved, disturbed

Question 9.
Match the words in Column A with the meanings in Column B :
Answer:

  1. disconsolate – very unhappy
  2. sauntered – walked in a relaxed manner
  3. raved – spoke wildly
  4. rendered – made

Non-Textual Grammar

Do as directed:

Question 1.
Shivani found a small box and dropped her bangles inside.
(Rewrite the sentence, beginning ‘Finding …)
Answer:
Finding a small box, Shivani dropped her bangles inside.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 2.
Sunlight from the window made her black hair appear brown. (Rewrite using ‘that’.)
Answer:
Sunlight that came from the window made her black hair appear brown.

Question 3.
On the day the school closed for the summer, no student was more delighted than Rithik.
(Change the degree.)
Answer:
1. On the day the school closed for the summer, Rithik was the most delighted student. – Superlative degree
2. On the day the school closed for the summer, Rithik was more delighted than any other student. – Comparative degree

Spot the error in the following sentences and rewrite them correctly:

Question 1.
There is room for much boxes in this cupboard.
Answer:
There is room for many boxes in this cupboard.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 2.
If I requires help for him in public places, I was not embarrassed to seek it from people around.
Answer:
If I required help for him in public places, I was not embarrassed to seek it from people around.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board 12th Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis

1.[A] Choose the correct option.

Question 1.
Net addition made to the total revenue by selling an extra unit of a commodity is
(a) total revenue
(b) marginal revenue
(c) average revenue
(d) marginal cost
Answer:
(b) marginal revenue

Question 2.
Determinants of supply are …………………..
(a) cost of production
(b) short period
(c) constant price
(d) local market
Answer:
(a) cost of production

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis

Question 3.
Statement related to reservation price are
(a) maximum price
(b) constant price
(c) same for all seller
(d) differ from seller to seller
Answer:
(d) differ from seller to seller

Question 4.
Exceptions to the law of supply are
(a) need for cash
(b) upward sloping supply curve
(c) factory products
(d) future expectation of high price
Answer:
(a) need for cash

Question 5.
Average Revenue is obtained when .
(a) price is multiplied with quantity
(b) last unit is sold
(c) total revenue is divided by quantity sold
(d) all of these
Answer:
(c) total revenue is divided by quantity sold

Question 6.
Increase in supply is shown by
(a) price change only
(b) movement on the same supply curve
(c) shift of supply curve to the left
(d) shift of supply curve to the right
Answer:
(d) shift of supply curve to the right

(B) Complete Correlation

  1. Rare goods : Exception to Law of Supply :: Assumption of Law of Supply : ……………….
  2. ………………. : Individual supply :: Macro concept: Total supply
  3. Marginal Revenue : TRn – TRn-1 :: ……………….: TR/TQ
  4. Single seller : Individual Supply :: All sellers : ……………….
  5. Movement on same supply curve : ……………….:: Shift of supply curve: Change in supply.

Answers:

  1. No change in Government Policy
  2. Micro concept
  3. Average Revenue
  4. Market Supply
  5. Variation in supply

(C) Give economic terms.

  1. Creation of utility.
  2. Outcome of the process of production.
  3. Total quantity available with the producer for sale at time.
  4. Sum total of individual supply.
  5. Cost incurred on fixed factors like land, machinery etc.
  6. Minimum price below which a seller will not sell a single unit.
  7. Expansion and contraction of supply due to change in price.
  8. Rise in supply due to fall in taxes.
  9. Fall in supply due to fall in taxes.
  10. Cost incurred on variable factor like raw material.
  11. Net revenue earned by selling an additional unit.

Answer:

  1. Production
  2. Output
  3. Stock
  4. Market Supply
  5. Fixed Cost
  6. Reservation Price
  7. Variation in Supply
  8. Increase in Supply
  9. Decrease in Supply
  10. Variable Cost
  11. Marginal Revenue

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis

(D) Find the odd word out:

(1) Land, Labour, Capital, Rent.
(2) Rent, Wages, Profit, Capital.
(3) AC, TC, TFC, AR.
(4) Samuelson, Marshall, Robbins, Abdul Kalam.
(5) [ncrease in supply, Decrease in supply, Extension in supply, Market supply.
Answer:

  1. Rent
  2. Capital
  3. AR
  4. Abdul Kalam
  5. Market supply

(E) Complete the following statements.

  1. Production consists of various processes through which ………………
  2. Stock determines ………………
  3. Stock and supply are same in case of ………………
  4. Sum total of individual supply is called ………………
  5. Graphical representation of market supply schedule is called ………………
  6. When quantity supplied rises due to an increase in price of a commodity, it is called ………………
  7. When more quantity is supplied at the same price of a commodity, it is called ………………
  8. Per unit cost of production is called ………………
  9. Total expenditure incurred by a firm on factors of production for the production of goods and services is called ………………
  10. An addition made to TR by selling one additional unit of a commodity is called ………………

Answer:

  1. utility is created
  2. potential supply
  3. perishable goods
  4. market supply
  5. market supply curve
  6. extension or expansion in supply
  7. increases in supply
  8. Average Cost
  9. Total Cost
  10. Marginal Revenue

(F) Choose the wrong pair:

I.

Group ‘A’ Group ‘B’
1. Total Output Sum of quantity produced
2. Stock Reservation Price
3. Supply Quantity offered for sale

Answer:
Wrong pair : Stock – Reservation price

II.

Group ‘A’ Group ‘B’
1. Extension in supply More supply at higher price
2. Contraction in supply Less supply at lower price
3. Increases in supply Part of variation in supply

Answer:
Wrong pair : Increase in supply – Part of variation in supply

III.

Group ‘A’ Group ‘B’
1. Total Revenue Price x Quantity
2. Total Cost TFC + TVC
3. Average Cost TR x TQ

Wrong pair : Average Cost – TR x TQ

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis

(G) Choose the correct pair:

I.

Group ‘A’ Group ‘B’
1. Increase in supply Technology up gradation
2. Exception to law of supply More supply at higher price
3. Determination of law of supply Perishable Goods

Answer:
Correct pair : Increases in supply – Technology up gradation

II.

Group ‘A’ Group ‘B’
1. Individual supply Potential supply
2. Determinants of law of supply Infrastructural
facilities
3. Assumption of the law of supply Change in government policy

Answer:
Correct pair : Determinations of the law of supply – Infrastructural facility

III.

Group ‘A’ Group ‘B’
1. MCn TCn – TCn-1
2. TR Q/P
3. AR TR x TQ

Answer:
Correct pair : MCn – TCn – TCn-1

2.[A] Identify and explain the concept from given illustration.

Question 1.
All the seller of a similar product are willing to sell their product at a particular price in a given time.
Answer:
Concept: Market Supply
Explanation : Market supply refer to the quantity that all the producers are willing to produce and offer for sale at a particular price in a given time.
As all sellers are ready to sell their product at a particular price, each seller is price taker.
Thus, this concept is of market supply.

Question 2.
Price of old coins, antiques increases as demand increases, but supply cannot be increased.
Answer:
Concept: Exception to the law of supply
Explanation : As per the law of supply, when the price of a product rises, supply increases, but in this case supply cannot be increased.
So, this is an exception to the law and its supply curve is a vertical straight line instead of upward sloping. Thus, this is an exception to the law.

Question 3.
A seller is in urgent need for cash. Therefore, he sell more at lower price.
Answer:
Concept: Exception to the law of supply
Explanation : As per the law of supply, at higher price more is offered for sale.
In this case a seller is selling more at lower price because he is an urgent need for cash.

Question 4.
Due to the improvement in technology, supply of cell phones have increased even though price remains same.
Answer:
Concept: Increase in supply Explanation : Increase in supply is a situation when producers are willing to supply a larger quantity of a commodity at the same price.
Due to improvement in the technology of cell phone, producers cost of production falls and they can sell more in the market at the same price.
This is shown with graph.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis 1

At the same price OP, quantity supplied increases from 0Q to 0Q1
Thus, this is a case of increase in supply.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis

Question 5.
Mr. Kriplani produced 2000 bales of cloth during the year 2018-19.
Answer:
Concept: Total Output.
Explanation : Total Output is the sum total of the commodity produced at a given period of time.
So, total output of Mr. Kriplani is taken as total output for the year 2918-19.

Question 6.
Mr. Kriplani had 200 apples in hand. He bought 500 apples from wholesaler.
Answer:
Concept: Stock
Explanation : Stock is the total quantity of commodity available for sale with a seller at a particular point of time.
Now in our case, Mr. Kriplani has total stock of 700 apples (200+500) which he can offer for sale at particular price.

Question 7.
Mr. Chaturvedi has 5000 kg rice at his disposal. He offered 2000 kg rice in market at Rs. 25 per kg.
Answer:
Concept: Stock and Supply
Explanation : Supply means the various quantities of a commodity offered for sale by
producer during a given period of time at a particular price.
In above case, total stock is 5000 kg rice and total supply is 2000 kg rice.

Question 8.
At price Rs. 30 per kg Rameshbhai ( supplied 100 kg of wheat, Bhaveshbhai i supplied 150 kg of wheat and Dharmesh bhai supplied 200 kg of rice. ;
Answer:
Concept : Individual Supply and Market Supply.
Explanation : Individual supply means quantity offer by a single seller at a given price while market supply means total quantity supplied by all the seller in the market a given price.
In above case, 100kg, 150kg and 200 kg is called as individual supply while 450kg is called as market supply.

Question 9.
A seller has go to village urgently. So, he sells his product at low price even if other seller are selling similar product at higher price. Given economic reason in what way it is related to the law of supply.
Answer:
This is an exception to the law of supply. As per the law, more is sold at higher price and less at lower price. In this case an individual seller is in need of cash, as he has to go to village urgently, so he has to sell his product at lower price.

(B) Distinguish between:

Question 1.
Output and Supply
Answer:

Output Supply
1. Output refers to the total quantity of a commodity that a producer produces with the help of factors of production using a particular technology during a given period of time. (a) Supply refers to the quantity of a commodity which producers are willing to offer for sale at a given price during a given period of time.
2. Output is a function of input. So, O = f (Inputs) (b) Supply is a function of stock. So, S =f (Stock)
3. Output depends upon the level of investment, technique of production, cost of production, availability of factors and natural resources, etc. (c) Supply depends on the stock and price.
4. Output forms the basis of stock. (d) Stock forms the basis of supply.

Question 2.
Individual Supply and Market Supply
Answer:
Individual Supply:
(a) Individual Supply schedule refers to various quantities of a commodity that an individual seller is willing to sell in the market at different prices during given period of time.
(b) Individual Supply is a narrow concept. It is a part of market_supply.
(c) Schedule:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis 2
(d) As price rises, a seller likes to sell more.

