Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 7 Non-co-operation Movement

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 7 Non-co-operation Movement Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 7 Non-co-operation Movement

Class 8 History Chapter 7 Non-co-operation Movement Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Rewrite the statements by choosing the appropriate options :

Question 1.
Gandhiji began his career from the country of …………. .
(a) India
(b) England
(c) South Africa
(d) Myanmar
Answer:
(c) South Africa

Question 2.
The farmers started the no-tax movement in the district of ………….
(a) Gorakhpur
(b) Kheda
(c) Solapur
(d) Amravati
Answer:
(b) Kheda

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 7 Non-co-operation Movement

Question 3.
As a protest to Jallianwala Baug massacre, Rabindranath Tagore returned the title of ………… bestowed upon him by the British government.
(a) Lord
(b) Sir
(c) Raobahadur
(d) Raosaheb
Answer:
(b) Sir

2. Answer the following questions in one sentence :

Question 1.
Which restriction were put up on the Blacks in South Africa according to the declaration of 1906?
Answer:
In 1906, the government declared that the Blacks in South Africa should compulsorily carry an identity card. This was the restriction imposed on their freedom.

Question 2.
Where did Gandhiji launch the first Satyagraha in India?
Answer:
The first Satyagraha in India was launched by Gandhiji at Champaran at Bihar in 1917.

Question 3.
Which officer gave orders of firing in the Jallianwala Baug?
Answer:
General Dyer gave orders of firing in the Jallianwala Baug.

3. Answer the following questions in 25-30 words :

Question 1.
Explain the philosophy of Satyagraha.
Answer:

  1. Satyagraha, a novel technique, means insistence of truth.
  2. The aim of Satyagraha was to make the unjust person aware of truth and justice and also to transform his views.
  3. A Satyagrahi should never use violence and untruth meAnswer:

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 7 Non-co-operation Movement

Question 2.
Why was the Swaraj Party formed?
Answer:
1. The members of the Indian National Congress like Motilal Nehru and Chittaranjan Das put an idea to contest elections and enter the Legislative Assembly and Provincial Legislative Council to obstruct the working of the government and oppose the unjust policies.
2. Therefore, they formed the Swaraj Party in 1922.

4. Explain the following statements with reasons :

Question 1.
Rowlatt Act was opposed by the people of India.
Answer:

  1. The Rowlatt Act was enacted to suppress the growing discontent among the Indians and suggest measures about it.
  2. This Act authorised the government to arrest any Indian and imprison him without trial or warrant.
  3. There was no provision for appeal against the punishment given under the Act.
  4. Due to such unjust provisions in the Rowlatt Act it was opposed by the people of India and called ‘Black Act’.

Question 2.
Gandhiji suspended the Non-co-operation Movement.
Answer:

  1. In February, 1922 the police opened fire on a peaceful procession at Chauri-Chaura in Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh.
  2. In retaliation to this, the enraged mob set fire the police station in Chauri- Chaura.
  3. Twenty-two policemen including one officer were killed in this incident.
  4. Gandhiji was hurt by this incident. So he decided to suspend the Non-co-operation Movement on 12 February, 1922.

Question 3.
The Indians boycotted the Simon Commission.
Answer:

  1. The reforms introduced by Montague Chelmsford Act of 1919 was unsatisfactory.
  2. It created discontent among IndiAnswer: The British Government appointed the Simon Commission under the chairmanship of Sir John Simon in 1927.’
  3. There was not a single Indian member on the commission. In protest of this, the Congress boycotted the Simon Commission.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 7 Non-co-operation Movement

Question 4.
Khilafat movement was started in India.
Answer:

  1. The ruler of Turkey was regarded as the Khalifa or religious head of the Muslims all over the world.
  2. To get the support of Indian Muslims, in the First World War, the British gave false assurance of not harming the Khalifa’s empire after the war.
  3. But they did not keep their word. It caused resentment among the Indian Muslims. So, they started the Khilafat Movement.

Do you Know?
Mulshi Satyagraha (1920-1924):
Muishi Pethcz was a small viilage,with hilly terrain, approximately 40-45 kms away from Pune. The Tata Company decided to set up hydro-electricity project in this part. It was given permission by the British government. The dam would have displaced 52 villages and 11000 people. There was no consent taken from the people nor was there any programme for their rehabilitation. The farmers started their struggle against a mighty power and influential capitalists. Senapa’ti Pandurcing Mahadev Bapat led the struggle. People started caffing him Senapati Bapat. In spite of resisting it for four years, they were unsuccessful. The Satyagraha became inspirational not only in India but all over the world wherever the issue of rehabilitation came up.

Project:

Trace out the pledge of independence that was taken on 26th January 1930 and read it aloud collectively in the classroom.

Class 8 History Chapter 7 Non-co-operation Movement Additional Important Questions and Answers

Rewrite the statements by choosing the appropriate options :

Question 1.
The period between 1920-1947 in the Indian national movement is known as ………….
(a) Moderate Phase
(b) Extremist Phase
(c) Revolutionary Period
(d) Gandhian Era
Answer:
(d) Gandhian Era

Question 2.
…………. suggested Gandhiji to tour the entire nation when he returned from South Africa.
(a) Dadabhai Nowrojee
(b) Surendranath Banerjee
(c) Gopal Krishna Gokhale
(d) Lokmanya Tilak
Answer:
(c) Gopal Krishna Gokhale

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 7 Non-co-operation Movement

Question 3.
After the death of Lokmanya Tilak in 1920, the reins of freedom movement went into the hands of ………….
(a) Lala Lajpat Rai
(b) Subash Chandra Bose
(c) Mahatma Gandhi
(d) Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru
Answer:
(c) Mahatma Gandhi

Question 4.
…………. Commission was appointed to enquire about Jallianwala Baug massacre.
(a) Hunter
(b) Simon
(c) Minto
(d) Rowlatt
Answer:
(a) Hunter

Question 5.
The Resolution of Non-co-operation Movement was put forth by Chittaranjan Das in ………. session of Indian National Congress.
(a) Lahore
(b) Nagpur
(c) Mumbai
(d) Amritsar
Answer:
(b) Nagpur

Question 6.
An officer named attacked Lalaji with a lathi at Lahore.
(a) Dyer
(b) Hunter
(c) Odwire
(d) Saunders
Answer:
(d) Saunders

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 7 Non-co-operation Movement

Question 7.
……………., Secretary of State, criticised that Indians were incapable of drafting a constitution.
(a) Morley
(b) Minto
(c) Berkenhead
(d) Montague
Answer:
(c) Berkenhead

Identify the wrong pair and correct it:

Work – Leader

(1) President of the Lahore session of
Congress – Motilal Nehru

(2) Demonstrated against Simon
commission at Lahore – Lala Lajpat Rai

(3) Held satyagraha
in South Africa – Mahatma Gandhi

(4) Led the Mulshi
Satyagraha – Senapati Bapat
Answer:
Wrong pair : President of the Lahore session of Congress
– Motilal Nehru.
Corrected pair : President of the Lahore session of Congress
– Jawaharlal Nehru.

Name the following:

Question 1.
Leaders in other countries who were influenced by Satyagraha technique of Mahatma Gandhi.
(1) …………………………………….
(2) …………………………………….
Answer:
(1) Martin Luther King in USA
(2) Nelson Mandela in South Africa

Question 2.
Young Congress leaders who demanded Poorna Swaraj.
(1) …………………………………….
(2) …………………………………….
Answer:
(1) Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru
(2) Subash Chandra Bose

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 7 Non-co-operation Movement

Question 3.
Eminent lawyers who boycotted court by giving up their practice
(1) …………………………………….
(2) …………………………………….
Answer:
(1) Pandit Motilal Nehru
(2) Chittaranjan Das.

Complete the graphical presentation :

Question 1.
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 7 Non-co-operation Movement 1
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 7 Non-co-operation Movement 2

Question 2.
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 7 Non-co-operation Movement 3
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 7 Non-co-operation Movement 4

Question 3.
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 7 Non-co-operation Movement 5
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 7 Non-co-operation Movement 6

Answer the following questions in one sentence :

Question 1.
Which principles gave a new direction to the freedom movement?
Answer:
The principles of truth and non-violence gave new direction to the freedom movement.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 7 Non-co-operation Movement

Question 2.
How was the constructive programme beneficial?
Answer:
Due to the constructive programme, the national movement became more comprehensive in rural areas.

Question 3.
How did Lala Lajpat Rai react after he was attacked by the British officer?
Answer:
Lala Lajpat Rai said that Every blow on my body will prove a nail in the coffin of the British Empire, when he was attacked by the British officer.

Write short note :

Question 1.
Gandhiji’s work in South Africa :
Answer:

  1. In 1893, Gandhiji went to South Africa for some legal work where he began his political work.
  2. Many Indians had settled in South Africa for the purpose of trade and business.
  3. They were treated as criminals and humiliating treatment was given to them.
  4. Many restrictions were imposed on their freedom like it was compulsory for them to carry an identity card.
  5. Gandhiji adopted the path of Satyagraha and gained justice for them.

Question 2.
Champaran Satyagraha :
Answer:

  1. The farmers in Champaran region in Bihar were forced to cultivate indigo.
  2. The cultivators suffered as they received a fixed amount as price from the plantation owners.
  3. In 1917, Gandhiji went to Champaran and organized the farmers.
  4. He launched agitation by adopting the technique of Satyagraha.
  5. The farmers were given justice and thus Gandhiji was successful in his first satyagraha in India.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 7 Non-co-operation Movement

Question 3.
Work of Swaraj Party :
Answer:

  1. The leaders of the Swaraj Party put up an idea of contesting elections and obstructing the work of the government.
  2. They severely opposed unjust policies of the government.
  3. They demanded that a Responsible Government should be given to India.
  4. They demanded for Round Table Conference.
  5. They made a resolution in Assembly which demanded the release of political leaders taken as prisoners.
  6. Many resolutions were passed in the Central Legislative Assembly but were rejected by the government.

Question 4.
Nehru Report :
Answer:
1. Berkenhead, the Secretary of State of India, criticised that Indian leaders were incapable of drafting a unanimously accepted constitution for India.
2. This challenge was taken up by all party committee under the chairmanship of Pandit Motilal Nehru.
3. The proposals of the Nehru Report were :

  • implement Adult Franchise system in India,
  • establish self government colonies of India, and
  • division of provinces on linguistic division.

Explain the following statements with reasons :

Question 1.
No-tax campaign in Kheda district was successful.
Answer:

  1. Due to continuous famines the crops had failed in Kheda district of Gujarat.
  2. But the farmers were forced to pay land tax by the government.
  3. Gandhiji suggested to the farmers that they should refuse to pay tax.
  4. The farmers started the campaign to scrap the tax in 1918.
  5. The tax was suspended by the British Government which made the movement successful.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 7 Non-co-operation Movement

Question 2.
The movement started by Mill workers at Ahmedabad was successful.
Answer:

  1. During the First World War the inflation was very high.
  2. The mill workers demanded for rise in salary which was refused by the mill owners.
  3. Gandhiji advised the workers to go on hunger strike.
  4. In the end, the mill owners had to back off and the salary of workers was increased.

Question 3.
The British government passed the Rowlatt Act in 1919.
Answer:

  1. Indians extended help to the British government in the First World War.
  2. The Indians expected that after the war is over there will be a system of governance for taking decision for the well-being of the IndiAnswer:
  3. Moreover, the rising prices, increased taxes led to growing unrest among the Indians.
  4. To suppress this discontent and suggest measures about it Rowlatt Act was passed in 1919.

Answer the following questions in 25-30 words :

Question 1.
Why was the Hunter Commission appointed?
Answer:

  1. General Dyer ordered an unrestrained firing on the unarmed people who gathered for a meeting on 13th April 1919, at Jallianwala Baug.
  2. About 400 people were killed and injured. The injured did not receive any medical help.
  3. There was nationwide protest against this act.
  4. Rabindranath Tagore gave up the title of Sir given by the British government.
  5. The Indians demanded an enquiry against this massacre. So the British government appointed Hunter commission.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 7 Non-co-operation Movement

Question 2.
Why did Gandhiji support the Khilafat movement?
Answer:

  1. Indian Muslims started a movement to support Khalifa known as the Khilafat Movement.
  2. Gandhiji felt that if Hindus and Muslims unitedly start a national movement then the government can be brought to its senses.
  3. Therefore, Gandhiji supported the Khilafat movement.
  4. The Khilafat committee accepted Gandhiji’s proposal and extended support to the Non-co-operation movement.

Question 3.
How was Simon Commission opposed in India?
Answer:

  1. The Indian National Congress boycotted the Simon Commission because there was not a single Indian in it.
  2. In 1928, when the commission arrived in India, people strongly protested against it shouting ‘Simon go back’.
  3. The police lathi charged the demonstrators. Lala Lajpat Rai himself led the demonstrators in Lahore.
  4. He was injured in lathi charge and succumbed to his injuries.

