Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 11 History Solutions Chapter 2 First Cities of India Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
Maharashtra State Board Class 11 History Solutions Chapter 2 First Cities of India
1. Choose the correct alternative and write the complete sentences.
In the early phase of agriculture, making __________ pots and farming were the jobs of women.
Lothal is known for its ancient __________
A general impression prevailed that the Harappan seals had some connection with the __________ civilisation.
The bodies (mummies) of dead royalties in Egypt were wrapped in __________ coloured cloth.
2A. Choose the correct reason and complete the sentence.
The major reason for the decline of the Mesopotamian civilisation was __________
(a) foreign invasion
(b) deteriorating environment
(c) loss in trade
(b) deteriorating environment
2B. Find the incorrect pair from set ‘B’ and write the correct ones.
|Set ‘A’||Set ‘B’|
|(b) Makan||Oman-Iran-Baluchistan Coastal region|
|(d) Meluhha||Region of Harappa civilisation|
(c) Shortugai – Badakshan province of Afghanistan
3. Explain the statements with reasons.
The remains found in cities like Harappa, Mohenjodaro, Kalibangan, Lothal, Dholavira, Rakhigarhi, etc. are evidence of the past glory of this civilization.
- A well-developed and rich civilisation flourished in the Indian subcontinent in the period from 3500-3000 B.C.E.
- This period is characterised by systematic town planning, with houses of baked brick, granaries, excellent drainage systems, public baths, and impressive public movements.
- Good administrative control over the distribution of water and other resources.
- Remains also prove a good social organisation, a proper social hierarchy based on the position of power.
- Flourishing internal and distant trade, mass production of goods, and craft specialisation developed writing system of script on Harappan seals give evidence of the past glory of the civilisation.
Lapis lazuli had a very important place in the Harappan trade.
- A network of small towns, big and small villages, and campsites of semi-nomadic people functioned to cater to the needs of major urban centres of the Harappan civilisation.
- The Harappan settlement of ‘Shortugai’ in the Badakshan province of Afghanistan, is rich with mines of lapis lazuli, a semi-precious stone in Mesopotamia.
- The Mesopotamian epics describe Goddess Inanna’s palace, the walls of which were embedded with this stone, lapis lazuli.
- This stone was a very important commodity in the Harappan trade with Mesopotamia.
Harappan civilisation declined.
- Sir Mortimer Wheeler in his study has concluded that the Harappan civilisation was destroyed by Indra, who destroyed the fortified cities.
- Vedic Aryans destroyed the Harappan cities under the leadership of Indra.
- The civilisation also declined due to the cumulative effects of factors such as the decline in trade, climatic changes, and the weakening of the economy.
4. State your opinion.
The Harappan cities and villages in the vicinity were interdependent.
- The interrelationship between Harappan cities and villages was dependent on the mechanism of making available food grains and raw materials.
- A network of small towns, big and small villages, and campsites of semi-nomadic people, functioned to cater to the needs of major urban centres of Harappan civilisation.
- The city people were dependent on natural sources and villages in their vicinity, to meet the needs of urban lifestyle and urban administration.
The Harappan cities seem to have a well-organised administrative system.
- The Harappan cities had a well organised administrative system to manage industrial production, import-export, the interrelationship between cities managing trading operations and villages around them.
- The town planning, standardization of bricks, weights, seals, shapes, and ornamentation of various objects, confirm the presence of an efficient administrative system.
- Cities like Harappa and Mohenjodaro were perhaps regional capitals.
- Lothal and Kalibangan were important religious centres.
- However, the nature of Harappan polity, whether it was a single state or a federation of small states, is not yet known.
5. Answer the following questions with the help of given points.
Write about the characteristics of Harappan cities with the help of the given points:
(a) Town planning
(b) Social organisation
(a) Town planning:
- The town planning of Harappan cities was very systematic.
- Houses were of baked bricks, which included bathrooms, toilets, wells.
- Granaries existed, with impressive public monuments.
- The excellent drainage systems, public baths, and independent fortification walls are highlights.
- The grid pattern was used, where streets crossed each other in right angles, and the resulted blocks were used for building houses.
- The English bond masonry method was used with two headers and two stretchers to build a wall, which was especially useful for earthquake-prone areas.
(b) Social organisation:
- Social hierarchy was based on the position of power.
- Classes of skilled artisans and individuals were based on craft specialisation.
- Belief systems existed, with evidence of burials indicating rituals after death.
- Artifacts and architecture also indicate belief systems.
- Administrative control existed over the distribution of water and other resources.
- The size of bricks indicates the use of standardisation and ratio.
- Weights, set style of shapes and painted designs of pottery, majestic and non-residential buildings for public administrative offices are also seen.
- Harappan civilisation practiced mass production of goods for trade purposes.
- The concentration of factories and residences of artisans in a particular area of the city indicates the purpose of convenience of production, flourishing internal and distant trade, and administrative control over trade transactions.
- Well-shaped, beautiful earthen pots, statues, metal objects of gold, silver, copper, and bronze were made.
- Various types of beads were prepared, indicating a sound economy.
Collect information and illustrations with the help of the internet about the town planning of the Harappan cities and Chandigarh. Compare them.
The town planning of the Harappan Cities:
- The Harappans were the first to build planned cities with a scientific drainage system.
- Their cities were built on a uniform plan.
- The people of Indus valley lived a highly civilized and developed life.
- This highly developed and scientific plan can be seen in the following areas.
- The streets were straight and cut each other at right angles
- They were 13 to 34 feet wide and were well lined.
- The streets and roads divided the city into rectangular blocks.
- Lamp posts were provided at regular intervals.
- Dust bins were also provided on the streets which proves the presence of a good municipal administration.
- The city was provided with an excellent closed drainage system.
- Each house had its own drainage and soak pit which was connected to the public drainage.
- Brick-laid channels were found through every street.
- The drains were covered and had manholes at regular intervals for cleaning and clearing.
- Large brick culverts were constructed on the outskirts of the city to carry excess water.
- The Indus valley civilization had a perfect underground drainage system.
The Great Bath:
- The most striking feature of Mohenjo Daro is the Great Bath.
- It consists of a large quadrangle. In the center, there is a large swimming pool approx. 39 ft long, 23 ft wide, and 8 ft deep.
- This swimming pool had rooms and galleries on all four sides.
- It had a flight of steps at either end and a well in one of the adjoining rooms. The water was discharged by a huge drain.
- The Great Bath had 8ft thick outer walls.
- The largest building in Mohenjo Daro is the granary which is 45.71 m long and 15.23 m wide.
- Granaries have also been found in Harappa and the southern parts of Kalibangan.
- These granaries were used to store grains which were probably collected as revenue or storehouses to be used in emergencies.
- People of the Indus valley civilization built houses and other buildings on the side streets.
- Built terraced houses of burnt bricks.
- Every house had two or more rooms, there were also more than one-storied houses.
The town planning of Chandigarh City:
- Chandigarh, the capital of the northern Indian states of Punjab and Haryana was designed by the Swiss-French modernist architect, Le Corbusier.
- Buildings include the Capitol Complex with its High Court, Secretariat, and Legislative Assembly.