Market Supply:
(a) Market Supply schedule refers to various quantities of a commodity that all sellers are willing to sell in the market at different prices during given period of time.
(b) Market Supply is a broader concept. It is sum total of individual supply.
(c) Schedule:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis 3
(d) As price rises total quantity supplied in the market increases.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis

Question 3.
Individual Supply Curve and Market Supply Curve
Answer:
Individual Supply Curve:

  1. Individual Supply Curve An individual supply curve is a graphical representation of various quantities of a commodity offered for sale by an individual seller at different prices during a given period of time.
  2. It is a narrow concept, as it is a part of market supply.
    Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis 4
  3. The above supply curve shows that as price rises quantity supplied increases to 10, 20, 30 kg.

Market Supply Curve:

  1. Market supply curve is the graphical representation of the various quantities of a commodity offered for sale by all the sellers at different prices during a given period of time.
  2. It is a broader concept, as it sum total of individual supply.
    Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis 5
  3. The above supply curve shows that as price rises, total supply in the market rises to a greater extent to 100, 200, 300 kg.

Question 4.
Extension of Supply and Contraction of Supply.
Answer:
Extension of Supply:

  1. When the supply of a commodity rises only due to increase in the price of that commodity, then it is said to be extension of supply.
  2. Extension in supply is shown by an upward movement to right on the same supply curve.
    Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis 6
  3. When price rises from OP to 0P1, Supply extends from 0Q to 0Q1.

Contraction of Supply :

  1. When supply of a commodity falls only due to fall in the price of that commodity, then it is said to be contraction of supply.
  2. Contraction is shown by the downward movement to left on the same supply curve.
    Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis 7
  3. When prices falls from 0P to 0P2, Supply contracts from 0Q to 0Q2.

Question 5.
Variation in supply and Changes in Supply.
Answer:
Variation in Supply:

  1. Variation in supply refers to expansion and contraction of supply which takes place due to change in price.
  2. Expansion means more quantity is supplied at a high price while contraction means less quantity is supplied at a lower price.
  3. Variation in supply is caused by change in price.
  4. Variation is shown by a upward or downward movement on the same supply curve.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis 8

Changes in Supply:

  1. Changes in supply refers to increase and decrease in supply which takes place due to changes in factors other than price.
  2. Increase in supply means more quantity is supplied at same price and decrease means less quantity supplied at the same price.
  3. Changes in supply occurs due to change in factors like.
    (1) change in cost of production
    (2) change in techniques of production
    (3) change in government policy.
    (4) change in goal of producer.
    (5) change in climatic condition etc.
  4. Changes in supply is shown by a shift in supply curve to the right or left of the original supply curve.
    Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis 9

Question 6.
Total Cost (TC) and Total Revenue (TR).
Answer:
Total Cost (TC) :

  1. TC is the total expenditure incurred by a firm on the factors of production required for production of goods and services.
  2. TC is sum total of Total Fixed Cost (TFC) and Total Variable Cost (TVC). TC=TFC+TVC
  3. TC increases with the increase in output.
  4. TC depends on factors like cost of raw material, cost of factors like labour, land, capital, technology, cost of advertisement, management, etc.
  5. When TC > TR firm faces loss.

Total Revenue (TR) :

  1. TR refers to the amount received (income earned) by a firm from the sale of given quantity of a commodity at different price.
  2. TR is calculated by multiplying price with the quantity sold. TR = Price X Total Quantity
  3. TR increases with increase in sale.
  4. Total Revenue (TR) depends on the price of product, demand for the product, etc.
  5. When TR > TC firm earns profit.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis

Question 7.
Demand Curve and Supply Curve.
Answer:
Demand Curve:

  1. Demand curve is the graphical representation of a given demand schedule.
  2. The demand curve slopes downward from left to right.
  3. The demand curve has a negative slope as price and demand are inversely related.
  4. The demand curve indicates the consumer’s behaviour in response to change in its price.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis 10

Supply Curve:

  1. Supply curve is a graphical representation of a given supply schedule.
  2. The supply curve slopes upward from left to right.
  3. The supply curve has a positive slope as price and supply are directly related.
  4. The supply curve indicates the seller’s behaviour in response to change in its price.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis 11

Question 8.
Increase in Supply and Decrease in Supply.
Answer:
Increase in Supply :

  1. The supply is said to increase if at the same price more is supplied.
  2. Increase in supply is a case of changes in supply.
  3. Supply increases due to
    (1) fall in cost of production
    (2) improvement in transport facility
    (3) introduction of modern technology
    (4) government subsidies
    (5) more imports etc.
  4. When there is an increase in supply, the supply curve shifts to the right of original supply curve.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis 31

Decrease in Supply

  1. Decrease in supply occurs when less quantity is supplied at the same price.
  2. It is a case of changes in supply.
  3. Supply decreases due to –
    (1) increase in cost of production
    (2) transport strike
    (3) outdated technique
    (4) heavy taxes imposed by government.
    (5) more exports etc.
  4. When there is curve shifts to curve.
    Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis 32

Question 9.
Demand and Supply.
Answer:
Demand:

  1. Demand is a desire backed by ability and willingness to pay.
  2. Demand is inversely related to price.
  3. Demand curve has negative slope.

Supply:

  1. Supply means the various quantities offered for sale by a producer at a given price and at a given period of time.
  2. Supply is directly related to price.
  3. Supply curve has positive slope.

3. Answer the following questions.

Question 1.
What are the exceptions of the law of supply?
Answer:
There are some exceptions to the law of s supply. Following are such cases when supply may fall with the rises in price or rise with the fall in price.

(1) Labour supply : Supply of labour in the terms of hours of work is an important exception pointed out by economists. Generally when wages rise, workers work more, but after a certain point if wages continue to rise, supply of labour falls i.e. workers wish to earn more by work in for less hours and supply curve of labour would bend backwards as shown below :
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis 12
In this figure as wage rate rises up to 0W, ;i supply of labor also rises up to ON, but when wage rate rises to 0W1, labour supply falls from ON to 0N1 Hence an exception.

(2) Saving : In case of savings generally it is observed that as the rate of interest rises, savings also rises but some people want to have a fixed regular income by way of interest. They may save less at a higher rate ( of interest and save more at a lower rate of interest. For example : suppose a person is interested in earning a fixed income of ? 800 p.a. then he saves ₹ 10,000/- at 8% rate of interest but when rate of interest increases to 10%, he will save only ₹ 8,000/-.

(3) Future Expectations: If the seller expects a fall in price in future, then he will supply more today even at a low price. But if he expects the prices to rise further in future he will withhold the supply today to supply more in future at a high price.

(4) Need for Cash : When the sellers are in urgent need of liquid cash, then even at a lower price they will offer more goods for sale.

(5) Rare Goods : In case of rare collections such as rare painting, old coins, antique, the law is not applicable as the supply remains fixed. The supply curve is a vertical straight line parallel to Y axis.

(6) Agricultural Goods: Supply of agricultural product is influenced by natural factors like climatic conditions, rainfall etc., which cannot be controlled by man. So in bad weather condition, even at a higher price the supply of agricultural commodities will not increase.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis

Question 2.
Explain in detail labour supply as an exception to the law of supply.
Answer:
Labour Supply : An interesting exception to the law of supply is provided by the supply curve of labour. In case of supply of labour we come across an unusual phenomenon of the backward bending supply curve. In the beginning, the supply curve of labour slopes upwards as usual from left to right because at higher wage, the units of labour are tempted to offer more hours of work. This continues till the time wage rates have risen sufficiently. When wage rate goes beyond a particular level the worker prefers to substitute work by leisure and cut short the supply of labour. Hence, beyond a certain wage rate the supply curve of labour slopes backwards. This is called the backward bending supply curve of labour and is an exception to the law of supply as shown in the diagram.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis 13

In the above schedule, the supply of labour rises from 8 hours to 10 to 12 hours as the wage rate rises from ₹5 per hour to ₹7 to ₹10 per hours. But thereafter when wage rate – becomes ₹12 per hour the supply of labour ; falls to 10 hours. So the supply curve has a backward bend from point ‘A’. Initially, it slopes upwards i.e., SA then A to S1 upto it has a backward slope.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis 14

Question 3.
Explain variation in supply with the help of diagram.
Answer:
When quantity supplied of a commodity changes due to change in its price, other factors remaining constant, it is known as variation in supply. Variation in supply can be of two types :
(A) Expansion (or Extension) of Supply
(B) Contraction of Supply

(A) Expansion (or Extension) of Supply : It refers to a rise in the quantity supplied due to an increase in price of a commodity, other factors remaining constant. Extension of supply leads to an upward movement on the same supply curve due to a rise in price as shown in the diagram :
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis 15

In the above diagram, when price increases from P to P1, the quantity supplied rises or expands from Q to Q1 resulting in an upward movement from point A to point B along the same supply curve. It is known as extension of supply.

(B) Contraction of Supply : It refers to fall in quantity supplied due to fall in price, other things remaining constant. Contraction of supply leads to a downward movement on the same supply curve due to a fall in price as shown in the diagram.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis 16

In the diagram when price falls from P2 to P1, the quantity supplied falls or contracts from Q2 to Q1 resulting in a downward movement from point B to A along the same supply curve. It is known as contraction of supply.

Question 4.
Explain change in supply with the help of diagram.
OR
Explain increase in supply and decrease in supply.
Changes in supply occurs when the quantity supplied changes due to changes in factors other than price.
Changes in Supply are of two types :
(A) Increase in Supply
(B) Decrease in Supply

(A) Increase in Supply : It means when more quantity is supplied at the same price. Increase in supply occurs due to changes in factors other than change in price. It takes place when –

1. There is decrease in price of inputs
2. There is technological upgradation
3. Imports are more
4. There is decrease in tax, etc.

Increase in supply is shown by a shift in i the supply curve to the right of the original; supply curve.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis 17

In the diagram, at OP price when quantity supplied rises from OQ to OQ1 it indicates) an increase in supply. This is shown by a c shift in supply curve from SS to S1S1 to the right.

(B) Decrease in Supply : It means when less quantity is supplied at the same price.
Decrease in supply occurs due to change in factors other than change in price. It takes place when –

1. there is increase in price of inputs,
2. technological degradation or out dated technology used.
3. exports are more.
4. there is increase in taxes etc.

Decrease in supply is shown by a shift in the supply curve to the left of the original supply curve.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis 18
At OP price when quantity supplied falls from OQ to OQ2, it indicates a decrease in supply. This is shown by a shift in supply curve from SS to S2S2 to the left.

Question 5.
Explain concept of TC, AC and MC.
Answer:
Cost of production is an important factor in governing the supply of a product. Following are the three main types of costs :

(A) Total Cost (TC): It is the total expenditure incurred by a fir m on the factors of production required for the production of goods and services. Total cost is the sum of Total Fixed Cost (TFC) and Total Variable Cost (TVC). Total Fixed Cost is the cost incurred on fixed factors of production like land, factory, building, capital, etc. These factors cannot be changed in the short period. They remain constant. Total Variable Cost is the cost incurred on variable factors such as raw – materials, labour, etc. These factors can be varied or changed according to the change in output level. So the variable cost varies. Total Cost = Total Fixed Cost + Total Variable Cost i.e., TC = TFC + TVC
TC increases as the level of output increases.