Question 4.
Why was Gandhiji sent to six years of imprisonment?
Answer:

  1. Gandhiji was arrested in March 1922 for writing three anti-national articles in ‘Young India’.
  2. His trial was conducted in a special court set up in Ahmedabad.
  3. The charges were levied against him. He was imprisoned for six years.

Read the passage and answer the questions given below :

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 7 Non-co-operation Movement 7

Question 1.
What was the pledge taken by Indians on 26th January 1930?
Answer:
On 26th January 1930, people all over the country took the pledge for carrying out of freedom movement with non-violent means for attainment of independence of India.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 7 Non-co-operation Movement

Question 2.
Why was the demand of Poorna Swaraj passed in Lahore session?
Answer:
1. The objective of Dominion Status was not acceptable to Pandit Nehru, Subash Chandra Bose and other young leaders.
2. Due to their influence, the resolution of demanding complete independence i.e. ‘Poorna Swaraj’ was passed in the Lahore session.

Question 3
Why was the Lahore session historic?
Answer:

  1. The Indian National Congress gave up the objective of Dominion Status.
  2. A resolution of complete independence was passed and it became the objective of the national movement.
  3. A resolution was passed to observe 26th January as the Independence Day.

Answer the following in detail :

Question 1.
Give an account of the Jallianwala Baug Massacre.
Answer:
Points :
(a) Preceding events
(b) Massacre
(c) Reactions

(a) Preceding events :

  1. The British government resorted to suppressive measures as the protest was more intense in Punjab province.
  2. Amritsar became the centre of this movement.
  3. Gandhiji was prohibited from entering the province of Punjab.
  4. General Dyer had banned public meetings in Amritsar.
  5. Dr. Satyapal and Dr. Kitchelu were arrested for their involvement in Amritsar Hartal case.

(b) Massacre :

  1. Despite the ban, a public meeting was held at Jallianwala Baug in Amritsar on 13th April 1919 on the occasion of Baisakhi.
  2. General Dyer deployed troops around the single gate that led to the ground. .
  3. Without giving any warning, he ordered unrestrained firing on the unarmed people who had assembled for the meeting.
  4. 1660 rounds were fired. The firing continued until the ammunition was over.
  5. About 400 men and women were killed.
  6. Curfew was announced after the firing which made it impossible for medical help to reach.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 7 Non-co-operation Movement

(c) Reactions :

  1. Military law was imposed in entire Punjab. Many were imprisoned.
  2. This led to discontent among the IndiAnswer:
  3. Rabindranath Tagore gave away the title of ‘Sir’ given by the British.
  4. As Indians demanded the enquiry, the British government appointed the Hunter Commission.

Question 2.
Give an account of the Non-co-operation.
Answer:

  1. According to Gandhiji, the British rule lasted in India only because of the co-operation extended by the IndiAnswer:
  2. If the Indians withdraw this co-operation and adopt complete non co-operation then the British government will collapse.
  3. With this intention, Gandhiji devised and executed Non-co-operation Movement.
  4. The Indian National Congress passed the resolution of Non-co-operation Movement at its Nagpur session in 1920.
  5. The reins of the movement was given in the hands of Gandhiji.
  6. According to this resolution there would be : (i) Boycott of government offices and courts, (ii) Boycott of government schools and colleges, (iii) Boycott of foreign goods and clothes.
  7. Boycott and bonfire of foreign clothes was seen at several places and demonstration in front of shops selling such goods.
  8. Motilal Nehru, Chittaranjan Das, etc. boycotted court by giving up their practice.
  9. Schools and colleges imparting national education were started.
  10. Elections were boycotted.
  11. The movement spread from the planters in Assam to rail workers in Bengal.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 7 Non-co-operation Movement

Question 3.
Do you feel that the nation still needs the constructive programme started by Mahatma Gandhi? Why?
Answer:

  • Gandhiji implemented the constructive programme along with Non¬co-operation Movement.
  • It included Hindu-Muslim unity, prohibition of alcohol, removal of untouchability, etc.
  • In spite of completion of 70 years of independence, these problems still exist.
  • Communal and religious riots take place. It causes great loss of life and property.

Therefore it is necessary to implement constructive programme in present times.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 6 Beginning of Freedom Movement

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 6 Beginning of Freedom Movement Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 6 Beginning of Freedom Movement

Class 8 History Chapter 6 Beginning of Freedom Movement Textbook Questions and Answers

1. (A) Rewrite the statements by choosing the appropriate options:

Question 1.
The Servants of India Society was founded by
(a) Ganesh Vasudev Joshi
(b) Bhau Daji Lad
(c) M. G. Ranade
(d) Gopal Krishna Gokhale
Answer:
(d) Gopal Krishna Gokhale

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 6 Beginning of Freedom Movement

Question 2.
The first session of Indian National Congress was held at
(a) Pune
(b) Mumbai
(c) Kolkata
(d) Lucknow
Answer:
(b) Mumbai

Question 3.
wrote Geeta Rahasya.
(a) Lokmanya Tilak
(b) Dadabhai Nowrojee
(c) Lala Lajpat Rai
(d) Bipinchandra Pal
Answer:
(a) Lokmanya Tilak

B. Write the Names :

Question 1.
Moderate leaders
(i) ……… (ii) ………
Answer:
(i) Gopal Krishna Gokhale
(ii) Ferozshah Mehta

Question 2.
Extremist leaders
(i) ……. (ii)………..
Answer:
(i) Lokmanya Tilak
(ii) Lala Lajpat Rai

2. Explain the following statements with reasons:

Question 1.
In the struggle for Independence, a sense of identity was awakened among the Indians.
Answer:

  1. Western education familiarised the educated Indians with modern values such as liberty, equality, democracy and nationalism.
  2. The Asiatic Society at Bengal edited and published hundreds of manuscripts in Sanskrit, Persian and other Indian languages.
  3. The realization that India had a rich ancient heritage aroused the feeling of national pride. This gave a sense of identity to Indians.

Question 2.
Two groups were formed in the Congress.
Answer:
1. Though at a slow pace, the contribution of Indian National Congress was consistent in the initial stage. But the extremists felt to intensify the freedom struggle.
2. Moderates and Extremists were unanimous about the objectives of Congress. But they had differences regarding the methods/ways to achieve it.
3. The moderates insisted on constitutional measures whereas extremists wanted to adopt severe methods.
4. The tension between these groups increased during the Surat session in 1907.
This led to the formation of two groups within the Congress.

Question 3.
Lord Curzon decided to partition Bengal.
Answer:
1. Bengal was a large province. So under the pretext of administrative convenience, the province of Bengal was partitioned by Lord Curzon.
2. Accordingly, the Muslim-majority East Bengal and the Hindu-Majority West Bengal were created in 1905.
3. The real motive was to create a divide between the Hindus and the Muslims and thereby weaken the nationalist movement. The British used the Policy of ‘Divide and Rule’.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 6 Beginning of Freedom Movement

3. Write short notes:

Question 1.
Objectives of the Indian National Congress :
Answer:
The Indian National Congress was established in 1885 with the following objectives:

  1. To bring together the people of India on a common platform.
  2. To create a feeling of unity among them, irrespective of religion, race, language, geographical territories.
  3. To provide opportunities to understand one another’s problems and views.
  4. To increase the feeling of unity among the people.
  5. To take measures for the upliftment of the country.

Question 2.
Anti Partition Movement :
Answer:

  1. With the motive to create a divide between the Hindus and the Muslims, Lord Curzon divided the province of Bengal in the Muslim-majority East Bengal and the Hindu-majority West Bengal in 1905.
  2. The day of partition, 16th October was observed as the ‘National Mourning Day’.
  3. All over India, protest meetings were organised to condemn the decision of the government.
  4. Singing of Vande Mataram and Raksha-bandhan programmes were arranged to mark the protest.
  5. Government-run schools and colleges were boycotted in large number by the students.
  6. Sensing the intensity and severity of dissatisfaction the British annulled the Partition of Bengal.

Question 3.
Four Point Programme of the Indian National Congress :
Answer:
In the session of 1906 of the Indian National Congress, the four-point programme was unanimously accepted.

  1. Swadeshi: To make use of capital, resources, manpower in our country so that it becomes self-sufficient.
  2. Boycott: It was decided to boycott foreign goods as a first step, and boycott of foreign rule be the next step. It would be an attack on the roots of British imperialism.
  3. Swaraj: The final objective is to attain freedom.
  4. National Education: To impart education which will create pride for the nation among people.

4. Explain the background behind the establishment of Indian National Congress with the help of following points:
1. Centralisation of administration
2. Economic exploitation
3. Western education
4. Study of Ancient Indian History
5. Role of newspapers
Answer:
The background behind the establishment of the Indian National Congress in 1885:

1. Centralisation of administration :

  1. The uniform policies, identical reforms and equality before law brought the nation under one roof.
  2. The network of roads and railways brought the people of India together.
  3. It developed the feeling of unity among Indians.

2. Economic exploitation :

  1. The economic exploitation of India through the imperialistic policies led to the drain of the Indian wealth to England.
  2. Industries declined and the farmers became bankrupt.
  3. Imposition of taxes on middle class and the exploitation of worker class by the capitalist led to growth of discontent.

3. Western education :

  1. Western education familiarised the educated Indians with modern values and principles such as liberty, equality and democracy.
  2. They accepted principles like rationalism, humanity and nationalism.
  3. They realised that they can carry out work of the country by following them.

4. Study of Ancient Indian History :

  1. The manuscripts in Sanskrit, Persian and many other languages were examined and research was published.
  2. Many western Scholars started to study Indian culture.
  3. The realisation that India had a rich ancient heritage aroused the feeling of national pride among Indians.

5. Role of newspapers :

  1. Newspapers in English and vernacular languages carried articles criticising the policies of the government.
  2. It led to social and political awakening.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 6 Beginning of Freedom Movement

Do you Know?

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 6 Beginning of Freedom Movement 1

Project:

Collect additional information about the leaders of the early phase of Indian National Congress with the help of the internet.

Class 8 History Chapter 6 Beginning of Freedom Movement Additional Important Questions and Answers

Rewrite the statements by choosing the appropriate options:

Question 1.
…………. newspaper was a mouthpiece of extremist ideology in Bengal.
(a) Dnyanoday
(b) Dnyanprakash
(c) Amrit Bazar Patrika
(d) Kesari
Answer:
(c) Amrit Bazar Patrika

Question 2.
………….. declared to give responsible political system to India.
(a) Montague
(b) Morley
(c) Dalhousie
(d) Chelmsford
Answer:
(a) Montague

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 6 Beginning of Freedom Movement

Question 3.
A committee under the leadership of met …………… Governor-General Lord Minto.
(a) Sir Sayyad Ahmad Khan
(b) Abdul Latif
(c) Baddrudin Tayyabji
(d) Aga Khan
Answer:
(d) Aga Khan

Question 4.
The Home Rule Movement was launched in …………. against Colonialism.
(a) South Africa
(b) Ireland
(c) Scotland
(d) Switzerland
Answer:
(b) Ireland

Question 5.
…………… was established in 1906.
(a) The Indian National Congress
(b) Moderate Party
(c) Extremist Party
(d) The Muslim League
Answer:
(d) The Muslim League

Identify the wrong pair and correct it:

(1) The first President of Indian National Congress
– Wyomesh Chandra Banerjee
(2) Assassinated Rand
– The Chapekhar Brothers
(3) He pronounced the word Swaraj for the first time
– Lokmanya Tilak
(4) The British officer who took initiative in forming the Indian National Congress.
– Allen Octavian Hume
Answer:
Wrong Pair: He pronounced the word Swaraj for the first time.
– Lokmanya Tilak
Corrected pair: He pronounced the word Swaraj for the first time
– Dadabhai Nowrojee.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 6 Beginning of Freedom Movement

Write the Names:

Question 1.
They studied ancient Indian culture
(i) ……… (ii) …….
Answer:
(i) Dr. Bhau Daji Lad
(ii) Dr. R.G. Bhandarkar

Question 2.
Leaders of Home Rule Movement
(i)……… (ii) ……
Answer:
(i) Dr. Annie Besant
(ii) Lokmanya Tilak.

Answer the following questions in one sentence each:

Question 1.
Which institute was established to study ancient Indian culture?
Answer:
The Asiatic Society was established in Bengal to study ancient Indian culture.

Question 2.
Which were the mediums initially used by the extremist leaders to create political awakening?
Answer:
The extremist leaders initially used the mediums of newspapers, national education and national festivals.

Question 3.
What was the objective of the extremist leaders in founding the educational institutions?
Answer:
The extremist leaders established educational institutions for creating a generation which will have concern for their own language and tradition.

Question 4.
Who led the Anti Partition Movement?
Answer:
Surendranath Banerjee, Anand Mohan Bose, Rabindranath Tagore and such other leaders led the Anti-Partition Movement.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 6 Beginning of Freedom Movement

Question 5.
How did Tilak criticise the Montague-Chelmsford Act?
Answer:
Lokmanya Tilak criticised the Moptague-Chelmsford Act in the following words, “This is neither Swaraj nor its foundation.”

Question 6.
What did Lokmanya Tilak firmly state?
Answer: Lokmanya firmly stated that “Swaraj is my birthright and I shall have it.”

Complete the graphical presentation:

Question 1.
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 6 Beginning of Freedom Movement 2
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 6 Beginning of Freedom Movement 3

Question 2.
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 6 Beginning of Freedom Movement 4
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 6 Beginning of Freedom Movement 5
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 6 Beginning of Freedom Movement 6

Question 3.
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 6 Beginning of Freedom Movement 6
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 6 Beginning of Freedom Movement 7

Explain the Concept :

Question 1.
Moderates :
Answer:

  1. The Moderates were the leaders who wanted to carry out nationalistic movement within the constitutional methods and peaceful meAnswer:
  2. The leaders were realistic and highly educated and had faith in the justice of the British.
  3. They had hope that if they place their demands in constitutional manner the British will give justice to their demands.
  4. They were aware that a strong foundation needs to be built through organised work.
  5. The philosophy and principles of western thinkers like liberalism, freedom, equality, fraternity influenced them.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 6 Beginning of Freedom Movement

Question 2.
Extremists :
Answer:

  1. The leaders of the Indian National Congress who advocated intensification of the struggle to attain freedom were known as Extremists.
  2. Moderates and Extremists were unanimous about the objectives of Congress. The Extremists had no faith in the constitutional methods of the Moderates.
  3. According to Extremists, freedom will be attained only if lakhs of people participated in the freedom movement and challenge the British government.

Write short notes :

Question 1.
First session of Indian National Congress :
Answer:

  1. The founding session of the Indian National Congress took place on 28th December, 1885 at Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit school in Mumbai.
  2. It was presided by Wyomesh Chandra Banerjee, a renowned lawyer from Kolkata.
  3. It was attended by seventy-two delegates from different provinces of India.
  4. Allen Oct avian Hume took the initiative in establishing of the Indian National Congress.
  5. Increase in the number of Indians in the administration, reduction in military expenditure were the demands placed before the British government.

Question 2.
Servants of India Society :
Answer:
1. Gopal Krishna Gokhale founded the Servants of India Society in 1905.
2. Its main objectives were :

  • to create love for the county.
  • teach them sacrifice of self-interest.
  • no differentiation on the basis of caste and religion.
  • to create social harmony.
  • to spread education.

Question 3.
The Lucknow Pact :
Answer:

  1. An attempt was made under the leadership of Lokmanya Tilak to resolve differences in the Indian National Congress at its Lucknow session in 1916.
  2. In the same year, there was an agreement between Indian National Congress and the Muslim League, known as the Lucknow Pact.
  3. According to this Pact, Indian National Congress agreed to separate electorate for Muslims.
  4. In return, the Muslim League agreed to support the Indian National Congress in its work for getting political rights to India.

Question 4.
Home Rule Movement :
Answer:

  1. Home rule means self-rule or self-government.
  2. It was modelled after the Home Rule Movement in Ireland.
  3. It was led by Dr. Annie Besant and Lokmanya Tilak.
  4. They made extensive tours in different parts of the country so that the demand of self-government could reach the common people.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 6 Beginning of Freedom Movement

Explain the following statements with reasons:

Question 1.
A feeling of nationalism developed among the IndiAnswer:
Answer:

  1. The British established a centralised administration in India and applied uniform policies all over the country.
  2. They also laid down the principle of equality before law.
  3. They introduced the modern means of transport and communication.
  4. It benefited Indians as well. This made possible for the people living in different parts of India to establish contact with one another. This factors developed a feeling of nationalism among the Indians.

Question 2.
Lokmanya was imprisoned in 1897.
Answer:

  1. In 1897, hundreds of people died in Pune due to the epidemic of Plague.
  2. An officer name Rand was appointed to bring the epidemic under control.
  3. He started a search campaign to find Plague patients and adopted oppressive measures.
  4. To avenge this cruel and oppressive treatment meted out to people, the Chapekar brothers assassinated him.
  5. An unsuccessful attempt was made by the government to connect Lokmanya Tilak with this conspiracy.
  6. When they failed in their attempt, they imprisoned him with revenge.

Question 3.
The National Congress split at its Surat session in 1907.
Answer:

  1. The differences between the moderates and the extremists reached a climax in 1907.
  2. The moderates wanted to keep aside the resolution of Swadeshi and Boycott which was thwarted by the extremists.
  3. Some moderate leaders blamed the extremist leaders for trying to capture the Indian National Congress.
  4. It became impossible to arrive at a compromise between both the groups. As a result the Indian National Congress split at its Surat session in 1907.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 6 Beginning of Freedom Movement

Question 4.
The charge of sedition was put on Lokmanya Tilak.
Answer:

  1. There was wide protest against the partition of Bengal throughout the country.
  2. With a view to restrain the anti¬partition movements government resorted to many suppressive measures.
  3. Strict action was taken against extremists leaders which caused severe reactions in Bengal.
  4. The revolutionaries adopted means of firing and bomb blasts which was advocated by Lokmanya Tilak through his newspaper Kesari.

Therefore, the charge of sedition was put on Lokmanya Tilak by the British government for which he was sent to Mandalay jail for 6 years.

Question 5.
The government passed the Morley- Minto Act.
Answer:
1. The economic policies of the British increased poverty in India.
2. It created dissatisfaction in the minds of the people against British rule.
3. The oppressive measures adopted by Lord Curzon to suppress the protest of partition of Bengal, exclusion of educated Indians in government services and the unjust treatment towards Indians in Africa all this added to the dissatisfaction among the IndiAnswer:
4. Morley-Minto reforms were passed by the British government as a temporary remedy to calm discontent among the IndiAnswer:

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 6 Beginning of Freedom Movement

Question 6.
The Montague-Chelmsford Act disappointed the people of India.
Answer:
The Montague-Chelmsford Act disappointed the people of India, because

  1. The British Government had declared its intention to gradually grant the right to self-rule and responsible government in 1917.
  2. In 1919, the British Parliament passed an act to bring constitutional reforms in India.
  3. According to the Act, less important departments were transferred to Indian ministers and important departments like Finance, Home affairs and Revenue was kept with the Governor.
  4. Thus, it belied the hope that the Act would lay foundation of responsible government in India and disappointed the people.

Answer the following questions in 25-30 words:

Question 1.
What realisation led to the emergence of a political organisation on all India level?
Answer:

  1. English educated Indians were instrumental to bring about Renaissance.
  2. They launched reform movements in social, political, religious, economic and cultural field in different parts of the country.
  3. The political organisations in different parts of the country formed during various movements felt the need to create a political organisation on an all India level having common goal.
  4. It was necessary to bring together groups and people who had political awareness.
  5. It was necessary to draw attention of the people towards questions of the nation. This led to the emergence of a political organization on all India level.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 6 Beginning of Freedom Movement

Question 2.
State the impact of imperialistic policy of the British on India.
Answer:

  1. The economic exploitation of India through the imperialistic policies led to the drain of the Indian wealth to England.
  2. The compulsion to grow cash crops, burden of land taxes and recurring famines made conditions of farmers miserable. All these broke the backbone of the Indian agriculture.
  3. With the decline of traditional industries, there was increase in unemployment.
  4. The workers were exploited by the capitalists.
  5. The middle class suffered due to imposition of various new taxes.
    This was the impact of the British imperialist policy which led to discontent among the IndiAnswer:

Question 3.
State the impact of western education?
Answer:

  1. Due to spread of western education, new ideas like Justice, Liberty, Equality, Democracy, etc. were introduced to the IndiAnswer:
  2. The young Indians imbibed the values like rationalism, humanity, nationalism and scientific attitude.
  3. They developed a feeling that they could carry out the work of the country.
  4. English became the new medium of communication.

Question 4.
What message did Dadabhai Nowrojee give at the session of Congress in 1906?
Answer:
At the session of the Indian National Congress in 1906, Dadabhai Nowrojee pronounced the word ‘Swaraj’ for the first time. He gave the message

  1. to remain united.
  2. try sincerely and fulfill the aim of Swaraj so that those who are poor, hungry and having diseases could be saved,
  3. India to get respectable position among the developed countries.

Question 5.
Write about the process of formation of Muslim League.
Answer:

  1. The British got very disturbed by the overwhelming public response to the Indian National Congress in the anti-partition movement.
  2. They once again resorted to the policy of ‘Divide and rule’.
  3. Many British officers suggested that a separate political organisation was necessary to safeguard the interests of the Muslims.
  4. Due to motivation of British government, under the leadership of Aga Khan a committee of upper-class Muslims met Governor-General Lord Minto.
  5. Thus, encouraged by Lord Minto and other British officers, the Muslim League was formed in 1906.

Question 6.
What were the provisions of Morley- Minto Act?
Answer:
1. The Morley-Minto Act of 1909 provided for increase of the number of Indian members in the legislatures and the inclusion of some elected Indian members.
2. It created separate electorates for the Indian Muslims.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 6 Beginning of Freedom Movement

Question 7.
What is Responsive Cooperation?
Answer:
1. India had to face the brunt of First World War which led to growing dissatisfaction among people.
2. To curb their dissatisfaction and get cooperation, Montague, the Secretary of State for India, declared in 1917 that Britain would gradually grant the right to self-rule and a responsible government to India. ,
3. Lokmanya Tilak declared that if the British Government showed sympathy and a considerate attitude to the demands of the people then the people of India would cooperate with the government. This is called ‘Responsive Cooperation’.

Write answer in details :

Question 1.
Give a brief account of the work of Extremist leaders in India’s freedom struggle.
Answer:

  1. Extremist leaders Lokmanya Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, Lala Lajpat Rai advocated intensification of the struggle since the British did not respond to the petitions and appeals.
  2. ) Initially, they used the mediums of newspapers, national festivals and national education to bring about political awakening.
  3. They formed educational institutions to sow the seeds of nationalism in society and to create a generation which will show concern about their language and tradition.
  4. Lokmanya Tilak severely criticised the suppressive policies or the British through the newspapers like ‘Kesari’ and ‘Maratha’.
  5. Lokmanya Tilak started Ganesh Utsav and Shiv Jayanti to bring people together.
  6. The leaders did not adopt the means of armed revolution but insisted on extensive agitations.
  7. Swaraj, Swadeshi, National Education and Boycott was the four-point ‘ programme accepted.
  8. The Moderates laid the foundation of freedom struggle and the Extremists carried it forward.

Question 3.
Which measures were taken by the : British government to suppress the Anti-Partition Movement?
Answer:
The British government adopted following measures to suppress the anti-partition movement:

  1. The public meetings were banned.
  2. Strict punishment was given to those who broke the law.
  3. Even school children were beaten up.
  4. Many restrictions were imposed on the newspapers.
  5. The British confiscated many printing/presses on false ground of criticising the ; government.
  6. Writers and editors were imprisoned.
  7. Strict actions were taken against many extremist leaders.
  8. Lokmanya Tilak was sent to Mandalay jail at Myanmar for 6 years on the charge of sedition.
  9. Bipin Chandra Pal was sent to jail and Lala Lajpat Rai was deported out of Punjab.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 6 Beginning of Freedom Movement

Identify the picture and write about his contribution to the freedom struggle.
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 6 Beginning of Freedom Movement 8
Answer:

  1. The Above picture is of Lokmanya Tilak.
  2. He started the newspapers Kesari and Maratha.
  3. He started festivals like Ganesh Utsav and Shiv Jayanti for people to come together and get inspiration from contribution of national personalities.
  4. The bomb attacks by the revolutionary was advocated through newspaper Kesari and Maratha.
  5. Due to this, he was charged with sedition and put in Mandalay jail for 6 years.
  6. When he was in Mandalay prison he wrote Geetarahasya which advocated philosophy of Karmayoga and stressed upon the people to always remain in action.
  7. An attempt was made under his leadership to resolve differences between two groups in the Indian National Congress in its session of 1916.
  8. He started the Home Rule Movement along with Dr. Annie Besant.
  9. He travelled in different parts of India so that the demand for self government reach the common man.
  10. He firmly declared, ‘Swaraj is my birth right and I shall have it.’
  11. He criticised the Montague Chelmsford Reform Act when it failed to fulfill the demand of responsible government.

Question 4.
Do you feel the four-fold programme implemented by Indian National Congress needs to be implemented even today? Why?
Answer:
In the pre-independence period, Indian National Congress implemented the four-fold programme of Swaraj, Swadeshi, Boycott and National education. The programme needs to be implemented today but with slight changes.

1. Swaraj: Today we have political freedom but we lack good Governance. Common man, farmer, women and the backward classes still suffer.

2. Swadeshi: In the world of Globalisation, goods from other countries have entered Indian markets. It is necessary for the Indian industries to implement programme of Swadeshi to sustain.