(B) Average Cost (AC) : Refers to per unit total cost of production. The average cost is obtained by dividing Total Cost of production by the number of units of that commodity produced
i.e. AC = \(\frac{\mathrm{TC}}{\text { Total Output }}\)
Suppose the total cost of producing 100 units of commodity X is ₹ 1000. Then the average cost is
AC = \(\frac{\mathrm{TC}}{\text { Total Output }}=\frac{1000}{100}\) = 10
∴ AC = ₹ 10

(C) Marginal Cost (MC) : It is net addition made to the total cost (TC) by producing one ( more unit of output.
Suppose the total cost of producing 2 units is ₹ 200 and TC of producing 3 unit is ₹ 240.
MCn = TCn – TCn-1 = ₹ 240 – ₹ 200 = ₹ 40
Where,
n = Number of unit produced ?
MCn = Marginal Cost of the nth unit ?
TCn = Total Cost of n unit

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis

Question 6.
Explain the concepts of TR, AR, and MR.
Answer:
Revenue refers to the income earned by a firm from the sale of given quantity of a commodity in the market at different prices. Following are the three main types.

(A) Total Revenue (TR) : Total Revenue (Income) refers to total receipts of the firm from its sales of commodity. It is obtained i by multiplying the price per unit of the commodity with the total number of units!; of commodity sold to the consumers. Thus, Total Revenue = Price per unit x Total Number of units of commodity sold.
TR = Price x Quantity Sold

Example : If the firm sells 10 units of) a commodity at ₹100 per unit then total?
revenue will be TR = 100 x 10. TR = ₹1000

(B) Average Revenue (AR): Average Revenue refers to the revenue (income) per unit of the commodity sold. It can be easily calculated by dividing Total Revenue (TR) by the number of units sold to the consumers. Thus, Average Revenue = Total Revenue + Number of units sold.
i.e., AR = \(\frac{\mathrm{TC}}{\text { Total Quantity Sold }}\)

For example : If the Total Revenue from? the sale of 10 units of commodity is ₹ 1000; then Average Revenue will be
AR = \(\frac{\mathrm{TR}}{\mathrm{Q}}=\frac{1000}{10}\) = ₹100

(C) Marginal Revenue (MR) : Marginal Revenue is the net addition made to TR by selling an additional unit of the commodity. In other words, marginal revenue is the addition made to the total revenue by selling one more unit of a commodity.

Example : If the total revenue from the sale of 10 units is ?1000 and that from the sale of 11th unit the total revenue is 1020 then the MR of 11th unit will be
MRn = TRn – TRn-1 = 1020 – 1000 = 20
Or we can also calculate Marginal Revenue as –
MR = \(\frac{\text { Change in Total Revenue }}{\text { Change in total number of units sold }}\)
MR = \(\frac{\Delta \mathrm{TR}}{\Delta \mathrm{T} Q}=\frac{20}{1}\) = 20
MR = 20

Question 7.
What are the assumptions to the law of supply?
Answer:
Assumptions of the Law of Supply : The law of supply is conditional. It is based on certain assumptions. They are as follows:

  1. No change in Cost of Production: The law will hold true only if the cost of production remains constant.
  2. No change in Technique of Production : It is assumed that there is no change in the method of production. If there is any improvement in the technique of production then supply will increase at the same price.
  3. 3. No change in Weather condition : Changes in weather and climatic condition would affect supply especially of agricultural products, so it is assumed to remain constant.
  4. No change in Government Policies : Any change in government policies will affect the supply, so it is assumed that there is no change in government tax policies, subsidies or industrial policy.
  5. No Speculations about Future Prices : It is assumed that the producers do not speculate about future changes in price.
  6. No change in Transport Cost : It is assumed that there is no change in transport facility and transport cost.
  7. Prices of Other Goods : It is assumed that the prices of competitive goods remain constant. If the price of competitive goods rises then it is quite likely that producer may transfer his resource to the production of those goods, whose price has arisen.
  8. No change in the quantity of goods kept for Self – consumption : If sellers keep more goods for their personal use then supply cannot be increased even at a high price.
  9. Constant Scale of Production : It is assumed that the scale of production remains constant during the given period of time.

4. State with resons whether you agree or disagree with the following statements.

Question 1.
Supply is directly related to price.
Answer:
Yes, I agree with this statement.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis 19

  • According to the Law of Supply, other things being equal, the supply varies directly with its price.
  • More quantity is offered for sale at a higher price and less is offered for sale at a lower price.
  • So supply is directly related to its price.
  • In order to earn a reasonable profit, the sellers tries to sells more at a higher price and less at a lower price.
    So the supply curve slopes upwards. It has a positive slope.
  • Thus, the supply is directly related to price.

Question 2.
Stock can exceed supply.
OR
Supply cannot exceed stock.
Answer:
Yes, I agree with this statement.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis 20

  • Stock is the entire quantity of a commodity, which is in the custody of the seller.
  • Supply refers to that part of stock of a commodity which is offered for sale at prevailing market price during a period of time.
  • Thus supply is a part of stock. c
  • Stock is the potential supply. It is a fund or reservoir from which supply flows.
  • Stock determines the ability of seller to supply.
    Thus, stock exceeds supply.

Question 3.
When price rises supply expands.
Answer:
Yes, I agree with this statement.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis 21

  • According to the Law of Supply “Other things remaining constant more is supplied < at a higher price and less at a lower price.”
  • The rise in price causes an expansion in supply because (i) the existing sellers will supply more than before in order to get larger profit and (ii) new suppliers with high reservation price will also now enter S the market.
  • So supply expands when price rises.

Question 4.
The supply curve has a positive slope..
OR
The supply curve slopes upwards from left to right.
OR
The relationship between price and supply is positive.
OR
There is direct relation between price and quantity supplied.
Answer:
Yes, I agree with this statement.
OR The supply curve slopes downward from left to right.
Answer:
No, I do not agree with this statement.

  • According to the Law of Supply “Other things remaining constant supply varies directly with price i.e., more quantity will be offered for sale at a higher price and less at a lower price. So there is a positive relationship between price and supply.”
    S = f(P)
  • The supply curve which is a graphical representation of supply schedule slopes upward from left to right indicating a positive slope.
  • In order to earn reasonable profit, the sellers try to sell more at higher prices and less at lower prices.
  • The sellers earn more profit when market price is greater than their reservation price.
  • Thus, the above statement is true.

Question 5.
Agricultural products are exceptions to the law of supply.
Answer:
Yes, I agree with this statement.

  • The law of supply states that the supply of a commodity varies directly with its price.
  • But in case of agricultural goods supply does not vary directly with price.
  • Agricultural product being perishable in nature cannot be stored for long time. The sellers cannot wait for price to rise. They have to sell off the whole stock even at a low price. Here supply coincides with stock.
  • Also agricultural production depends on unforeseen changes in weather. So even at higher price supply cannot be increased during drought or flood situation.
  • So, the above statement is true.

Question 6.
Due to speedy transport supply falls.
Answer:
No, I do not agree with this statement.

  • Transport facilities are one of the important determinants of supply.
  • Modern speedy transport facilities in widening r the market.
  • It increases the mobility of goods and helps in creating place utility for goods and services.
  • Speedy transport helps in domestic as well; as international trade of goods and services.
  • Thus, the above statement is false.

Question 7.
Reservation price is very low in respect of perishable commodities.
Answer:
Yes, I agree with this statement. ;

  • Reservation price is sellers minimum price, below which the seller will not supply any unit of the commodity.
  • Whether the sellers reservation price will be high or low depends upon number of factors. One of them is the durability of the commodity.
  • If the commodity is durable like TV set, car etc., then sellers reservation price will be high.
  • But if the commodity is perishable like fish, flowers, vegetables, milk etc., then reservation price will be low.
  • As perishable commodities cannot be stored for long, it can become stale and useless.
    Therefore, sellers are forced to clear stock as early as possible.
    So the reservation price is low.

Question 8.
Supply depends on many factors.
OR
Market Supply depends on many factors.
Answer:
Yes, I agree with this statement.
OR
Price is the only determinant of Supply.
Answer:
No, I do not agree with this statement.
Supply depends on many factors. Price is the main factor. There is a direct relationship between price and supply. Besides price there are many other factors such as

  • Cost of production and supply are indirectly related. Higher the cost, lesser will be the supply.
  • State of technology i.e., advanced technology increases supply.
  • Government policy like subsidies encourage production and increases supply, whereas heavy taxation decreases supply.
  • Natural conditions like favourable weather condition increases supply.
  • Exports decreases supply and imports increases supply.
    Better infrastructure facility increases supply.
  • Nature of market like competitive market increases supply.
    Thus, the above statement is true.

Question 9.
Total cost includes Total Fixed Cost and Total Variable Cost.
Answer:
Yes, I agree with this statement.

  • Total cost is the total cost incurred by a firm on the factors of production required for production of goods and services. Total cost is the sum total of fixed cost and variable cost.
  • Total fixed cost includes cost incurred on fixed factors like factory building, plant size, machinery etc. Fixed cost remains fixed in the short run but changes in the long period. Total variable cost includes cost on variable factors like raw materials, fuel, labour etc., which changes according to the output in the short period also. So while calculating Total Cost we include Total Fixed Cost (TFC) and Total Variable Cost (TVC). So, TC = TFC + TVC. Thus, the above statement is true.

Question 10.
Supply of perishable goods is equal to its production.
OR
There is no difference between stock and supply of perishable goods.
Answer:
Yes, I agree with this statement.

  • The stock of perishable goods like vegetables, flowers, fruits, milk, etc., is equal to supply.
  • This is because perishable goods cannot be stored for long time. They become stale.
  • They need to be sold within a short period of time irrespective of the price.
  • Also the cost of storage is high.
  • So, the above statement is true.

Question 11.
The supply curve of labour is backward bending.
Answer:
Yes, I agree with this statement.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis 22

  • When the wage rate in the industry rises, the supply of labour (i.e., hours of work) rises upto a certain limit.
  • Beyond certain limit with further rise in wages, supply of labour tends to fall.
  • This is because the labour prefers leisure to work i.e., he substitutes work with leisure,
  • With the increased wage rate he is able to satisfy his needs.
  • So the supply curve instead of rising upwards
    starts sloping backward as he reduces the hours of work.

Question 12.
AR is always more than TR.
Answer:
No, I do not agree with this statement.

  • TR or Total Revenue refers to total income earned by a firm from the sale of a given quantity of a commodity in the market of different price. It is derived by Price x l Quantity sold.
  • AR or Average Revenue refers to the income earned per unit of a commodity sold. It is derived by TR Quantity sold.
  • Hence, TR will always be greater than AR.
    Hence, the above statement is false.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis

Question 13.
Demand and Supply are opposite forces.
Answer:
Yes, I agree with this statement.
Both demand and supply are opposite forces.

  • Demand explains the consumer’s behaviour with respect to change in price of a commodity. Supply explains the producer’s behaviour with respect to change in price of a commodity.
  • Demand is inversely related to price of a commodity i.e., when price of a commodity rises the demand for it falls and when price falls the demand rises. Supply is directly related to the price i.e., when price rises, supply expands and when price falls, supply falls or contracts.
  • The demand curve slopes downwards. It has a negative slope. The supply curve slopes upwards from left to right. It has a positive slope. Both opposite forces together determine the equilibrium price.
  • A consumer aims at maximum satisfaction with his limited income. So he demands more at a lower price and less at a higher price. Whereas a producer aims at maximum profit so he supplies more at a higher price and less at a lower price.
  • Thus, the above statement is true.

Question 14.
There is difference between stock and supply.
Answer:
Yes, I agree with this statement.
OR
There is no difference between stock and supply.
Answer:
No, I do not agree with this statement.

Stock Supply
(a) Stock refers to the total quantity of commodity available with producer for sale. (a)Supply is that part of stock which the seller is willing to offer for sale at a given price.
(b) It is outcome of production. If production increases, stock will also increase. (b) It is outcome of stock. Stock is the basis of supply.
(c) It is a fund or reservoir and a static concept (inelastic). (c) It is a flow concept. It changes according to change in price (elastic).
(d) It can exceed supply. (d) It cannot exceed stock.

Question 15.
There are no exceptions to law of supply.
Answer:
No, I do not agree with this statement.
There are some exceptions to the law of s supply. Following are such cases when supply may fall with the rises in price or rise with the fall in price.

(1) Labour supply : Supply of labour in the terms of hours of work is an important exception pointed out by economists. Generally when wages rise, workers work more, but after a certain point if wages continue to rise, supply of labour falls i.e. workers wish to earn more by work in for less hours and supply curve of labour would bend backwards as shown below :
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis 12
In this figure as wage rate rises up to 0W, ;i supply of labor also rises up to ON, but when wage rate rises to 0W1, labour supply falls from ON to 0N1 Hence an exception.

(2) Saving : In case of savings generally it is observed that as the rate of interest rises, savings also rises but some people want to have a fixed regular income by way of interest. They may save less at a higher rate ( of interest and save more at a lower rate of interest. For example : suppose a person is interested in earning a fixed income of ? 800 p.a. then he saves ₹ 10,000/- at 8% rate of interest but when rate of interest increases to 10%, he will save only ₹ 8,000/-.

(3) Future Expectations: If the seller expects a fall in price in future, then he will supply more today even at a low price. But if he expects the prices to rise further in future he will withhold the supply today to supply more in future at a high price.

(4) Need for Cash : When the sellers are in urgent need of liquid cash, then even at a lower price they will offer more goods for sale.

(5) Rare Goods : In case of rare collections such as rare painting, old coins, antique, the law is not applicable as the supply remains fixed. The supply curve is a vertical straight line parallel to Y axis.

(6) Agricultural Goods: Supply of agricultural product is influenced by natural factors like climatic conditions, rainfall etc., which cannot be controlled by man. So in bad weather condition, even at a higher price the supply of agricultural commodities will not increase.

Question 16.
Price is the only determinant of supply.
Answer:
No, I do not agree with this statement.

  1. Cost of Production : Changes in the price of factors of production like rent, wages, interest affects the cost of production. When cost of production increases, supply decreases.
  2. Price of Other Goods : The supply of a given commodity depends on the price of other commodity. E.g. if the price of wheat rises and that of rice remains the constant, then the producer will think of producing more of wheat. This will affect the supply of rice.
  3. price of the Commodity : Price is an important factor influencing the supply. More is supplied at a higher price and less at a lower price. So price and supply are 5 directly related.
  4. Climatic Conditions : The supply of commodity is also influenced by the forces
  5. Government Policy : Government policies like taxation, subsidies, industrial policies etc., may encourage or discourage production and supply. A tax on the commodity will raise the cost of production and reduce the supply while a subsidy on the other hand will provide an incentive to increase production and supply.
  6. Exports and Imports : When the
    government resort to imports, supply expands, at the same time heavy exports would reduce the supply in the domestic market.
  7. Nature of Market : In a competitive market, the supply would be more but in a monopoly market the seller may create artificial scarcity to raise the price.
  8. Future Expectation : If future trends indicate a rise in price, the supply decreases at present. On the other hand if the sellers expect the future price to fall, supply would increase in the current period.
  9. Technique of Production : Improvement in the technique of production will lead to increase in supply. Application of advanced technology enables the producer to produce goods on large scale at a lower cost and lesser price.
  10. Infrastructure Facility : If means of transport and communication are well developed, the extent of market would be wide. i.e. supply will increase.
  11. Natural and Man-made Calamities : Natural calamities like earthquake, cyclone, flood etc., will affect the supply in the market. Even man-made calamities like a bomb-blast, affects supply. Even a strike call can affect supply in the market.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis

5. Study the following table / figures and answer the questions :

Question 1.
TFC (Total Fixed Cost) of a commodity ‘x’ of a firm is ₹ 20 Calculate (a) TVC and (b) TC from the following data.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis 23
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis 24

Question 2.
Find TR of a firm if it sells 500 units of £ commodity ‘X? at 25 ₹ per unit.
Answer:
TR is the revenue derived by a firm by multiplying total units sold by its price.
Hence, TR = P x Q
= 25 x 500
= 12, 500₹

Question 3.
Calculate MC at each level of output of the following data.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis 25
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis 26

Question 4.
Workout : Price of oranges is ₹ 200 per dozen. During festival time at the same price 2 dozen, oranges are offered for sale. On the basis of this answer the following

1. Draw the figure for this.
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis 27

2. Is it the case of variation or change in supply. Give reason.
Answer:
It is a case of change in supply, as here the price remains the same at ? 200, while quantity increases from 1 dozen to 2 dozen. So, here supply changes due to festival season and due to change in price.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis

Question 5.
Demand in world market for Indian antique goods have increased but supply of these are fixed even though buyers are ready to pay high price for it. On the basis of this answer the following :

1. Draw figure for this.
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis 28

Question 6.
Does this justify the law of supply? Give reason for your answer.
Answer:
No, it does not justify the law of supply. As per law of supply, as the price increases, supply of a commodity should increase. But in above case even though the price is increasing supply remains the same. So it is an exception to the law of supply.

6. Answer in detail:

Question 1.
State and explain the law of supply. What are its assumptions?
Answer:
Law of Supply :
(A) Introduction : The law of supply was introduced by Dr. Alfred Marshall in his book “Principles of Economics” published in 1890. The law establishes a functional relationship between the price of a commodity and quantity supplied of that commodity. It explains the general tendency of the sellers in offering more goods for sale at a higher price than at a lower price.

(B) Statement of the Law : According to Prof. Alfred Marshall “Other things remaining constant, the higher the price of the commodity, greater is the quantity supplied and lower the price of the commodity, smaller is the quantity supplied.”In other words, quantity supplied of a commodity varies directly with price i.e., with a fall in price supply contract and with a rise in price supply expands.
S = f (P) [S = Supply, P = Price, f = Function of
The law can be better understood with the help of a market supply schedule and market supply curve.

(C) Market Supply Schedule : Market supply schedule is a tabular representation of various quantities of a commodity offered for sale by all the sellers in the market at different prices during a given period of time. The schedule is a hypothetical one except one price rest are imaginary prices.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis 29

The above schedule clearly shows that sellers in general want to sell more at high prices and less at low price. E.g., at a low price of ₹10 per unit the seller supplies only 100 units per day and at high price of ₹ 50 the supply rises to 500 units of ‘X’ per day.

(D) Market Supply Curve : It is graphical representation of the above market supply schedule. Price is measured on ‘Y’ axis and quantity supplied on ‘X’ axis and above schedule is plotted. We derive a supply curve SS. ’

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis 30

In the diagram, supply curve SS is a linear supply curve (straight – line). It slopes upwards from left to right. It has a positive slope indicating direct relationship between price and quantity supplied.

(E) Assumptions of the Law of Supply : The law of supply is conditional. It is based on certain assumptions. They are as follows:

  • No change in Cost of Production: The law will hold true only if the cost of production remains constant.
  • No change in Technique of Production : It is assumed that there is no change in the method of production. If there is any improvement in the technique of production then supply will increase at the same price.
  • No change in Weather condition : Changes in weather and climatic condition would affect supply especially of agricultural products, so it is assumed to remain constant.
  • No change in Government Policies : Any change in government policies will affect the supply, so it is assumed that there is no change in government tax policies, subsidies or industrial policy.
  • No Speculations about Future Prices : It is assumed that the producers do not speculate about future changes in price.
  • No change in Transport Cost : It is assumed that there is no change in transport facility and transport cost.
  • Prices of Other Goods : It is assumed that the prices of competitive goods remain constant. If the price of competitive goods rises then it is quite likely that producer may transfer his resource to the production of those goods, whose price has arisen.
  • change in the quantity of goods kept for Self – consumption : If sellers keep more goods for their personal use then supply cannot be increased even at a high price.
  • Constant Scale of Production : It is assumed that the scale of production remains constant during the given period of time.

Question 2.
State and explain the law of supply with exceptions.
Answer:
Law of Supply :
(A) Introduction : The law of supply was introduced by Dr. Alfred Marshall in his book “Principles of Economics” published in 1890. The law establishes a functional relationship between the price of a commodity and quantity supplied of that commodity. It explains the general tendency of the sellers in offering more goods for sale at a higher price than at a lower price.

(B) Statement of the Law : According to Prof. Alfred Marshall “Other things remaining constant, the higher the price of the commodity, greater is the quantity supplied and lower the price of the commodity, smaller is the quantity supplied.”In other words, quantity supplied of a commodity varies directly with price i.e., with a fall in price supply contract and with a rise in price supply expands.
S = f (P) [S = Supply, P = Price, f = Function of]
The law can be better understood with the help of a market supply schedule and market supply curve.

(C) Market Supply Schedule : Market supply schedule is a tabular representation of various quantities of a commodity offered for sale by all the sellers in the market at different prices during a given period of time. The schedule is a hypothetical one except one price rest are imaginary prices.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis 29

The above schedule clearly shows that sellers in general want to sell more at high prices and less at low price. E.g., at a low price of Rs. 10 per unit the seller supplies only 100 units per day and at high price of Rs. 50 the supply rises to 500 units of ‘X’ per day.