3. Boycott: It is not possible to boycott foreign goods but we should insist on indigenous goods wherever possible.

4. National education: Schools in India impart education catering to different needs and ideologies but they fall short to create national pride and imparting character training.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 5 Social and Religious Reforms

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 5 Social and Religious Reforms Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 5 Social and Religious Reforms

Class 8 History Chapter 5 Social and Religious Reforms Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Rewrite the statements by choosing the appropriate options:
(Sir Sayyad Ahmad Khan, Maharshi Dhondo Karve, Abdul Latif, Swami Vivekananda, Maharshi Vitthal Ramji Shinde)

Question 1.
………….. established the Ramkrishna Mission.
Answer:
Swami Vivekananda

Question 2.
The Anglo-Mohammedan Oriental College was established by………….. .
Answer:
Sir Sayyad Ahmad Khan

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 5 Social and Religious Reforms

Question 3.
The Depressed Classes Mission was founded by ……………. .
Answer:
Maharshi Vitthal Ramji Shinde

2. Complete the following table:

Question 1.
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 5 Social and Religious Reforms 1
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 5 Social and Religious Reforms 2

3. Explain the following statements with reasons:

Question 1.
The social and religious reform movement began in India.
Answer:

  1. With the spread of English education in India, there was spread of new ideas, new thoughts, new philosophy.
  2. Indians got introduced to western thoughts and culture.
  3. They wanted to create a society based on principles of Humanity, Equality and Fraternity.
  4. They realised that the flaws like superstitions, casteism, old customs, class system and lack of critical outlook is responsible for the backwardness of India.
  5. This association was responsible for social and religious reform in India.

Question 2.
Mahatma Phule conducted a strike of Barbers.
Answer:

  1. There was a custom of Keshavapan, i.e. shaving head of widows in India.
  2. In order to oppose this unjust custom, Mahatma Phule conducted a strike of Barbers.

4. Write short note:

Question 1.
Ramkrishna Mission :
Answer:

  1. Swami Vivekananda, a close disciple of Ramkrishna Paramhansa, founded the Ramkrishna Mission in 1897.
  2. The mission carried out social work like providing help to famine-stricken people, patients and gave medical help to the poor and worked for female education.
  3. It taught people service to humanity is a true religion and worked towards spiritual progress of the people.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 5 Social and Religious Reforms

Question 2.
Reforms for women by Savitribai Phule:
Answer:

  1. Savitribai Phule, wife of Mahatma Phule, advocated women’s education along with him.
  2. She supported her husband in his efforts to start first school for girls at Bhide Wada in Pune.
  3. She continued her work in the field of education though she faced severe criticism from the society.
  4. She put great efforts in women reform movement which resulted in putting an end to many unjust practices.

Do you know?

Renaissance in other fields/areas :

Sr. No. Field/ Area Changes/Progress
1. Literature 1) Stories and novels dealt with the themes related with social reforms. Writing by women authors.
2) Newspapers and magazines became the carriers of social reform and political awakening.
2. Art 1) Music became people-oriented.
2) Traditional Indian style of painting was combined with western techniques.
3. Science 1) Writing of books on science emphasized scientific outlook.
2) People realised the importance of experimentation and scientific outlook for progress.

Project:

Question 1.
Organise an essay competition on the topic ‘Education of women’.

Question 2.
Collect the paragraphs of social reformers.

Class 8 History Chapter 5 Social and Religious Reforms Additional Important Questions and Answers

Rewrite the statements by choosing the appropriate options:
(Sir Sayyad Ahmad Khan, Maharshi Dhondo Karve, Abdul Latif, Swami Vivekananda, Maharshi Vitthal Ramji Shinde)

Question 1.
Through the efforts of ……….. first women’s university was set up in the 20th century.
Answer:
Maharshi Dhondo Karve

Question 2.
………….. established The Mohammedan Literary Society in Bengal.
Answer:
Abdul Latif.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 5 Social and Religious Reforms

Name the following :

Question 1.
He founded Hindu College at Kolkata.
Answer:
Raja Rammohan Roy

Question 2.
First president of Prarthana Samaj.
Answer:
Dr. Atmaram Pandurang Tarkhadkar

Question 3.
‘Go Back to the Vedas’ was the slogan of this Institution.
Answer:
Arya Samaj

Question 4.
He represented Hinduism at the Parliament of Religions at Chicago in 1893.
Answer:
Swami Vivekananda.

Identify the wrong pair:

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 5 Social and Religious Reforms 1
Answer:
Wrong pair: Dr. Keshav Baliram
Hedgewar – Founded Hindu Mahasabha
Corrected pair: Dr. Keshav Baliram
Hedgewar – founded Rashtriya
Swayam- Sevak Sangh.

Rewrite the statements by choosing the appropriate options:

Question 1.
Raja Rammohan Roy helped Governor General ……… to pass the Sati Prohibition Act.
(a) Lord Wellesley
(b) Lord Bentinck
(c) Robert Clive
(d) Lord Cornwallis
Answer:
Lord Bentinck

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 5 Social and Religious Reforms

Question 2.
Gopal Ganesh Agarkar gave his staunch opinion about child marriage, law of consent in his newspaper ………… .
(a) Maratha
(b) Darpan
(c) Sudharak
(d) Dnyanoday
Answer:
Sudharak

Question 3.
……….. started the Nursing Course for Women through Seva Sadan Institute.
(a) Tarabai Shinde
(b) Ramabai Ranade
(c) Savitribai Phule
(d) Pandita Ramabai
Answer:
Ramabai Ranade

Question 4.
………… continued tradition of reformation in Sikh religion.
(a) Singh Sabha
(b) Akali movement
(c) Arya Samaj
(d) Prarthana Samaj
Answer:
Akali movement

Question 5.
Lokhitwadi advocated gender equality through his writings in ………… .
(a) Sudharak
(b) Kesari
(c) Shatpatre
(d) Darpan
Answer:
(c) Shatpatre

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 5 Social and Religious Reforms

Do as Directed:

Complete the concept map:
Question 1.
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 5 Social and Religious Reforms 2
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 5 Social and Religious Reforms 3

Question 2.
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 5 Social and Religious Reforms 4
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 5 Social and Religious Reforms 5

Question 3.
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 5 Social and Religious Reforms 6
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 5 Social and Religious Reforms 7

2. Complete the timeline:

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 5 Social and Religious Reforms 8
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 5 Social and Religious Reforms 9

Answer the following in one sentence each :

Question 1.
What message was given by Swami Vivekanand to the Indian youth?
Answer:
‘Arise, Awake and stop not till the goal is achieved’ was the message given by Swami Vivekanand to the Indian youth.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 5 Social and Religious Reforms

Question 2.
Write about the work of Singh Sabha.
Answer:
The Singh Sabha worked to achieve reforms, to spread education among the Sikh community and bring in modernisation among them

Question 3.
What were the principles of Prarthana Samaj?
Answer:
The opposition to idol worship, monotheism and opposition to rituals were the principles of Prarthana Samaj.

Question 4.
Which social reformers worked for the cause of widow remarriage?
Answer:
Pandit Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar, Vishnushastri Pandit and Vireshlingam Pantalu worked for the cause of widow remarriage.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 5 Social and Religious Reforms

Question 5.
Who started ‘Anath Balikashram’?
Answer:
Maharshi Dhondo Keshav Karve started Anath Balikashram, an orphanage for girls, to give education to all women so that they become independent.

Question 6.
Who received the Nobel Prize and in which field?
Answer:
Rabindranath Tagore received Nobel in the field of literature and C. V. Raman for Science.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 5 Social and Religious Reforms

Question 7.
What was The Mohammedan Anglo Oriental College later known as?
Answer:
The Mohammedan Anglo Oriental College was later known as the Aligarh Muslim University.

Write short note:

Question 1.
Prarthana Samaj :
Answer:
(1) Paramhansa Sabha was dissolved and some of its members formed Prarthana Samaj.
(2) Dr. Atmaram Pandurang was its first President.
(3) They opposed idol worship, monotheism and advocated prayers and devotional songs instead of rituals in place of worship of God.
(4) The important contribution of Prarthana Samaj in reforming the society was that it started orphanages, women’s education institutes, night schools for workers and society for Dalits.
(5) The prestige of Prarthana Samaj rose immensely due to the enrollment of young graduates from Mumbai University.
(6) Justice Ranade, Dr. R. G. Bhandarkar carried the work of Prarthana Samaj forward.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 5 Social and Religious Reforms

Question 2.
Sir Sayyad Ahmed Khan :
Answer:

  1.  Sir Sayyad Ahmad Khan worked for the cause of Muslims.
  2. He believed that the Muslims would not make progress without acquiring western education and science.
  3. He founded ‘The Mohammedan Anglo Oriental College’ which later became Aligarh Muslim University.

Answer the following in 25 to 30 words:

Question 1.
Write about the contribution of Maharshi Vitthal Ramji Shinde.
Answer:

  1. Maharshi Vitthal Ramji Shinde was member of Prarthana Samaj, contributed in reforming society.
  2. He started the ‘Depressed Class Mission’.
  3. He tried to solve problems in society through this mission.
  4. He organised conference against the practice of Devdasi in Mumbai.

Question 2.
Write about the efforts taken to unite Hindu Society.
Answer:

  1. Hindu Mahasabha was formed in 1915 to achieve respectful position of Hindu community and protect it.
  2. Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya founded the ‘Banaras Hindu University’.
  3. Dr. Keshav Baliram Hedgewar established Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh in 1925 at Nagpur to set up a disciplinary and virtuous organisation of Hindu youth.
  4. Patit Pawan Temple built by V. D. Savarkar at Ratnagiri was open to all castes of Hindu religion. He also organized common dining programmes.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 5 Social and Religious Reforms

Question 3.
Give a brief account of the work of women social reformers for the emancipation of women.
Answer:
The women reformers contributed in the following way to improve the condition of women :

  1. Savitribai Phule faced severe criticism of society but continued her work in the field of education.
  2. Tarabai Shinde wrote the book ‘Stri Purush Tulana’ in which she fiercely put her views about the rights of women.
  3. Pandita Ramabai founded the Sharada Sadan and took care of disabled women and children.
  4. Ramabai Ranade founded the Seva Sadan Institute. She started the Nursing course for women as well as demanded the right to vote for them.

Question 4.
State the outcome of women reform movement.
Answer:

  1. The women’s reforms movement resulted in putting an end to many unjust practices in the society.
  2. They voiced their problems and made efforts to find solution to them.
  3. The women got opportunities to prove their capabilities in different fields.
  4. Women started expressing their ideas, thoughts through writing.
  5. Their performance flourished in every sphere of life due to education.

Question 5.
What changes came about in the field of Science, Art and Literature during Indian Renaissance?
Answer:
The following changes were seen in the field of Science, Art and Literature during Indian Renaissance :
(A) Science :

  1. C. V. Raman received the Nobel Prize in Science.
  2. Many books were written on science which emphasized scientific outlook.
  3. People realised the importance of experimentation and scientific outlook for progress of the country.

(B) Art :

  1. Music became more popular and people-oriented.
  2. A new school of painting combining traditional Indian style of painting with the western techniques emerged.

(C) Literature :

  1. Rabindranath Tagore received the Nobel Prize in literature.
  2. Stories and novels gave inspiration in gaining independence and expressed thoughts on social reforms.
  3. Women took to writing.
  4. New magazines and newspapers became sources of inspiration and political awakening.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 5 Social and Religious Reforms

Write short note :

Question 1.
The condition of women was miserable in the beginning of nineteenth century.
Answer:
The condition of women during the British period was very miserable in India, because :

  1. They had no right to education.
  2. There was no equality between men and women.
  3. Women were victims of child marriage, dowry system, sati, Keshavapan, opposition to widow remarriage.

Answer the following in detail :

Question 1.
Write briefly about Indian Renaissance.
Answer:
1. The modern educated Indians realised that the unhealthy social conditions and customs like casteism, superstitions, old customs, class system and lack of critical outlook had arrested the progress of India.
2. Rise in the spread of new ideas, new thoughts, new philosophy marked the beginning of modern age.
3. It was necessary to eradicate the flaws and undesirable tendencies in order to create a new society based on principles of Humanity, Equality and Fraternity.
4. They started finding new ways for development of society and country. Educated thinkers started social awareness through writings.
5. This intellectual awakening in the contemporary society in India is called the Indian Renaissance.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 5 Social and Religious Reforms

Question 2.
Give a brief account of the work of social reformers for the betterment of women.
Answer:

  1. Raja Rammohan Roy launched agitations against practice of Sati.
  2. It led to the enactment of the Sati Prohibition Act in 1829.
  3. He advocated widow remarriage and female education and opposed Purdah system.
  4. Gopal Hari Deshmukh (Lokhitwadi) criticized the unjust social customs related to women and advocated equality of men and women through his writings in ‘Shatapatre’.
  5. Mahatma Phule gave importance to 2 girl’s education. He started first school for i girls at Bhide Wada in Pune.
  6. Through his writings Babasaheb Ambedkar exposed injustice inflicted on women.
  7. Mahatma Gandhi advocated education for women.
  8. Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Vishnushastri Pandit and Vireshlingam Pantalu strove for the recognition of the right to remarriage for the widows.
  9. Gopal Ganesh Agarkar gave his staunch opinion about child marriage and j law of consent in his newspaper ‘Sudharak’.
  10. Maharshi Vitthal Ramji Shinde organised a conference to oppose practice of Devdasi.
  11. Maharshi Dhondo Keshav Karve founded the Anath Balikashram for orphan girls and later the first Women’s University.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 5 Social and Religious Reforms

Question 3.
What would have happened if social reformers had not taken initiative for women education?
Answer:
We have seen many social reformers in the last 100-150 years. They not only insisted on women education but also took efforts to make it reality.
If they had not taken efforts towards women education then:

  1. Women would have still remained illiterate and would have easily fallen prey to superstitions.
  2. They would have to carry burden of age old customs and traditions.
  3. Illiterate women could not contribute to the development of family, society and nation.
  4. Today they work hand in hand with their male counterparts because they are educated.

Question 4.
What changes have been made in the life of women due to education?
Answer:
Education has brought lot of changes in the life of women.

  1. Women started taking jobs, doing business which made them financially independent.
  2. They are working and competing along with men in every field.
  3. Educated women freed themselves from the clutches of superstitions.
  4. Educated women have become strong enough to face the injustice of society.
  5. The principle of equality is put into practice because of their education.
  6. As woman got educated she contributed for development of her family and country.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 5 Social and Religious Reforms

Question 5.
Do you still feel there is need to make efforts for women’s education? If yes, then what efforts need to be made?
Answer:

  1. I feel we still need to make efforts on girls’ education because among illiterates and less educated the number of women is more.
  2. The number of illiterate girls in rural and tribal areas is more.
  3. It is important to explain importance of girls’ education. Reforms are still required.
  4. To make people understand the benefit of girls’ education, documentaries and advertisements should be made.
  5. We need to take help of modern technology to achieve it.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Effects of British Rule

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Effects of British Rule Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Effects of British Rule

Class 8 History Chapter 3 Effects of British Rule Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Rewrite the statements by choosing the appropriate options:

Question 1.
Portuguese, ………….., French, British participated in the competition of capturing Indian market.
(a) Austrian
(b) Dutch
(c) German
(d) Swedish
Answer:
(b) Dutch

Question 2.
In 1802, Peshwa ………….. signed the Subsidiary Alliance with the British.
(a) Bajirao I
(b) Sawai Madhavrao
(c) Peshwa Nanasaheb
(d) Bajirao II
Answer:
(d) Bajirao II

Question 3.
Jamshedjee Tata started the manufacturing of steel at Tata Iron and Steel Industry established in ………….. .
(a) Mumbai
(b) Kolkata
(c) Jamshedpur
(d) Delhi
Answer:
(c) Jamshedpur

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Effects of British Rule

2. Explain the following concept:

Question 1.
Civil Services :
Answer:

  1. There was a need of bureaucrats to strengthen the British rule in India.
  2. Lord Cornwallis introduced Civil Services which became an important part of the British government.
  3. The territories occupied by the British were divided into districts for administrative convenience. The district administration was headed by Collector.
  4. The officers appointed through the Civil Services (ICS) were taken into administrative services.

Question 2.
Commercialisation of Agriculture :
Answer:

  1. In the pre-British period, farmers used to cultivate food grains to fulfill domestic need as well as need of the village.
  2. The British government gave encouragements to the cultivation of cash crops like indigo, cotton, tobacco, tea, etc.
  3. The shift from cultivation of foodgrains to profit-yielding cash crops is known as Commercialisation of Agriculture.

Question 3.
Economic Policy of British :
Answer:

  1. Capitalist economy prevailed in England due to the Industrial Revolution.
  2. This system was brought to India to nurture the British economy.
  3. It resulted in the economic gains for England but exploitation and impoverishment of India.

3. Explain the following statements with reasons:

Question 1.
Farmers in India became bankrupt.
Answer:
The British made number of changes in the existing system to increase the revenue.

  1. The payment of revenue was made compulsory in cash and within the prescribed time limit.
  2. Land was confiscated if the revenue was not paid in time.
  3. The land revenue collection differed from place to place which resulted in the exploitation of the farmers.
  4. Farmers were forced to sell their produce to the merchants and middlemen at a low price in order to pay revenue.
  5. Farmers mortgaged land to pay tax and became indebted to moneylenders.

In this way, the farmers became bankrupt in India.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Effects of British Rule

Question 2.
There was decline of traditional industries in India.
Answer:

  1. The British government levied heavy duty on the goods exported from India to England.
  2. The goods imported from England were produced in factories on a large scale and at minimum cost.
  3. The duty levied on them by British was far too less.
  4. So, these goods were cheap as compared to traditional goods.
  5. The Indian artisans found it difficult to compete with low priced British goods.
  6. Eventually, this led to closing down of traditional industries in India.

4. Complete the following table:

Question.
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Effects of British Rule 1
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Effects of British Rule 2

Do You Know?

Work done by Chhatrapati Pratapsingh :
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Effects of British Rule 3

  1. Water tank was built on back side of Yevteshwar temple and Mahadara which supplied water to Satara city.
  2. He built roads and planted trees on both the sides.
  3. Sanskrit, Marathi and English was taught to girls and boys in schools.
  4. Printing press was set up and many books were published.
  5. A book titled ‘Sabhaniti’ was printed on polity in 1827.
  6. A road connecting Satara to Mahabaleshwar to Pratapgad was built by him which was further extended to Mahad.aqs

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Effects of British Rule

Project:

Prepare detailed information with pictures about the development by British in administration, education, transport and communication in India.

Class 8 History Chapter 3 Effects of British Rule Additional Important Questions and Answers

Rewrite the statements by choosing the appropriate options:

Question 1.
………….. was the main centre of British in western India.
(a) Surat
(b) Cochin
(c) Goa
(d) Mumbai
Answer:
(d) Mumbai

Question 2.
With the treaty of ……………. in 1782 the first Anglo-Maratha war came to an end.
(a) Wadgaon
(b) Vasai
(c) Salbai
(d) Ahmednagar
Answer:
(c) Salbai

Question 3.
In 1848, Lord Dalhousie rejected the adoption policy and annexed the state of ………… .
(a) Pune
(b) Kolhapur
(c) Sangli
(d) Satara
Answer:
(d) Satara

Question 4.
A committee was set up to create a Code of Law, under the leadership of ………… .
(a) Lord Cornwallis
(b) Lord Macaulay
(c) Lord Warren Hastings
(d) Lord Robert Clive
Answer:
(b) Lord Macaulay

Question 5.
……………. started the first textile mill in 1853 at Mumbai.
(a) Jamshedji Tata
(b) Ratan Tata
(c) Kawasjee Nanabhoy Davar
(d) Jamshedji Jeejibhoy
Answer:
(c) Kawasjee Nanabhoy Davar

Question 6.
The first jute mill was set up at in Bengal.
(a) Kolkata
(b) Rishra
(c) Hooghli
(d) Dhakka
Answer:
(b) Rishra

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Effects of British Rule

Question 7.
The territory under the control of the English was divided into ………… for the convenience of administration.
(a) Subhas
(b) districts
(c) Paraganas
(d) mahajanpadas
Answer:
(b) districts

Question 8.
The process of giving stress on cultivation of cash crops instead of food grains is known as …………. of agriculture.
(a) Commercialisation
(b) Liberalisation
(c) Globalisation
(d) Rotation
Answer:
(a) Commercialisation

Question 9.
…………… wrote the book ‘Sabhaniti’ in 1827.
(a) Bajirao II
(b) Rango Bapuji Gupte
(c) Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj
(d) Chhatrapati Pratapsingh
Answer:
(d) Chhatrapati Pratapsingh

Question 10.
A German thinker …………… was a devout scholar of Indian religion, language and history.
(a) Max Mueller
(b) Lord Macaulay
(c) John Stuart Elphistone
(d) William Jones
Answer:
(a) Max Mueller

Name the following:

Question 1.
He started Subsidiary Alliance.
Answer:
Lord Wellesley

Question 2.
First Governor General according to the Regulating Act.
Answer:
Lord Warren Hastings

Question 3.
He started Dual Government system in Bengal.
Answer:
Robert Clive

Question 4.
Recommended English education in India.
Answer:
Lord Macaulay

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Effects of British Rule

Question 5.
Loyal officer of Chhatrapati Pratapsingh.
Answer:
Rango Bapuji Gupte.

Answer the following questions in one sentence each:

Question 1.
How were the officers in administrative services appointed?
Answer:
The officers in the administrative services were appointed through competitive examination known as Indian Civil Services (ICS).

Question 2.
Which principle was introduced by the British in the administration of Justice?
Answer:
The British introduced the principle of ‘equality before law’ in the administration of justice all over British India.

Question 3.
Which factors hindered the growth of new industries in India?
Answer:
The growth of new industries in India was hindered by the lack of British support, capital and experience of management.

Question 4.
Which cash crops were encouraged by the British Government?
Answer:
The British Government gave more encouragement to cash crops like cotton, indigo, tobacco, tea, etc.

Question 5.
Where were the universities established in 1857?
Answer:
The universities were established in Mumbai, Kolkata and Madras (Chennai) in 1857.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Effects of British Rule

Question 6.
What was the effect of development of modern means of transport and communication ?
Answer:
The development of modern means of transport and communication helped to improve communication between the people and strengthened their sense of unity between Indians.

Question 7.
Which values shaped the new era in the 19th century Europe?
Answer:
The new era in the 19th century Europe was shaped on the values humanitarianism, democracy, nationalism and liberalism.

Do as Directed:

1. Complete the concept map:

Question 1.
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Effects of British Rule 4
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Effects of British Rule 5

Question 2.
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Effects of British Rule 6
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Effects of British Rule 7

Question 3.
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Effects of British Rule 8
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Effects of British Rule 9

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Effects of British Rule

Question 4.
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Effects of British Rule 10
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Effects of British Rule 11

2. Complete the following table:

Question 1.
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Effects of British Rule 12
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Effects of British Rule 13

3. Complete the timeline:

Question 1.
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Effects of British Rule 14
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Effects of British Rule 15

Explain the following concept:

Question 1.
Dual Government :
Answer:
1. The British East India Company in order to consolidate rule introduced new system of governance in India known as Dual Government.
2. It was introduced by Robert Clive in Bengal in 1765 wherein the East India Company took over the revenue collection. The maintenance of law and order was the responsibility of the Nawab of Bengal.

Answer the following in 25-30 words:

Question 1.
What were the conditions laid in Subsidiary Alliance?
Answer:
Lord Wellesley signed Subsidiary Alliance with many Indian rulers in 1798.
Its conditions were :

  1. Indian rulers should keep the British army in their Court.
  2. They have to pay the company towards the maintenance of these forces in cash or a part of their territory of equivalent amount of revenue.
  3. Without the intervention of the British, they would not have any alliance or declare war with any power.
  4. They should keep the British resident in their court.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Effects of British Rule

Question 2.
What were the provisions in Regulating Act of 1773?
Answer:
According to Regulating Act of 1773:

  1. The Governor of Bengal was designated as the Governor General. Lord Warren Hastings became the first Governor General of India.
  2. It gave the Governor General controlling powers over the Bombay and Madras Presidencies.
  3. It provided a committee of four members to assist the Governor General.

Question 3.
Write about the Pitt’s India Act of 1784.
Answer:

1. The Pitt’s India Act of 1784 established a permanent Board of Control to regulate and manage administration of Company in India.
2. The Board was authorized to issue directives to the Company regarding the governance of India.

Question 4.
Write about the Judicial system introduced by the British in India.
Answer:

  1. The new Judicial system was introduced in India on the basis of the Judicial system in England.
  2. Accordingly, each district had a Civil and Criminal Court for the respective cases.
  3. High Courts were established to reconsider the judgements delivered by the District courts.

Question 5.
What were the functions of the military?
Answer:

  1. The functions of the military were to defend the Indian territories under the control of the British.
  2. It was expected to acquire new territories and quell any uprising/revolt against the British India.

Question 6.
What were the defects in the British Judicial System?
Answer:
The defects in the British Judicial System were as follows :

  1. There were different laws and separate courts for the Europeans.
  2. It was difficult for the Common people to understand the new laws.
  3. It was very expensive to fight a legal case.
  4. The cases got delayed and remained pending for years.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Effects of British Rule

Question 7.
What reforms were introduced in the Judicial System by the British in India?
Answer:

  1. In the pre-British period, laws were different from place to place.
  2. There was difference in judgement on the basis of casteism.
  3. A committee was set up to create a uniform code of law under the leadership of Lord Macaulay.
  4. The Indian Penal Code was enforced all over British India with British principle of Equality before Law.