(D) Market Supply Curve : It is graphical representation of the above market supply schedule. Price is measured on ‘Y’ axis and quantity supplied on ‘X’ axis and above schedule is plotted. We derive a supply curve SS. ’

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis 30

In the diagram, supply curve SS is a linear supply curve (straight – line). It slopes upwards from left to right. It has a positive slope indicating direct relationship between price and quantity supplied.

There are some exceptions to the law of s supply. Following are such cases when supply may fall with the rises in price or rise with the fall in price.

(1) Labour supply : Supply of labour in the terms of hours of work is an important exception pointed out by economists. Generally when wages rise, workers work more, but after a certain point if wages continue to rise, supply of labour falls i.e. workers wish to earn more by work in for less hours and supply curve of labour would bend backwards as shown below :
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis 12
In this figure as wage rate rises up to 0W, ;i supply of labor also rises up to ON, but when wage rate rises to 0W1, labour supply falls from ON to 0N1 Hence an exception.

(2) Saving : In case of savings generally it is observed that as the rate of interest rises, savings also rises but some people want to have a fixed regular income by way of interest. They may save less at a higher rate ( of interest and save more at a lower rate of interest. For example : suppose a person is interested in earning a fixed income of ? 800 p.a. then he saves ₹ 10,000/- at 8% rate of interest but when rate of interest increases to 10%, he will save only ₹ 8,000/-.

(3) Future Expectations: If the seller expects a fall in price in future, then he will supply more today even at a low price. But if he expects the prices to rise further in future he will withhold the supply today to supply more in future at a high price.

(4) Need for Cash : When the sellers are in urgent need of liquid cash, then even at a lower price they will offer more goods for sale.

(5) Rare Goods : In case of rare collections such as rare painting, old coins, antique, the law is not applicable as the supply remains fixed. The supply curve is a vertical straight line parallel to Y axis.

(6) Agricultural Goods: Supply of agricultural product is influenced by natural factors like climatic conditions, rainfall etc., which cannot be controlled by man. So in bad weather condition, even at a higher price the supply of agricultural commodities will not increase.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis

Question 3.
What is meant by Supply? State its determinants.
Answer:
Law of Supply :
(A) Introduction : The law of supply was introduced by Dr. Alfred Marshall in his book “Principles of Economics” published in 1890. The law establishes a functional relationship between the price of a commodity and quantity supplied of that commodity. It explains the general tendency of the sellers in offering more goods for sale at a higher price than at a lower price.

(B) Statement of the Law : According to Prof. Alfred Marshall “Other things remaining constant, the higher the price of the commodity, greater is the quantity supplied and lower the price of the commodity, smaller is the quantity supplied.”In other words, quantity supplied of a commodity varies directly with price i.e., with a fall in price supply contract and with a rise in price supply expands.
S = f (P) [S = Supply, P = Price, f = Function of]
The law can be better understood with the help of a market supply schedule and market supply curve.

(C) Market Supply Schedule : Market supply schedule is a tabular representation of various quantities of a commodity offered for sale by all the sellers in the market at different prices during a given period of time. The schedule is a hypothetical one except one price rest are imaginary prices.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis 29

The above schedule clearly shows that sellers in general want to sell more at high prices and less at low price. E.g., at a low price of Rs. 10 per unit the seller supplies only 100 units per day and at high price of Rs. 50 the supply rises to 500 units of ‘X’ per day.

(D) Market Supply Curve : It is graphical representation of the above market supply schedule. Price is measured on ‘Y’ axis and quantity supplied on ‘X’ axis and above schedule is plotted. We derive a supply curve SS. ’

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 4 Supply Analysis 30

In the diagram, supply curve SS is a linear supply curve (straight – line). It slopes upwards from left to right. It has a positive slope indicating direct relationship between price and quantity supplied.

  1. Cost of Production : Changes in the price of factors of production like rent, wages, interest affects the cost of production. When cost of production increases, supply decreases.
  2. Price of Other Goods : The supply of a given commodity depends on the price of other commodity. E.g. if the price of wheat rises and that of rice remains the constant, then the producer will think of producing J more of wheat. This will affect the supply of rice.
  3. price of the Commodity : Price is an important factor influencing the supply. More is supplied at a higher price and less at a lower price. So price and supply are 5 directly related.
  4. Climatic Conditions : The supply of commodity is also influenced by the forces
  5. Government Policy : Government policies like taxation, subsidies, industrial policies etc., may encourage or discourage production and supply. A tax on the commodity will raise the cost of production and reduce the supply while a subsidy on the other hand will provide an incentive to increase production and supply.
  6. Exports and Imports : When the
    government resort to imports, supply expands, at the same time heavy exports would reduce the supply in the domestic market.
  7. Nature of Market : In a competitive market, the supply would be more but in a monopoly market the seller may create artificial scarcity to raise the price.
  8. Future Expectation : If future trends indicate a rise in price, the supply decreases at present. On the other hand if the sellers expect the future price to fall, supply would increase in the current period.
  9. Technique of Production : Improvement in the technique of production will lead to increase in supply. Application of advanced technology enables the producer to produce goods on large scale at a lower cost and lesser price.
  10. Infrastructure Facility : If means of transport and communication are well developed, the extent of market would be wide. i.e. supply will increase.
  11. Natural and Man-made Calamities : Natural calamities like earthquake, cyclone, flood etc., will affect the supply in the market. Even man-made calamities like a bomb-blast, affects supply. Even a strike call can affect supply in the market.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.4 Big Data-Big Insights

Balbharti Yuvakbharati English 12th Digest Chapter 1.4 Big Data-Big Insights Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.4 Big Data-Big Insights

12th English Digest Chapter 1.4 Big Data-Big Insights Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Give business suggestions to the respective industry/company for the following situations. You have received data that –
Answer:
(a) Many passengers prefer morning flights between 7 am and 9 am from Mumbai to Delhi.
Suggestion: Increase the number of flights between 7 am and 9 am.

(b) Many students are opting for UPSC/ MPSC Exams.
Suggestion: Increase the number of examination centres as well as job opportunities.

(c) Many people go for a morning walk to Kamla Nehru Park.
Suggestion: Open the gates of the Park earlier and close them only at noon. Also, clean the Park the previous night before closing or very early in the morning. Keep security guards in the mornings to maintain discipline.

(d) Many people buy clothes from miracle.com an online shopping site.
Suggestion: Increase the variety and brands in clothes. Give discounts and incentives to new and regular customers. Start various schemes.

(e) The viewership on television is more between 8 pm and 10 pm.
Suggestion: Telecast serials with the highest TRPs and socially important ads (like eye donation, polio drops, etc.) at this time.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 2.
People get information from various sources: Can you name a few?
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.4 Big Data-Big Insights 1
Answer:
Sources of Information:

  1. Facebook
  2. Internet
  3. WhatsApp
  4. Dictionary
  5. Encyclopedia

(A1)

Question 1.
YouTube has many videos on various things. Listen to the uses and health benefits of ‘Lemon’ and share them with your friends.

(A2)

(i) Make pointwise notes from the lesson regarding the uses of Big Data in the following application. Do not write complete sentences.

Question (a)
‘Location Tracking’.
Answer:

  1. Used by Google Maps and GPS to identify and track location of a place.
  2. Geographic positioning, radio frequency identification sensors data about traffic conditions on particular route.
  3. Can plan route according to travel time, transportation of the goods.
  4. Companies reduce risks in transport improves speed, reliability in delivery.

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Question (b)
Health Care Industry.
Answer:
Uses of Big Data:
Various apps, smartwatches, gadgets, etc. collect data about various functions of our body.

  1. Data analyzed and feedback provided.
  2. Doctors can have a better diagnosis of any ailment effects of any drug.
  3. Past data of patients maintained suggestions, solutions for their problems given.
  4. Helps in monitoring the outbreaks of epidemics, diseases.

Question (c)
Education Industry.
Answer:

  1. Get information about the study patterns of students – can now prepare customized and dynamic learning programmes according to need of individual students.
  2. Every student’s comprehension level is different – course material designed to cater to different requirements of the students. One-size-fits-all pitfall avoided.
  3. Students’ choices, difficulties, results, etc. are available.
  4. Strengths and weaknesses gauged -guidance while choosing career.

Question (ii)
When you are asked for personal details on social media, mention precautions that you will take.
Answer:
When I am asked for personal details on social media, I first try to find out who wants them and why. I never reveal credit/ debit card pin numbers, even if it is a bank asking me. I never give my mobile/adhaar card numbers either. I also keep my social media accounts private and visible only to friends. Only after checking and re-checking do I give any details, for I know that there are many cases of exploitation going on.

Question (iii)
Do you think all the data we receive is used for positive things? If ‘No’, make a list of the negative things which can be done with the help of Big Data.
Answer:
Negative things which can be done with the help of Big Data:

  1. Loss of privacy-Big Data has all information about us.
  2. Misuse of personal information
  3. Leaking of information-this leads to thefts, blackmail, cheating, and so on.
  4. Data may fall into wrong hands, and a person may be harassed.
  5. Unsolicited calls and emails based on your internet history.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

(A3)

Question 1.
Guess the meaning of the following idioms and phrases and use them in sentences of your own. One is done for you.
One-size-fits-all – suitable for or used in all circumstances
The wrist watches have adjustable belts, so one – size – fits – all.

Question (a)
‘Once in a blue moon’:
Answer:
Meaning: very rarely.
Sentence: Our English teacher is very strict and smiles only once in a blue moon.

Question (b)
‘One man army’ :
Answer:
Meaning: A ‘one-man army’ is someone who can do, or thinks he can do, everything by himself and without assistance.

(A4)

Do as directed.

Question (a)
Advertisers are one of the biggest players in Big Data.
1. Begin the sentence with ‘Very few ……………’
2. Use ‘bigger than’ and rewrite the sentence.
Answer:
1. Very few players in Big data are as big as advertisers.
2. Very few players in Big Data are bigger than advertisers.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question (b)
No other diagnosis is as good as the diagnosis done with the help of Big Data.
1. Use ‘best’ and rewrite the sentence.
2. Use ‘better than’ and rewrite the sentence.
Answer:
1. The diagnosis done with the help of Big data is the best diagnosis.
2. No other diagnosis is better than the diagnosis done with the help of Big Data.

Question (c)
These internet giants provide the greatest data about people.
1. Begin the sentence with ‘No other ……………’
2. Use ‘greater than’ and rewrite the sentence.
Answer:
1. No other networking services provide greater data about people than these internet giants.
2. No other networking services provide greater data about people than these internet giants. OR These internet giants provide greater data about people than any other networking services.

Question (ii)
Read the sentence from the text.
New insights have enabled the banks and finance companies to come up with suitable plans.
Answer:
New insights have enabled either the banks or the finance companies to come up with suitable plans.

Question (a)
New insights have enabled the banks and finance companies to come up with suitable plans. (Rewrite using ‘either … or’.)
Answer:
New insights have enabled either the banks or the finance companies to come up with suitable plans.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question (b)
Whatever activity we do online is recorded, monitored and analysed. (Rewrite using ‘either … or’.)
Answer:
Whatever activity we do online is either recorded, monitored or analysed.