Question 8.
Write about introduction of the English education system?
Answer:

  1. The British were in need of Indians who had received English education in order to run the administration.
  2. English education was imparted in India according to the recommendations of Lord Macaulay in 1835.
  3. Indians were introduced to western thoughts, modem reforms, science and technology.
  4. They realised the need to study their history, culture, religions and also realised the drawbacks.
  5. The western educated Indian middle class was responsible for initiating social reforms in later period.

Explain the following statements with reasons:

Question 1.
Britishers entered into Maratha politics.
Answer:
1. Marathas had a strong hold on the areas in and around Mumbai which was prime centre of British in western India.
2. British tried to acquire nearby territories but the Marathas checked their expansion.
3. It was only after the death of Peshwa Madhavrao, that they got entry in Maratha politics. Raghunathrao in his greed for Peshwaship sought their help.
This led to the entry of the British in Maratha politics.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Effects of British Rule

Question 2.
The British Parliament introduced some laws to keep control over the affairs of the company.
Answer:

  1. The ‘Dual Government’ system was introduced by Robert Clive in Bengal in 1765.
  2. But, sometimes, the officers of the company pocketed money.
  3. As monopoly of trade was given to East India Company, many trading companies in England envied them.
  4. The working system of the company was criticised in the British Parliament. So, to keep control on the affairs of the company, the British Parliament introduced some laws.

Question 3.
Salary of company officers were increased.
Answer:

  1. Lord Cornwallis introduced bureaucracy in India to strengthen the British rule in India.
  2. He restricted the private trade carried out by the company officers. For this reason, he increased the salary of the company officers.

Answer the following in detail:

Question 1.
Give an account of the Anglo- Maratha war.
Answer:

  1. Raghunathrao in his greed for the seat of Peshwa sought help of the British which facilitated their entry into Maratha politics.
  2. Three wars were fought between Marathas and the British between 1774 to 1818.
  3. As the Marathas fought unitedly, the Britishers were defeated in the first Anglo- Maratha War in 1782.
  4. In 1802, Bajirao II entered into Subsidiary Alliance with the British known as the Treaty of Vasai.
  5. The second Anglo-Maratha War took place as some Maratha Sardars opposed this treaty.
  6. Marathas were defeated in the second Anglo-Maratha War.
  7. The defeat of the Marathas led to the increase in interference of the British in the Maratha state.
  8. Bajirao II declared war against the British as he could not tolerate their interference.
  9. He lost the war and surrendered to the British in 1818.

Question 2.
Write about the public work done by Chhatrapati Pratapsingh.
Answer:
Chhatrapati Pratapsingh did the following public work :

  1. Water tank was built by him on the back side of Yevteshwar temple and Mahadara which supplied water to Satara city.
  2. He built roads and planted trees on both the sides.
  3. Sanskrit, Marathi and English was taught to girls and boys in schools built by him.
  4. Printing press was set up and many books were published.
  5. A book titled ‘Sabhaniti’ was printed on polity in 1827.
  6. A road connecting Satara – Mahabaleshwar – Pratapgad was built by him. This road was further extended to Mahad.

Question 3.
Compare the Land Revenue Policy in the pre-British period and during the British period.
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Effects of British Rule 16

Question 4.
How did the British administrative system benefit India?
Answer:
There were many benefits of British administrative system in India.

  1. The British introduced railways in India.
  2. Telegraph system connected major cities and military stations got connected.
  3. Postal system was also introduced.
  4. These improved communication generated a sense of unity among the people of India.
  5. Coal, metal, sugar, cement and chemical industries also developed gradually.
  6. The western educated Indians learnt the values of humanism, rationalism, democracy, nationalism and liberalism.
  7. Indians felt the need to study Indian history, religion and traditions.
  8. Universities were established at Kolkata, Mumbai and Madras (Chennai).
  9. The newly educated Indian led the social reform movement in later period.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Effects of British Rule

Question 5.
According to you, what were the two positive and two negative effects of British rule on India?
Answer:
The positive effects were :

  • English education laid the foundation of future progress in India.
  • Indian adopted the principles of freedom, equality and humanity.

The negative effects were :

  • The British policy of ‘Divide and Rule’ deepened its roots.
  • Regional languages got neglected as English got importance.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 2 Europe and India

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 2 Europe and India Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 2 Europe and India

Class 8 History Chapter 2 Europe and India Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Rewrite the statements by choosing the appropriate options:

Question 1.
In 1453, the city of was conquered by Ottoman Turks.
(a) Venice
(b) Constantinople
(c) Rome
(d) Paris
Answer:
(b) Constantinople

Question 2.
The Industrial Revolution began in
(a) England
(b) France
(c) Italy
(d) Portugal
Answer:
(a) England

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 2 Europe and India

Question 3.
…….. tried to put restrictions on the illegal trade of British.
(a) Siraj-ud-Daulah
(b) Mir Kasim
(c) Mir Jafar
(d) Shah Alam
Answer:
(b) Mir Kasim

2. Explain the following concepts:

Question 1.
Colonialism:
Answer:
1. Exploitation of one country by another and making it into a colony is called Colonialism.
2. On the basis of economic and military strength one country occupies a region of another country and establishes its political supremacy.
3. Many European nations established their colonies in various parts of the continents of America, Asia, Africa and Australia.
4. They grabbed the power by using force to exploit the colonies systematically. This gave rise to Imperialism.

Question 2.
Imperialism:
Answer:

  1. Imperialism means a powerful country controls other country by establishing its overall domination.
  2. The objective of imperialism is to establish more and more colonies.
  3. European countries with strong military power and imperialist aspirations enslaved the countries in Asia and Africa.
  4. Imperialism gained momentum after industrial revolution and came to an end in twentieth century.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 2 Europe and India

Question 3.
Age of Renaissance:
Answer:
(1) Renaissance literally means rebirth or revival. In the latter phase of medieval Europe, reformation, religious reform movement and geographical discoveries gained momentum.
(2) It was a comprehensive movement which touched all aspects of human life. The Greek and Roman traditions in art, architecture and philosophy were revived in the Age of Renaissance.
(3) Humanitarianism got great impetus.
(4) Renaissance inspired all round progress and ushered a new era in the history of world.
(5) This developments took place from 13th century to 16th century in Europe. This period is known as the Age of Renaissance.

Question 4.
Capitalism:
Answer:
1. Many traders participated in the competition for trade with Asia after the discovery of the new sea routes to the east.
2. As it was not possible to carry out trade single-handedly, it was decided by the traders to pool their resources to raise capital for trade.
3. Many trading companies like the East India Company were formed.
4. Trade with Oriental countries was very profitable and responsible for economic prosperity.
5. The ruling powers gave protection and trade concessions to these companies.
6. This led to the accumulation of wealth in Europe. This wealth was used as capital for trade and commerce which gave rise to capitalism in Europe.

3. Explain the following statements with reasons:

Question 1.
Siraj-ud-Daulah was defeated in the Battle of Plassey.
Answer:
1. The officers of the British East India Company misused the trade concessions and built fortification around the factory in Kolkata.
2. Siraj-ud-Daulah captured the factory at Kolkata.
3. This created discontent in England.
4. Robert Clive diplomatically bribed Mir Jafar, Commander in Chief of Nawab’s army and promised to make him Nawab of Bengal.
5. So. the Army of Siraj-ud-Daulah under the command of Mir Kasim did not join the battle against the British at Plassey in 1757 AD.
6. Thus, the British won the battle of Plassey by treachery and deceit.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 2 Europe and India

Question 2.
The European countries felt the necessity of finding new sea routes to Asia.
Answer:

  1. The Ottoman Turks captured Constantinople. the capital of Byzantine Empire. in 1453 AD.
  2. All land trade routes joining Asia and Europe passed through this city.
  3. It stopped the flow of valuable goods from the countries in the east. Therefore, the European countries felt the necessity of finding new sea routes to Asia.

Question 3.
European rulers started giving military protection and trade concessions to the trading companies.
Answer:
1. With the discovery of new sea routes to the east, trade with oriental countries became very profitable. Thus, European trade prospered.
2. Competition for trade began among many European nations.
3. The traders pooled their resources and formed trading companies like the East India Company.
4. As this trade brought economic prosperity, the European rulers started giving military protection and trade concessions to these trading companies.

4. Complete the following table.

Question 1.
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 2 Europe and India 1
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 2 Europe and India 2

Leonardo Da Vinci :

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 2 Europe and India 3

  1. A famous personality of the Renaissance period who was well versed in different branches of science and arts.
  2. He had mastery over varied subjects such as sculpture, architecture, mathematics, engineering, music, astronomy, etc.
  3. His paintings ‘Monalisa’ and ‘The Last Supper’ became immortal.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 2 Europe and India

Let us Know:

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 2 Europe and India 4

Project:

Collect information and pictures about the work of famous painters, writers, scientists during renaissance period with the help of reference books and internet. Present a project on it in the classroom.

Class 8 History Chapter 2 Europe and India Additional Important Questions and Answers

Rewrite the statements by choosing the appropriate options:

Question 1.
American colonies organised the army under the leadership of and won against England.
(a) Thomas Jefferson
(b) Robert Clive
(c) George Washington
(d) Johannes Gutenberg
Answer:
(c) George Washington

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 2 Europe and India

Question 2.
The British East India Company established its factory at
(a) Kolkata
(b) Cochin
(c) Mumbai
(d) Surat
Answer:
(d) Surat

Question 3.
Siraj-ud-Daulah was defeated because diplomatically bribed Mir Jafar.
(a) Robert Clive
(b) Lord Wellesley
(c) Lord Dalhousie
(d) Lord Cornwallis
Answer:
(a) Robert Clive

Question 4.
Tipu Sultan died in the battle of in 1799.
(a) Mysore
(b) Bengaluru
(c) Srirangapatna
(d) Buxar
Answer:
(c) Srirangapatna

Question 5.
The chieftain of rose against the British.
(a) Multan
(b) Bengal
(c) Carnatic
(d) Jhansi
Answer:
(a) Multan

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 2 Europe and India

Question 6.
was the first Portuguese sailor who landed on the western coast of India.
(a) Christopher Columbus
(b) Bartolomeu Días
(c) Vasco-da- Gama
(d) Leonardo da Vinci
Answer:
(c) Vasco-da- Gama

Question 7.
England established colonies on the eastern coast of America.
(a) ten
(b) thirteen
(c) eight
(d) seventeen
Answer:
(b) thirteen

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 2 Europe and India

Name the following:

Question 1.
Invented printing press
Answer:
Johannes Gutenberg

Question 2.
Empire of Ottoman Turks
Answer:
Byzantine

Question 3.
The Bill which laid limitations on powers of the King in England.
Answer:
Bill of Rights

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 2 Europe and India

Question 4.
Mughal Emperor who gave permission to Britishers to establish factory at Surat.
Answer:
Emperor Jahangir

Question 5.
Came to be known as ‘World Factory’.
Answer:
England.

Answer the following in one sentence:

Question 1.
Which period in the history of Europe is known as Period of Renaissance?
Answer:
In the history of Europe, the last phase of medieval period i.e. 13th to century in Europe is known as the Period of Renaissance.

Question 2.
Name the developments that laid the foundation of modern era.
Answer:
The Renaissance, the Reformation and the geographical discoveries laid the foundation of the modern era.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 2 Europe and India

Question 3.
State the significance of the invention of printing press.
Answer:
It became possible to take new ideas, new concepts and knowledge to all the sections of society due to the invention of the printing press.

Question 4.
What was the effect of the Reformation movement in the area of religion?
Answer:
Individual freedom and rationalism gained importance in the area of religion due to the Reformation movement.

Question 5.
State the principles that the French Revolution gave to the world.
Answer:
The French Revolution gave the principles of liberty equality and fraternity to the world.

Question 6.
Why did the British establish East India Company?
Answer:
The British established the East India Company to carry out trade in India.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 2 Europe and India

Question 7.
What was the outcome of the American War of Independence?
Answer:
Due to American War of Independence, a new nation known as the United States of America with a federal government, written constitution and based on the principles of democracy was formed.

Do as Directed: 

1. Complete the concept Map:

Question 1.
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 2 Europe and India 5
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 2 Europe and India 6

Question 2.
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 2 Europe and India 7
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 2 Europe and India 8

2. Arrange the following events in chronological order on timeline:
1. Battle of Srirangapatna
2. Second Anglo-Sikh War
3. Battle of Buxar
4. Battle of Plassey
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 2 Europe and India 9

Write short notes:

Question 1.
Leonardo-da-Vinci:
Answer:

  1. Leonardo-da-Vinci is regarded as an all round personality of the Renaissance period.
  2. He was well versed with the different branches of science and art.
  3. He had mastery over varied subjects such as sculpture, architecture, mathematics, engineering, music, astronomy, etc.
  4. But he became world-famous as a painter.
  5. His paintings ‘Monalisa’ and ‘The Last Supper’ became immortal.