Question (c)
Weather sensors and satellites help us to understand the weather and help in weather forecasting. (Rewrite using ‘either … or’.)
Answer:
Weather sensors and satellites help us to either understand the weather or help in weather forecasting.

(A5)

Question (i)
Interview the students of your class regarding the career they would like to pursue and the reason for selecting that particular career. Collect the data and analyse the information you have collected. Answer:
(Sample questions)
Hi, Rohan. I would like to ask you a few questions regarding the career you would like to pursue and the reason for selecting that particular career. Are you ready? Thanks.

  1. Which are your favourite subjects?
  2. Have you decided on the career you would like to pursue?
  3. Why have you selected that particular career?
  4. What are the exams you have to pass or the qualifications you must have to pursue this career?
  5. What type of work does it involve?
  6. What are the job opportunities?
  7. Will you have chances of business travel?
  8. Is the salary structure good?
  9. Is your family happy with your choice?
  10. Is this your final choice, or are you still in the process of deciding?

Thanks, Rohan. I have learnt a lot from this interview today. Bye.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question (ii)
To listen well is as powerful a means of influence as to talk well and is essential to all true conversations.
Form a group and have a group discussion on the topics:
(a) Social Media – Curse or Boon (If used carefully and judiciously, a boon if misused, or people become addicts, then a curse)
(b) Women Empowerment and Equality (very important today-gender equality a must-the hand that rocks the cradle rules the world-however, women must not take advantage of this change-must be judicious in the use of the powers given)
(c) Climate Change (one of the biggest problems of today-must be taken very seriously-must change lifestyles-reduce consumption- recycle-carbon footprint)

(A6)

Question 1.
Find out job opportunities in the following areas and the skills required for them.
(a) Clinical Data Management
(b) Network Operations
(c) Data Processing
(d) Data Operations and Research
(e) Data Entry Operation

Yuvakbharati English 12th Digest Chapter 1.4 Big Data-Big Insights Additional Important Questions and Answers

Global Understanding:

Question 1.
Complete the web:
(The answers are given directly and underlined.)
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.4 Big Data-Big Insights 2

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 2.
Complete the following:
Answer:

  1. Big Data analytics is used to give insights that were previously incomprehensible.
  2. Big Data is so massive that it challenges the current computing technologies.
  3. It’s not the amount of data that is important but what the [organizations do with the data is what matters.
  4. Big Data analytics is the complex process of examining large and varied data sets or Big Data to uncover information.

Question 3.
Complete the web:
(The answers are given directly and underlined.)
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.4 Big Data-Big Insights 3

Question 4.
Complete the following:
(The answers are given directly and underlined.)
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.4 Big Data-Big Insights 4

Question 5.
Write whether you agree or disagree with the following statements:

  1. Today, the majority of equity trading takes place via data algorithms.
  2. Big Data analytics cannot help in studying the investment patterns of people.
  3. Big Data is useful in High-Frequency Trading.
  4. Big Data cannot predict possible spikes on servers.

Answer:

  1. Agree
  2. Disagree
  3. Agree
  4. Disagree

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 6.
Describe the ways used to create a huge database in sports.
Answer:
A huge data has been created over a period of time from the recording of matches, training sessions and workouts.

Question 7.
The database collected can help a sportsperson. Explain how.
Answer:
The data enables a sportsperson to study his own performance as well as that of the other players worldwide. It also helps in improving individual as well as team performance.

Question 8.
State the use of video analytics.
Answer:
Video analytics help one to see each and every performance minutely.

Question 9.
Name the Internet Giants mentioned in the extract.
Answer:
Facebook, Google, Twitter.

Question 10.
Pick out the False sentences, if any, and correct them:
1. Every student’s level of understanding is the same.
2.Big Data has brought about a big negative change in the education industry.
3. Designing the course material to cater to different requirements of the students is a good idea.
4. Big Data has provided a solution to the ‘one-size-fits-all’ pitfall.
Answer:
False sentences:
1. Every student’s level of understanding is the same.
2. Big Data has brought about a big negative change in the education industry.
Corrected sentences:
1. Every student’s level of understanding is different.
2. Big data has brought about a big positive change in the education industry.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Complex Factual:

Question 1.
Complete the following describing the sources of the collection of data:
(The answers are given directly and underlined.)
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Yuvakbharati Solutions Chapter 1.4 Big Data-Big Insights 5

Question 2.
Mention the ways to reduce risk in transport.
Answer:
Big Data has been useful in identifying and tracking the exact location of a place. GPS and Google Maps make use of Big Data. With geographic positioning and radio frequency identification sensors we get the up-to-date data about traffic, congestion on a particular route, information if the route is closed or if it is a one-way route, understanding accident prone areas, etc. Thus, we can plan our own route according to the travel time and the transportation of goods.

If we have ordered something online we can track the location of our goods in transit, we can also track the condition of the goods. All this has immensely helped the logistics companies to reduce risks in transport, improve speed and reliability in delivery.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 3.
Complete the following:
(The answers are given directly and underlined.)
Answer:

  1. Big Data helps to predict and prevent cybercrimes, card fraud detection, archival of audit trails, etc.
  2. Banks can predict future attempts of frauds by analyzing the past data of their customers and the data on previous brute force attacks.
  3. SEC is using Big Data to monitor financial markets for possible illegal trades and suspicious activities.
  4. Big Data algorithms are used to make trading decisions.

Question 4.
List the ways in which sensors help a person.
Answer:
Sensors help a person:

  1. to understand the game from close quarters
  2. to understand field conditions
  3. to understand the weather conditions
  4. to understand individual performances

Inference/Interpretation/ Analysis:

Question 1.
Discuss and write how Big data is increasing in volume, variation, velocity, veracity and value.
Answer:
When we like a post on Facebook or share a post on WhatsApp, visit any website, make online purchases, or watch videos, the variety of activity we do online is recorded, monitored and analysed. So a huge amount of data is collected. Data is also collected swiftly from different sources, for example web, sales, customer contact centre, social media, mobile data and so on.

Big Data analytics is used to give insights that were previously incomprehensible. As more and more people use the Internet, social media, make online purchases, use mobile phones, and are generally more active online, Big data is increasing in volume, variation, velocity, veracity and value in leaps and bounds.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 2.
Do you think Big Data has improved the quality of life? Give reasons for your answer.
Answer:
Big Data has certainly improved the quality of life. Through various apps, we can maintain our body weight and exercise levels, and remain healthy. Our heart rate, sleep patterns, etc. can be monitored and any changes can be immediately reported to the doctor, who can then prescribe the correct treatment as soon as possible.

Age-related diseases like diabetes and arteriosclerosis can be treated at the early stages. Thus, we can lead healthier and more active lives. Big Data is also being used to. predict and monitor epidemics, thus ensuring that they affect as few people as possible.

Question 3.
Write some ways of the condition of the goods.
Answer:
When we order something online, we are given a tracking number. By logging into the website of the company and entering this tracking number in the given slot, we can find out the location and condition of the goods.

Question 4.
Can we understand the economy of the country by the data on Banking and Finance? Explain.
Answer:
Yes, we can. With the Big Data analytics the study of investment patterns of the people can be done. We can analyse the bank deposits made, the loans taken and the equity trading.

We can find out the business across borders. We can find out how many industries have come up, and what the industrial economy is. From all this information, we understand the economy of the country.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 5.
Explain, giving an example, the technique used by Netflix and YouTube to increase viewership.
Answer:
Netflix and YouTube know through Big Data just what a person has viewed and his/her behaviour online. Based on this information, the person will be shown different recommendations. For example, if a person has viewed a couple of horror films from start to end, Netflix will know that the viewer is interested in horror films.

Accordingly, Netflix will recommend a few more horror films. The viewer is pleased with this easy access to his/her favourite genre, and continues to be a customer, thus increasing Netflix revenue.

Question 6.
Discuss a solution provided by Big Data.
Answer:
Through Big Data we have information about the study patterns of students, and we can now prepare customized and dynamic learning programmes according to the need of an individual student.

Personal Response:

Question 1.
Industries can be benefited from data. Explain with an example.
Answer:
Industries can benefit from the huge amount of data available. For example, in the tourism industry, through Big Data travel agencies and hotels can identify the times when there are more crowds and hence more demand for a certain tourist spot.

They can accordingly make arrangements for more flights, trains, buses, tours, labour, essential items, etc. Hotels can use big data to compile and analyse information about their main competitors so that they are aware of what other hotels or businesses are offering customers.

Question 2.
Do you have any app on your phone that monitors your health? Describe it in brief.
Answer:
Yes, I have an app that helps me to measure the calories I have eaten and I can thus plan my meals. It also records my weight and tells me whether it has gone up or down. There is a very clear graph too which gives me complete information of the ups and downs in my weight. I have managed to lose a few kilos with the help of this app and feel much healthier now.

Question 3.
Do you use GPS and Google Maps? If so, where and when?
Answer:
I drive a two-wheeler. If I have to go to a new shop/hotel or some other place, I find out the route through GPS and follow this route. I used Google Maps when I went to Goa with my family and wanted to calculate distances and use the best routes.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 4.
Do you spend a lot of time on Facebook, Netflix, etc.? Do you think it is addictive?
Answer:
Yes, I do spend a lot of time on Facebook. I have a large number of friends, and hence the news feed is quite a lot. I like to know what my friends are doing, where they have gone, etc. It is addictive, and since I have Facebook on my mobile phone too, I can check it at any time. This is what most of my friends do too. I know it is not good, and I am trying to control screen time. I do not subscribe to Netflix.

Question 5.
Do you think Big Data will help to bring improvements in students? Give reasons for your answer.
Answer:
Yes, Big Data will certainly help to bring improvements in students. Students can learn topics/subj ects. according to their abilities and capacity. They can choose their careers after knowing their strengths and weaknesses, their mental make-up and abilities. Thus, there will be fewer drop-outs, and students will be happy in the careers they have chosen..

Language Study:

Question 1.
Whatever activity we do online is recorded, monitored and analysed. (Rewrite using ‘as well as’….)
Answer:
Whatever activity we do online is recorded, monitored, as well as analysed.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 2.
The massive data available with us can really work wonders. (Rewrite using the noun form of the underlined word.)
Answer:
The availability of massive data with us can really work wonders.

Question 3.
Big Data analytics is the complex process of examining large and varied data sets or Big Data to uncover information. (Frame a wh-question to get the underlined part as the answer.)
Answer:
What is Big Data analytics?

Question 4.
Big Data helps in monitoring the outbreaks of epidemics and diseases. (Rewrite using ‘as well as …’)
Answer:
Big Data helps in monitoring the outbreaks of epidemics as well as diseases.