Question 2.
Carnatic Wars :
Answer:

  1. There was competition among the European nationals to secure monopoly of trading rights in India.
  2. Due to this three Cainatic wars were fought between England and France.
  3. England defeated France in the third Carnatic War.
  4. Alter this, there was no strong European competitor for British East India Company in India.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 2 Europe and India

Question 3.
The Battle of Buxar:
Answer:

  1. Mir Kasim was replaced by Mir Jafar when he tried to put restrictions on illegal practices of the British.
  2. Mir Kasim, the deposed Nawab of Bengal, Shuja-ud-Daulah, the Nawab of Ayodhya and Mughal Emperor Shah Alam formed an affiance.
  3. They undertook a campaign to restrain the activities of the British in Bengal.
  4. They were defeated by the British in the Battle of Buxar in 1764 in Bihar.
  5. The Treaty of Allahabad was signed after the Battle of Buxar. The British secured the right to collect revenue from Bengal province by this treaty.

Explain the following statements with reasons:

Question 1.
The period between 18th and 19th century came to be known as ‘Age of Revolutions’.
Answer:
1. The British Parliament passed The Bill of Rights in 1689. It established sovereignty of Parliament and curtailed powers of the King.
2. This gave momentum to the development of Parliamentary Democracy in England.
3.  The thirteen British colonies in America won the War of Independence in 1783.
4. These thirteen colonies established the first federal republic, known as the United States of America.
5. The people of France revolted against the unjust and uncontrolled monarchy and feudalism. They established a Republic.
6. The Industrial Revolution in Europe in the latter part of the 18th century brought revolutionary changes in Europe.
7. These changes had long-lasting effect on the entire world.
8. All these revolutionary events took place during 18th and 19th century period. Hence it is known as the ‘Age of Revolutions’.

Question 2.
England was described as World Factory.
Answer:

  1. There were many revolutionary changes in the latter part of the 18th century in Europe.
  2. Many technological innovations in Europe gave enormous outputs
  3. Goods were produced with the help of machines running on steam and later on electricity. It was the dawn of the age of machines.
  4. Though the industrial revolution started in England it gradually spread to other ports of the western world.
  5. During this period. England enjoyed industrial prosperity and was described as World Factory.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 2 Europe and India

Question 3.
The British captured Sindh in 1843.
Answer:

  1. The British were afraid of Russian aggression on India via Afghanistan.
  2. They decided to bring Afghanistan under their control to ensure the safety of their Indian Empire.
  3. The province of Sindh was located at the Northwest frontier.
  4. All routes to Afghanistan passed through Sindh.
  5. Realising its strategic importance, the British captured Sindh in 1843.

Answer the following questions in 25 to 30 words:

Question 1.
Write about the Religious Reform Movement.
Answer:

  1. The independent intellectuals attacked the old religious ideologies and beliefs of Roman Catholic Church.
  2. The Christian priests used to give undue importance to religious rites and practices by taking advantage of the ignorance of the people.
  3. They robbed people in the name of religion.
  4. The movement which started against this is known as Religious Reform Movement.

Question 2.
What is Intellectual Revolution?
Answer:

  1. Due to Renaissance, the European society stepped out of past ignorance and blind faith.
  2. The pre-determined customs and traditions came to be seen from a critical point of view.
  3. These changes are addressed as Intellectual Revolution.

Question 3.
State the significance of French Revolution.
Answer:

  1. The French Revolution was the first event in world history in which the might of the people’s power was witnessed.
  2. It had put an end to uncontrolled and unjust monarchy and the feudalism.
  3. France became a Republican state. It gave the world principles of liberty, equality and fraternity.
  4. The spread of democratic form of government began with the French Revolution.

Question 4.
What were the changes brought about by the Industrial Revolution in the system of production?
Answer:

  1. The latter part of 18th century saw many technological innovations in Europe.
  2. The production started with the help of machines running on steam.
  3. The big factories replaced cottage industries.
  4. Handlooms were replaced by machines.
  5. New modes of transport like railways and steamer were available.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 2 Europe and India

Question 5.
How did the conflict between Siraj- ud-Daulah and the British start?
Answer:

  1. Siraj-ud-Daulah became the Nawab of Bengal in 1756.
  2. The British traders misused trade concessions and fortified their factories in Kolkata without seeking permission from the Nawab.
  3. So, Siraj-ud-Daulah captured the factory. This was the beginning of conflict between Siraj-ud-Daulah and the British.

Question 6.
Why were the Sikhs defeated in the First Anglo-Sikh War?
Answer:

  1. Ranjitsingh, the ruler of Punjab was succeeded by his minor son Duleep Singh.
  2. Queen Jindan assumed the reins of administration on behalf of her minor son.
  3. Taking advantage of the inability of Queen Jindan to control the officers, the British lured some of them to their side.
  4. The Sikhs attacked the British under the impression that the British would invade Punjab.
  5. Thus, the Sikhs were defeated in the first Anglo-Sikh war.

Question 7.
What brought an end to the Sikh rule in Punjab in 1849?
Answer:

  1. After the First Anglo-Sikh War Duleep Singh remained on throne, but the power rested in the hands of the British.
  2. The Sikhs could not accept the growing impact of the British over Punjab.
  3. The growing influence of the British led to the revolt by Mulraj, the chieftain of Multan.
  4. Thousands of Sikh soldiers participated in this war.
  5. The British defeated the Sikhs in the Second Anglo-Sikh war and annexed the whole of Punjab in 1849.

Answer the following questions in detail: (4 marks each)

Question 1.
Give detailed account of Renaissance.
Answer:
The foundation of Renaissance period was laid between 13th century and 16th century in Europe.

  1. It revived the Greek and Roman traditions.
  2. The changes were seen in the field of art, architecture and philosophy in Europe.
  3. Humanitarianism gained great momentum.
  4. There was a change in the outlook of treating each other as a human being.
  5. Man became the centre of all ideologies instead of religion.
  6. The sentiments and emotions of human being found expressions in the art and literature.
  7. The reform movement could be found in science and different art forms.
  8. Literature was produced in local languages for the better understanding of the people.
  9. Renaissance was a comprehensive movement which pervaded all sectors of human life.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 2 Europe and India

Question 2.
Give information about American War of Independence.
Answer:
1. After the discovery of American continent, the imperialist European powers took control of different regions of America and established their colonies.
2. England established 13 colonies on the East coast of America.
3. Initially, England kept nominal domination but later British Parliament laid oppressive restrictions and taxes on the colonies.
4. This created discontent among the people and the colonies revolted.
5. George Washington led the American army in the war against England.
6. The colonies won the war and established the first federal democratic republic, known as the United States of America.
7. USA became the first country in the world to have a written constitution and was based on the principles of Democracy.

Question 3.
What according to you are the advantages of Religious Reform Movement?
Answer:
With changing times we find changes in every field. Religious reforms are part of this process. I feel the following are the advantages of Religious Reforms Movement.

  1. Superstitions give way to rational thinking.
  2. Priest cannot take advantage of people’s ignorance.
  3. People will not indulge in unnecessary rituals.
  4. They will engage themselves in constructive work which will help them eventually.
  5. Some people take advantage in the name of religion and exploit others. Religious Reforms will stop such malpractices.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 1 Sources of History

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 1 Sources of History Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 1 Sources of History

Class 8 History Chapter 1 Sources of History Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Rewrite the statements by choosing the appropriate options: 

Question 1.
Among the historical sources …………….. sources are based on modem technology.
(a) Written
(b) Oral
(c) Material
(d) Audio-Visual
Answer:
(d) Among the historical sources Audio Visual Sources are based on modem technology

Question 2.
The ……… is a museum in Pune which gives information about the history of Mahatma Gandhi.
(a) Aga Khan Palace
(b) Sabamiati Ashram
(c) Cellular Jail
(d) Lakshmi Vilas Palace
Answer:
(a) The Aga Khan Palace is a museum in Pune which gives information about the history of Mahatma Gandhi.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 1 Sources of History

Question 3.
A unique discovery of modem technology in 20th century is …………. .
(a) Powada
(c) Interviews
(b) Photograph
(d) Films
Answer:
(d) A unique discovery of modem technology in 20th century is Films.

2. Explain the following statements with reasons.

Question 1.
During the British period. newspapers also acted as sources of social reformation.
Answer:
(1) Newspapers like Amrit Bazaar Patrika. Deenbandhu, Dnyanoday Kesari, etc. acted as an important source to awaken the minds of the people.
(2) Newspapers in the British period not only opposed imperialism but also educated the masses and created awareness among the people.
(3) The Nibandhmala by Vishnushastri Chiplunkar and Shatapatre written by Lokahitawadi alias Gopal Hari Deshmukh published in the weekly Prabhakar commented on various social and cultural issues.
(4) Newspapers threw light on ill customs like sati, child marriage, ban on widow remarriage, etc., and awakened minds of the people.
(5) We came to know about various policies of the British towards India and their effects on India.
(6) Thus newspapers were not only source of political events but also acted as a source of social reformation.
(Note: Information given in the textbook is insufficient.)

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 1 Sources of History

Question 2.
Audio-visual recordings are considered as the most trustworthy source for the study of Modern Indian History.
Answer:
Audio-visual recordings are considered a trustworthy source for study of modem history. Because –
(1) Important events during the freedom struggle could be seen in reality.
(2) Audio-visual recordings of Dandi March, Quit India movement, Salt Satyagraha and other historical events are available.
(3) Films also dealt with subjects like social problems, superstitions, practices. They reflect contemporary social, religious. political issues. Therefore, audio-visual recordings are considered as a unique discovery of 20th century.
(Note: Information given in the textbook is insufficient,)

3. Write short notes.

Question 1.
Photographs:
Answer:
(1) Before the invention of photography, paintings were an important source of history. But the authenticity of such paintings is doubtful.
(2) Photographs are considered more reliable, as the lens capture the persons. events and objects exactly as they appear.
(3) The photograph of a person gives information about the physical features, dressing style, etc.
(4) Photographs enable us to recreate visual image of an event. The photograph of an object or structure helps in understanding its nature.
Hence, photographs are important visual source of modem Indian history.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 1 Sources of History

Question 2.
Museums and History:
Answer:
(1) A place where ancient artefacts, paintings, photographs, tools, coins, documents, clothes, etc. are exhibited is known as Museum.
(2) Ancient artefacts give us information about the economic, social, political and religious conditions of the respective periods.
(3) The metal and the inscriptions on the coin tell us about the economic conditions of that period and the metals used.
(4) We come to know progress in art of making tools, paintings, sculpture and metallurgy.
(5) History and museums are related. They are important source of writing history

Question 3.
Audio Sources:
Answer:
(1) Recording is a form of audio source in history.
(2) The discovery of technique of recording was very important.
(3) Akashvani, audio tapes are considered important audio sources.
(4) Jana Gana Mano sung by Rabindranath Tagore, speeches of Subash Chandra Bose, Mahatma Gandhi, speeches of leaders and personalities are broadcast from Akashvani.
(5) We get to know about prevalent social, cultural, intellectual and educational history of a particular period from audio source. It is helpful for students conducting research in history.

4. Complete the following diagram.

Question 1.
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 1 Sources of History 1
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 1 Sources of History 2

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 1 Sources of History

Do You Know?

Museums and History:
1. Museums preserve objects, paintings, photographs, tools, etc.
2. These material sources are very helpful for researchers of history.
3. The ancient monuments are related to the kings, leaders residing in it.
4. Museums of modern period:

  • Andaman Cellular Jail: V. D. Savarkar
  • Mani Bhavan in Mumbai: Mahatma Gandhi
  • Sevagram in Wardha: Mahatma Gandhi
  • Aga Khan palace in Pune: Mahatma Gandhi

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 1 Sources of History 3

Do it:
Trace out the statues and memorials in your neighboring areas. Note down the information, of an event or personality, that you obtain through it.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 1 Sources of History

Written sources:
The following aspects are included in the written sources of Modem Indian History.
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 1 Sources of History 4

Let us know:

Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar and Newspapers:

  1. Dr. Bcibasaheb Ambedkar started the fortnightly ‘Mooknayak’ in 1920.
  2. On 4 April 1927, he started the newspaper ‘Bahishkrut Bharat.
  3. He also started newspapers namely ‘Janata’ and ‘Prabuddha Bharat’.
  4. The aim of his writing was to reform common people and bring unity among them.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 1 Sources of History 5

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 1 Sources of History

Project:

Question 1.
Collect the photographs related to the Indian Freedom movement with the help of the Internet.

Question 2.
Gather information about the important leaders of Indian freedom movement and their biographies and read aloud.