Question 5.
Big Data helps in monitoring the outbreaks of epidemics and diseases. (Rewrite using ‘either …or’.)
Answer:
Big Data helps in monitoring the outbreaks of either epidemics or diseases.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 6.
Big Data has been useful in identifying and tracking the exact location of a place. (Rewrite using ‘as well as’.)
Answer:
Big Data has been useful in identifying as well as tracking the exact location of a place.

Question 7.
Big Data has been useful in identifying and tracking the exact location of a place. (Rewrite using ‘either … or’.)
Answer:
Big Data has been useful in either identifying or tracking the exact location of a place.

Question 8.
Weather sensors and satellites help us to understand the weather and help in weather forecasting. (Rewrite using ‘as well as’.)
Answer:
Weather sensors and satellites help us to understand the weather as well as help in weather forecasting.

Question 9.
Huge amount of data is continuously being I received from them. (Change the voice.)
Answer:
We continuously receive a huge amount of data from them.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 10.
Big Data has enabled smooth functioning of these agencies and institutions. (Rewrite as an interrogative question.)
Answer:
Hasn’t Big Data enabled smooth functioning of these agencies and institutions?

Question 11.
Here, Big Data algorithms are used to make trading decisions. (Rewrite using a gerund in place of the underlined word.)
Answer:
Here, Big Data algorithms are used for making trading decisions.

Question 12.
Every student’s comprehension level is different. (Add a question tag.)
Answer:
Every student’s comprehension level is different, isn’t it?

Question 13.
This will also help in guiding the student regarding the best career for him. (Rewrite using the noun form of the underlined word.)
Answer:
This will also help in providing guidance to the student regarding the best career for him.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 14.
This would, in general, enhance progress of all students. (Rewrite beginning ‘Progress….)
Answer:
Progress of all students, would in general, be enhanced.

Vocabulary:

Question 1.
From the extract, find the antonyms of the following words :

  1. understandable
  2. tiny
  3. sales
  4. simple

Answer:

  1. understandable × incomprehensible
  2. tiny × massive (huge)
  3. sales × purchase
  4. simple × complex

Question 2.
From the words given below, write down the ones that have been formed using prefixes:
industries, increasing, incomprehensible, unknown, examining, uncover, information, innumerable, important
Answer:
incomprehensible, unknown, uncover, innumerable

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 3.
Find the meanings of:
1. petabytes
2. exabytes
Answer:
1. petabytes – units of information equal to one thousand million 1000 tetrabytes.
2. exabytes – units of information equal to one quintillion 1000 petabytes

Question 4.
Pick out 4 words ending in ‘ing’ from the extract.
Answer:
identifying, tracking, positioning, understanding

Question 5.
Pick out 4 nouns ending in ‘tion’ from the extract.
Answer:
location, identification, congestion, information

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 6.
Complete the following, giving the meanings.
(The answers are given directly and underlined.)
Answer:
e.g. new insights: insights that are new.

  1. health-conscious people: people who are conscious of their health.
  2. smartwatches: watches that are smart.
  3. heart rate: the rate at which heart beats.
  4. blood pressure: the pressure of the blood.
  5. necessary precautions: precautions that are necessary.
  6. unnecessary guesswork: guesswork that is unnecessary.

Question 7.
Find adjectives from the extract having the following suffixes :
(-able, -ible, -ial, -ious, -al)
Answer:

  1. -able – suitable;
  2. -ible – possible;
  3. -ial – financial, social;
  4. -ious – suspicious, previous;
  5. -al-natural.

Question 8.
Match the words in Column A with the words in Column B to make collocations found in the extract:
Answer:

A B Answer
new crimes new insights
cyber seconds cyber crimes
future insights future attempts
split attempts split seconds

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 9.
Give the adjective forms of the following words:

  1. giant
  2. interest
  3. create
  4. behaviour

Answer:

  1. giant – gigantic
  2. interest – interesting
  3. create – creative
  4. behaviour – behavioural

Question 10.
Match the words in Box A with the meanings in Box B:
Answer:

  1. revenue – earnings
  2. gigantic – huge
  3. enables – allows
  4. embedded – implanted

Question 11.
Make sentences of your own using the following expressions/words :

  1. leaps and bounds
  2. enhance
  3. to make optimum use of

Answer:

  1. leaps and bounds: Suman’s progress in studies increased by leaps and bounds after her health improved.
  2. enhance: We can enhance our looks by having a pleasant expression on our faces.
  3. to make optimum use of: Saurav decided to make optimum use of the Diwali vacation to catch up with his studies.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Oral Work:

Question 1.
Do you think people click consciously on Facebook? Discuss.
Answer:
[Points: in general, most people just press ‘like’ button on friends’ posts, many times not even reading the post-sometimes some only repeat the comment above theirs-some forwards and videos are not even seen-with so many posts and information many times there is no time to read everything]

Non-Textual Grammar

Do as directed:

Question 1.
Her family and their well-being were her highest priority. (Rewrite as an interrogative sentence.)
Answer:
Weren’t her family and their well-being her highest priority?

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 2.
The shadows were lengthening when Smita arrived at the college. (Identify the clauses.)
Answer:
The shadows were lengthening – Main Clause
when Smita arrived at the college – Subordinate Adverb Clause of Time

Question 3.
He had to find the books and read them before the day ended.
(Rewrite using ‘not only…but also’.)
Answer:
He had not only to find the books but also read them before the day ended.

Spot the error in the following sentences and rewrite them correctly:

Question 1.
I was either scared of people’s curious looks nor their awkward questions.
Answer:
I was neither scared of people’s curious looks nor their awkward questions.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 2.
He was unable to participate due to a health problems.
Answer:
He was unable to participate due to a health problem.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 History Solutions Chapter 11 India Transformed Part 1

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 History Solutions Chapter 11 India Transformed Part 1 Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 History Solutions Chapter 11 India Transformed Part 1

1A. Choose the correct alternative and rewrite the statement.

Question 1.
A legal agreement was signed in Geneva which is known as ____________
(a) SEATO
(b) NATO
(c) GATT
(d) SAARC
Answer:
(c) GATT

Question 2.
An act similar to ‘Right to Information’ was first applied in ____________ in 1776.
(a) Sweden
(b) France
(c) England
(d) India
Answer:
(a) Sweden

Maharashtra Board Class 12 History Solutions Chapter 11 India Transformed Part 1

Question 3.
The birth anniversary of Swami Vivekananda is observed as ____________
(a) National Education Day
(b) National Youth Day
(c) National Integration Day
(d) National Science Day
Answer:
(b) National Youth Day

2A. Write the names of historical places/persons/events.

Question 1.
In 2004, this became the biggest firm in Asia providing software services –
Answer:
Tata Consultancy Services

Question 2.
In 2002, the Metro railway was flagged off –
Answer:
The Delhi Metro Railway

2B. Choose the correct reason from those given below and complete the sentence.

Question 1.
India became member of World Trade Organisation, because ____________
(a) India want to compete with other nations
(b) India cannot stay aloof from the global economy
(c) India adopted the policy of liberalisation
(d) India wanted to be in the leading position at the global level
Answer:
(c) India adopted the policy of liberalisation

3. Complete the following concept map.

Question 1.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 History Solutions Chapter 11 India Transformed Part 1 Q3
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 History Solutions Chapter 11 India Transformed Part 1 Q3.1

4. Write short notes.

Question 1.
The Youth Policy of Government of India.
Answer:

  • India is a country with a maximum proportion of young people. Individuals in the age group of 15-29 are considered as ‘youth’.
  • Youth, if provided with opportunities, for education and skill training, can contribute significantly to the development of India.
  • A number of centers of‘Nehru Yuva Kendra Sangathan’ were established in 1972 for the training of young people in various skills.
  • The programmes run by these centers were eventually merged in the ‘National Youth Empowerment Programme’. This programme put a thrust on topics like literacy, education, health and hygiene, family welfare, preservation and conservation of the environment, awareness of social issues, rural development, and self-employment.
  • 12th January the birth anniversary of Swami Vivekanand is celebrated as ‘National Youth Day. National Youth Festival is also celebrated in the month of January. This festival is designed to provide a platform for the artistic talents of young individuals.
  • ‘Youth Hostels Association of India’ has established youth hostels in various parts of the country which works for encouraging adventure skills among young people.
  • Training programmes are arranged by this association through ‘Bharat Scout and Guides, National Service Scheme and National Cadet Corps’.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 History Solutions Chapter 11 India Transformed Part 1

Question 2.
‘Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana’.
Answer:

  • The Government of India knows the importance of having roads in good condition in the interior areas started ‘Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana’ in 2000.
  • Initially, the work of building roads began by linking the villages of population strength up to 1000. In 2001 this programme was merged in ‘Pradhan Mantri Gramoday Yojana’.
  • The roads measuring about 75000 km. were completed till 2005. The purpose of this work was to extend the benefits of the country’s economic growth to people living in rural areas and to bring transformation in their lives.
  • It aimed at providing amenities for good health, education, drinking water, dwellings, roads, and electricity.

5. State your opinion.

Question 1.
India is a leading country in the field of space research.
Answer:

  • In 2007, India entered a new field of space research. It commercially launched the Italian satellite.
  • Other countries had submitted tenders quoting very high rates, to get this contract. However, India got this contract by quoting reasonable rates.
  • Before entering this field on a commercial basis, India had already successfully launched the satellite of Argentina, Belgium, South Korea, Indonesia, and Germany.
  • In 2008, India launched ‘Chandrayaan-1’, the first lunar probe. India could collect evidence for the presence of water on the moon through this satellite.
  • After that India also launched ‘Chandrayaan-2’ and ‘Mangalyaan’.
  • All these achievements proved that India is a leading country in the field of space research.

6. Answer the following questions in detail.

Question 1.
Which programmes were launched in India for making the opportunities of wage-earning?
Answer:
Creating employment opportunities for an ever-increasing population is a major challenge for the government. There are several programmes launched by the government of India for wage earners.
These programs are as follows:

  • Pradhan Mantri Rojgar Yojana and ‘Rojgar Hami Yojana’: To create job opportunities for educated youth the ‘Ministry of Commerce and Industry of the Government of India started this plan on 2nd October 1993 on the birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi.
  • Rojgar Hami Yojana was to assure daily wages to the unemployed agricultural labourers. The objective of this plan was to provide wage-earning opportunity, who was in search. This programme was launched in 257 districts in India. A goal was to provide work to two young laborers in each family below the poverty line. In 2001, this plan was merged in ‘Gramin Rojgar Yojana’.
  • In 1998, to provide support to farmers in difficult times “Kisan Credit Card” plan was started. It helps the farmer to avail funds for essential equipments and seeds for cultivation. Later, an insurance facility was also offered to farmers, who were Kisan Credit Card holders.
  • Suvarnajayanti Gramin Svayam Rojgar Yojana: This plan was launched in 1999 by merging various plans together namely ‘Ekatmik Gramin Vikas Yojana’, Self-employment training programmes, ‘Ganga Kalyan Yojana’ etc.
  • Jawahar Gram Samruddhi Yojana: In 1999, a new plan was implemented with the intention to provide adequate employment for unemployed men and women. It was merged in ‘Sampoorna Gramin Rojgar Yojana’ in 2001.
  • Sampoorna Gramin Rojgar Yojana: This plan made provision for creating opportunities in rural areas of earning wages, to provide food grains in exchange for work, etc. This scheme was started in 150 economically backward districts in the country. In 2006, this scheme was merged in ‘Rashtriya Gramin Rojgar Hami Yojana’.
  • Rashtriya Gramin Rojgar Hami Yojana: Under this scheme, each family in rural areas were given assurance of at least 100 days of work.

7. Answer the following question with the help of the given points.

Question 1.
Give information about the ‘Right to Information Act.
(a) Background of the act and the beginning of this movement in India.
(b) Definition of ‘Information’.
(c) The rights of citizens under this act.
Answer:
(a) Background of the act and the beginning of this movement in India:

  • This kind of Act was first implemented in Sweden in 1776. In 1946, ‘United Nations’ declared the ‘Right to Information to be the fundamental human right.
  • In 1982, L.K. Kulwant, a resident of Jaipur in Rajasthan, a social activist initiated the process by applying to know the Jaipur Municipal Corporation’s work for cleaning the city.
  • The High Court gave a clear verdict stating that ‘Right to Information is a fundamental right of all citizens.
  • In 1990, Aruna Roy started the movement called ‘Majdoor Kisan Shakti Sanghatan’. A need for ‘Right to Information was started through this movement.
  • Harsh Mander, the Divisional Commissioner of Bilaspur showed courage to disclose official information while serving as a bureaucrat.
  • The struggle of Anna Hazare in 2001, had a decisive role in Maharashtra in this matter. The Act was implemented in Maharashtra on 12th October 2005.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 History Solutions Chapter 11 India Transformed Part 1

(b) Definition of ‘Information’:
The definition of term ‘Information’ includes official records, documents, memoranda, emails, comments, consultations, press notes, circulars, orders, logbooks, tenders, reports, correspondence, formats, models, electronic data, the information of a private institution or an individual that is available in the records of any public establishment.

(c) The rights of citizens under this act:

  • Right to information grants access to official documents, records, permission to obtain their copies, to take notes, to extract passages, to get samples of authorised material and prints of data stored in CDs, Floppy discs, tapes, video cassettes, or in any other form, or stored on computers.
  • Citizens can get the desired information after submitting an application to the ‘Information officer’ of a ‘Public Authority.

Class 12 History Chapter 11 India Transformed Part 1 Intext Questions and Answers

Collect information of following schemes: (Textbook Page No. 92)

National Pension Scheme, Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Vima Yojana, Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Vima Yojana, Atal Pension Yojana, Indian Post Payments Bank.
Answer:
(A) National Pension Scheme:

  • The National Pension Scheme is a voluntary contribution of the pension system in India which is sponsored by the government of India.
  • This scheme was started by the Government of India in 2004 for all government employees.
  • The scheme was made open to all citizens in 2009. It is a voluntary and long-term retirement scheme. It is regulated by Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA) and the central government.
  • Any employee from the public, private, and even the unorganized sectors can opt for this.
  • Personnel from the armed forces are not allowed. The scheme is open to all across industries and locations.

(B) Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Vima Yojana:

  • The scheme is available to people in the age group 18 to 70 years with a bank account who give their consent to join/enable auto-debit on or before 31st May for the coverage period 1st June to 31st May on an annual renewal basis.
  • Aadhar would be the primary KYC for the bank account. The risk coverage under the scheme is ₹ 2 lakh for accidental death and full disability and ₹ 1 lakh for partial disability.
  • The premium of 112 per annum is to be deducted from the account holder’s bank account through ‘auto-debit facility in one installment.

(C) Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Vima Yojana:

  • Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Vima Yojana is available to people between 18 and 50 years of age with a bank account.
  • This scheme was launched on 9th May 2015 by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in Kolkata.
  • It has an annual premium of ₹ 330. In case of death due to any cause, the payment to the nominee will be ₹ 2 lakh.
  • As of 31st March 2019, 5.92 crore people have already enrolled for this scheme.

(D) Atal Pension Yojana:

  • Atal Pension Yojana is a pension scheme under the Government of India.
  • This scheme replaces the Swavalamban Yojana and was established to provide old age income security to the workers belonging to the unorganized sector.
  • The Atal Pension Yojana was launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 9th May 2015 in Kolkata.
  • The scheme focuses on encouraging workers of the unorganized sectors to save for their future (Age limit 18-40 years).

(E) Indian Postal Payments Bank :

  • The Indian Postal Payment Bank was launched on September 1, 2018, by Prime Minister Narendra Modi that aims at making banking services available at people’s doorstep.
  • This is a 100% Government-owned public sector bank, operating with the Department of Posts under the Ministry of Communications.
  • IPPB would be like any other bank but it will operate at a smaller scale without involving any credit risks and can’t issue advance loans or issue credit cards.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 History Solutions Chapter 11 India Transformed Part 1

Let us know: (Textbook Page No. 92)

Collect information with the help of the internet about the ‘Rafi Ahmad Kidwai National Postal Academy (Gaziabad).
Maharashtra Board Class 12 History Solutions Chapter 11 India Transformed Part 1 Intext Q2
Answer:

  • Rafi Ahmad Kidwai National Postal Academy, recently called Postal Staff College India (PSCI) is the apex training institution of Indian postal services.
  • It was set up in the year 1977. Initially, the college functioned from Sanchar Bhavan and later from Dak Bhavan in Delhi.
  • It was shifted to its present location in Gaziabad in the year 1990. It is a central training institute and has the primary role of training and grooming the young officers who get recruited to the Indian Postal Service.
  • It also conducts various in-service training programmes on postal management for Postal Service officers in India and other foreign postal administrations.
  • Its goal is to make the officers of the department of posts professionally competent to handle the ever-changing communication market.
  • Training Program:
    • Advanced Development Program
    • Executive Development Program
    • Technology Management Program
    • Postal Life Insurance
    • Leadership Development for postmasters and mangers
    • Quality Management

Let us collect information (Textbook Page No. 92)

Collect information about various services like ‘Sarvabhaum Suvarn Rokhe’ (Gold Bonds issued by the Government), ‘Electronic Indian Postal Order’, ‘E-Dakghar’, ‘E-Payment Portal’, ‘Mobile App’ etc. by interviewing the Postmaster of any branch.
Answer:
(A) Sarvabhaum Suvarn Rokhe:

  • This scheme was launched by Government in November 2015, under Gold Monetisation Scheme. The issues are made open for subscription in tranches by RBI in consultation with GOI.
  • As per RBI instructions, every application must be accompanied by the PAN number issued by the income tax department to the investors as the PAN number of the first/ sole applicant is mandatory.
  • SGBs are government securities denominated in grams of gold. They are substitutes for holding physical gold. Investors have to pay the issue price in cash and the bonds will be redeemed in cash on maturity. The bond is issued by Reserve Bank on behalf of the government of India.
  • The SGB offers a superior alternative to holding gold in physical form. The quantity of gold for which the investor pays is protected since he receives the ongoing market price at the time of redemption /premature redemption.

(B) Electronic Indian Postal Order:

  • The Department of Personnel and Training and Department of Posts have launched a service called e-IPO (Electronic Indian Postal Order) to enable the Indian citizens abroad to purchase an Indian Postal Order electronically by paying fee on-line through the e-post Office portal i.e., http://www.epostoffice.gov.in.
  • It also facilitates them to file the Right to Information (RTI) application. Registration is mandatory to avail of this facility. Options for new account creation, user verification, search e-IPO, etc are available.

(C) e-Payment portal:

  • e-Payment is a smart option for businesses and organizations to collect their bills or other payments through post office networks.
  • When businesses require the collection of bills and other payments from customers across the country, Post offers them a simple and convenient solution in the form of e-payment.
  • e-Payment is a many-to-one solution that allows the collection of money (telephone bills, electricity bills, examination fees, taxes, university fees, school fees, etc) on behalf of any organization. The collection is consolidated electronically using web-based software and payment is made centrally through cheque from a specified Post Office of billers choice.
  • The information and MIS regarding the payment can be seen by the biller online. The MIS will contain the five fields of billers choice like name, telephone number, application number, etc. The services are currently available through more than 14,000 Post offices across the country.
  • There is an agency in the market today with a large reach and establishing trust as the Post Office where the public can comfortably deposit all their bills in their neighbourhood.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 History Solutions Chapter 11 India Transformed Part 1

(D) e-Dak Ghar:
The e-Post Office of India post offers a variety of online Postal services to the users. One can avail services-philately (purchase of stamps), PLI/RPLI (payment of the premium), and IPO (purchase order for RTI).

(E) Mobile app:

  • The IPPB app is available on both Android and iOS platforms. This app, however, can only be used by those individuals who have an account in a core banking-enabled post office. KYC of the account should also be completed in advance.
  • Internet banking and mobile banking services should also be completed in advance.
  • Using the mobile app, account holders can also view account balances and statements, transfer funds, request a checkbook, stop payment on a cheque, use sweep-in-sweep-out facilities, and pay utility bills.

Project (Textbook Page No. 98)

Collect information about the States of India and Union Territories, as well as the names of their capital cities, with the help of the internet.
Answer:
The states of India and its capitals are as follows:

States Capital
1. Andhra Pradesh Hyderabad
2. Arunachal Pradesh Itanagar
3. Assam Dispur
4. Bihar Patna
5. Chhattisgarh Raipur
6. Goa Panaji
7. Gujrat Gandhinagar
8. Haryana Chandigarh
9. Himachal Pradesh Shimla
10. Jharkhand Ranchi
11. Karnataka Bengaluru
12. Kerala Thiruvananthapuram
13. Madhya Pradesh Bhopal
14. Maharashtra Mumbai
15. Manipur Imphal
16. Meghalaya Shillong
17. Mizoram Aizawl
18. Nagaland Kohima
19. Odisha Bhubaneswar
20. Punjab Chandigarh
21. Rajasthan Jaipur
22. Sikkim Gangtok
23. Telangana Hyderabad
24. Tamil Nadu Chennai
25. Tripura Agartala
26. Uttar Pradesh Lucknow
27. West Bengal Kolkata
28. Uttarakhand Dehradun

Union Territories and its Capitals:

Union Territories Capitals
1. Anadaman and Nicobar Island Port Blair
2. Chandigarh Chandigarh
3. Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu Daman
4. Delhi New Delhi
5. Lakshadweep Kavaratti
6. Puducherry Pondicherry
7. Ladakh Leh (summer), Kargil (winter)
8. Jammu and Kashmir Srinagar (summer) Jammu (winter)