Class 8 History Chapter 1 Sources of History Additional Important Questions and Answers

Rewrite the statements by choosing the appropriate options:

Question 1.
When we visit Cellular Jail in Andaman we get information about the revolutionary work of ………. .
(a) Vasudev Baiwant Phadke
(b) Umaji Naik
(c) V D. Savarkar
(d) Bhagatsingh
Answer:
(c) When we visit Cellular Jail in Andaman we get information about the revolutionary work of V. D. Savarkar.

Question 2.
………….. were composed on freedom struggle of 1857.
(a) Music
(b) Songs
(c) Powadas
(d) Bhajans
Answer:
(c) Powadas were composed on freedom struggle of 1857.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 1 Sources of History

Question 3.
We find comments on various social and cultural issues in Nibandhmala by ………. .
(a) Krishnashastri Chiplunkar
(b) Vishnushastri Chiplunkar
(c) Lokmanya Tilak
(d) Gopal Hari Deshmukh
Answer:
(b) Vishnushastri Chiplunkar

Question 4.
Shatapatre by Lokahitawadi were published in the weekly ………. .
(a) Dnyanoday
(b) Dnyanprakash
(c) Prabhakar
(d) Deenbandhu
Answer:
(c) Prabhakar

Question 5.
In India, …………. laid the foundation of film making in 1913.
(a) Gopal Hari Deshmukh
(b) Aga Khan
(c) Dada Saheb Phalke
(d) Rabindranath Tagore
Answer:
(c) Dada Saheb Phalke

Question 6.
………. sung by Rabidranath Tagore is used as audio source of history.
(a) Jhanda Uncha rahe hamara
(b) Vande Mataram
(c) Saare Jahan se accha
(d) Jana Gana Mana
Answer:
(d) Jana Gana Mana

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 1 Sources of History

Question 7.
In April 1927, Dr. Ambedkar started the newspaper
(a) Kesari
(b) Bahishkrut Bharat
(c) Mahratta
(d) Mooknayak
Answer:
(b) Bahishkrut Bharat

Name the following:

Question 1
Famous prison in Andaman:
Answer:
Cellular Jail

Question 2.
Mahatma Gandhi’s Memorial at Pune:
Answer:
Aga Khan Palace

Question 3.
Ashram of Mahatma Gandhi at Vardha:
Answer:
Sevagram Ashram

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 1 Sources of History

Question 4.
Mahatma Gandhi’s memorial in Mumbai:
Answer:
Manibhavan.

Classify the following sources of history into Material sources, Written sources, Oral sources and Audio -Visual sources:

Newspapers, memorials, inspirational songs, forts, coins, correspondence, powadas, jail, palaces, films, statues, dailies, inscriptions, maps, folk tales, documentaries, autobiography, fountain, books, travelogue, owees, roads, Doordarshan, factory records, folk songs, bridge.
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 1 Sources of History 6

Complete the graphical description:

Question 1.
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 1 Sources of History 7
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 1 Sources of History 8

Answer the following questions in one sentence each:

Question 1.
Which period is considered to be the period of modern Indian History?
Answer:
The period of Europeans, especially British rulers and period of governance of princely states in India is considered as period of modern Indian history.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 1 Sources of History

Question 2.
Why did Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar start the newspaper ‘Bahishkrut Bharat’?
Answer:
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar started the newspaper ‘Bahishkrut Bharat’ for the reformation of common people and to bring unity among them.

Question 3.
What was the reason behind establishment of ‘The Survey of India’ during the British rule’?
Answer:
The Survey of India was established during the British rule to survey various provinces and cities of India using scientific method to prepare maps.

Question 4.
Which department prepared the original maps of Mumbai port?
Answer:
The original maps of Mumbai port were prepared by the Department of Mumbai Port Trust.

Question 5.
What is included in the material sources of history?
Answer:
The material sources of history includes various objects, monuments, places, coins, sculptures, etc.

Explain the concept:

Oral Sources:
Answer:

  1. The compositions which are passed on from one generation to the other by way of information or rote learning and which are not in written form are called the ‘oral sources of history’.
  2. Folk songs, powadas, ovees, inspirational songs, folk tales, etc. are included in oral sources.
  3. The creators of the oral sources mostly remain unknown.
  4. We come to know about prevalent social life, traditions, customs, language, etc. through oral sources.
  5. The aim of oral sources was to entertain, inspire and create vitality in the society.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 1 Sources of History

Explain the following statements with reasons:

Question 1.
We should preserve historical monument s.
Answer:
1. Monuments cire witness to our glorious past. Many monuments are connected to freedom fighters and their work.
2. Sevagram Ashram at Wardha and Mani Bhavan at Mumbai give us information about the Gandhian era.
3. The cellular jail at Andaman is a witness to the sufferings of V. D. Savarkar and his revolutionary work.
4. We get information about contemporary history architecture, nature of the monument, and the economic condition of that particular period.
5. We get to know our history because of monuments and they invoke nationalistic feeling among us.

Question 2.
Statues are considered important for the study of modern history.
Answer:

  1. Memorials in the form of statues were erected of many personalities who influenced a particular period.
  2. We come to know about those great people because of statues.
  3. The display plaque on the statues give information about the name of the concerned person, his work, date of birth and his death.
  4. We get information about important events in his life, brief information about his contribution and a biographical sketch.
  5. We come to know about contemporary rulers and eminent personalities.
  6. The memorials are erected in the memory of various events also.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 1 Sources of History

Question 3.
Maps and drawings are important sources of history.
Answer:
(1) We come to know about changing nature of a city or a location from the map.
(2) They are important from the view of study of architecture of a building as well as phases of development of a particular area.
(3) The development of Bombay city can be understood through the plans drafted by architects and engineers who made the original plan of Bombay Port Trust. Therefore, we can say that maps and drawings are important source of history.

Question 4.
It is comparatively easy to study sources of modern history.
Answer:

  1. History writing is based on evidences and proofs. It is difficult to obtain ancient and medieval sources of history but sources to study modern history are available in abundance and in variety.
  2. There are many material sources available in museums and documents in archives.
  3. Through the audio-visual source we can see the historical event in reality. Thus, to study sources of modern history is comparatively easy.

Question 5.
It is required to verify the written sources before they are used.
Answer:

  1. We have to be careful while making use of written sources. The authenticity of the documents needs to be verified.
  2. We need to see the ideas suggested through them.
  3. Before making use of the document it is necessary to know the perspective of the writer, his ideologies and opinions about a particular event.
  4. If all the angles are not considered the writings become one-sided. Hence it is necessary to verify written sources.

Answer the following questions in 25-30 words:

Question 1.
Which monuments are considered as historical monuments?
Answer:
The following monuments are considered as historical monuments:

  1. Palaces of rulers of princely state, residences of officers, leaders and revolutionaries, forts, bridges and government offices.
  2. Buildings, water supply system, fountains, roads.
  3. Prisons, national monuments, etc.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 1 Sources of History

Question 2.
Why is it important to preserve sources?
Answer:

  1. Museums, Archives preserve the sources of history.
  2. This sources give evidence of our rich cultural heritage.
  3. There is a great need to preserve this sources, as it is through them, that the rich tradition of history can be passed on to the next generation.

Question 3.
Why are films considered effective audio-visual source of modern Indian History?
Answer:
(1) Due to technological development there was development in photography, recording and film making.
(2) Dada Saheb Phalke laid the foundation of Indian Film Industry. Many movies were made on historical events and personalities.
(3) Audio-visual recordings of Dandi Yatra and on Salt Satyagraha movement are available.
(4) We get information of social, political condition, dress, traditions, language of particular period from the films and audio tapes.
(5) The events happened in the past could be seen in reality. Therefore films are considered as an effective audio-visual source of modem Indian History.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 1 Sources of History

Answer in detail:

Question 1.
Write about the work of newspapers in pre-independence period.
Answer:

  1. Newspapers like Amrit Bazaar Patrika, Deenbandhu, Dnyanoday, Kesari, etc. acted as important source to awaken the minds of the people.
  2. They criticized the anti-India policies of Britishers.
  3. Western education and knowledge reached people through them.
  4. Newspapers and weeklies were the source of various political, social and cultural events.
  5. They commented on ill customs and practices in our society and thus were the source of social reformation.
  6. They discussed various policies of British rulers and their effects on India.
  7. The work and ideas of leaders and reformers reached people through them.

Question 2.
Write about the importance of the following as sources of history:
(a) Inspirational songs
(b) Powadas
Answer:
(a) Inspirational songs:

  1. Many inspirational songs were written during the period of freedom movement.
  2. Many unpublished inspirational songs were memorised by freedom fighters.
  3. We get information about the prevalent conditions during pre-independence period.
  4. We come to know about our heritage, work of great men, injustice done by the Britishers.
  5. They gave inspiration to the society and infused spirit in the freedom movement.
  6. As they convey information about the place, person and his deed they are useful in writing history.

Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 1 Sources of History

(b) Powadas:
(1) Powadas were a dramatic narration by alternatingly reciting poetry and prose extract. It is a source to get information about a historical work of a person or an event.
(2) Powadas were composed on the freedom struggle of 1857 and valour of revolutionaries during the British rule.
(3) Powadas were composed on work of Satyashodhak Samaj to awaken the oppressed classes.
(4) During the Samyukta Maharashtra movement, Powadas were composed to inspire people. They used to create motivation, spirit among the people and infused enthusiasm and vitality.

Question 3.
Is there any need of statues and memorials?
Answer:
Recently there had been quite a few incidents and politics on statues and memorials. But still, I feel they should be there for the following reasons:

  1. Statues are raised in memory of those people who had contributed for the welfare of the society.
  2. Memorials are raised of events which are inspirational.
  3. A Memorial is a testimony of the work done, in adverse conditions. Statues give us inspiration to have ideal morals.
  4. They are testimonials of our rich heritage and as heirs what have we inherited.
  5. They need not be raised in large numbers nor should there be statues of common people and of criminals.

Maharashtra Board 8th Class Maths Practice Set 10.2 Solutions Chapter 10 Division of Polynomials

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 8 Maths Solutions covers the Practice Set 10.2 8th Std Maths Answers Solutions Chapter 10 Division of Polynomials.

Practice Set 10.2 8th Std Maths Answers Chapter 10 Division of Polynomials

Division of Polynomials Class 8 Practice Set 10.2 Question 1. Divide and write the quotient and the remainder.
i. (y2 + 10y + 24) ÷ (y + 4)
ii. (p2 + 7p – 5) ÷ (p + 3)
iii. (3x + 2x2 + 4x3) ÷ (x – 4)
iv. (2m3 + m2 + m + 9) ÷ (2m – 1)
v. (3x – 3x2 – 12 + x4 + x3) ÷ (2 + x2)
vi. (a4 – a3 + a2 – a + 1) ÷ (a3 – 2)
vii. (4x4 – 5x3 – 7x + 1) ÷ (4x – 1)
Solution:
i. (y2 + 10y + 24) ÷ (y + 4)
Maharashtra Board Class 8 Maths Solutions Chapter 10 Division of Polynomials Practice Set 10.2 1
∴ Quotient = y + 6
Remainder = 0

ii. (p2 + 7p – 5) ÷ (p + 3)
Maharashtra Board Class 8 Maths Solutions Chapter 10 Division of Polynomials Practice Set 10.2 2
∴ Quotient = p + 4
Remainder = -17

iii. (3x + 2x2 + 4x3) ÷ (x – 4)
Write the dividend in descending order of their indices.
3x + 2x² + 4x³ = 4x³ + 2x² + 3x
Maharashtra Board Class 8 Maths Solutions Chapter 10 Division of Polynomials Practice Set 10.2 3
∴ Quotient = 4x² + 18x + 75
Remainder = 300

iv. (2m3 + m2 + m + 9) ÷ (2m – 1)
Maharashtra Board Class 8 Maths Solutions Chapter 10 Division of Polynomials Practice Set 10.2 4
∴ Quotient = m² + m + 1
Remainder = 10

v. (3x – 3x2 – 12 + x4 + x3) ÷ (2 + x2)
Write the dividend in descending order of their indices.
(x4 + x3 – 3x2 + 3x – 12) ÷ (x2 + 2)
Maharashtra Board Class 8 Maths Solutions Chapter 10 Division of Polynomials Practice Set 10.2 5
∴ Quotient = x² + x – 5
Remainder = x – 2

vi. (a4 – a3 + a2 – a + 1) ÷ (a3 – 2)
Maharashtra Board Class 8 Maths Solutions Chapter 10 Division of Polynomials Practice Set 10.2 6
∴ Quotient = a – 1
Remainder = a² + a – 1

vii. (4x4 – 5x3 – 7x + 1) ÷ (4x – 1)
Write the dividend in descending order of their indices.
(4x4 – 5x3 – 7x + 1) = (4x4 – 5x3 + 0x2 – 7x + 1)
Maharashtra Board Class 8 Maths Solutions Chapter 10 Division of Polynomials Practice Set 10.2 7
∴ Quotient = \(x^{3}-x^{2}-\frac{x}{4}-\frac{29}{16}\)
Remainder = \(\frac { -13 }{ 16 }\)