Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board 12th Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India

1A. Complete the following statements by choosing the correct alternative given in the brackets and rewrite it.

Question 1.
___________ led the famous home rule movement in India. (Lala Lajpat Rai, Annie Besant, Mahatma Gandhi)
Answer:
Annie Besant

Question 2.
The Quit India Resolution was passed in the year ___________ (1944, 1942, 1956)
Answer:
1942

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India

Question 3.
The Feminist Network, ___________ was published to bring women’s issues to the forefront. (Kesari, Gulamgiri, Manushi)
Answer:
Manushi

Question 4.
___________ is recognised as the Father of the Indian Workers’ Movement. (Lala Lajpat Rai, Meghaji Lokhande, Mahatma Gandhi)
Answer:
Meghaji lokhande

Question 5.
All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC) was established under the chairmanship of ___________ (Lala Lajpat Rai, Mahatma Gandhi, Shahapuri Bengalee)
Answer:
Lala Lajpat Rai

Question 6.
The Bombay Textile Labour Union was under the leadership of ___________ (Narayan Meghaji Lokhnde, N. M. Joshi, S. A. Dange)
Answer:
N. M. Joshi

Question 7.
In the year 1947, ___________ was formed. (National Trade Union Federation, The Indian National Trade Union Congress, Hind Mazdoor Sabha)
Answer:
The Indian National Trade Union Congress

Question 8.
The Kisan Sabha movement started in Bihar under the leadership of ___________ (P. N. Dhanagare, Raja Mahendra Pratap, Swami Sahajanand Saraswati)
Answer:
Swami Sahajanand Saraswati

Question 9.
The Chipko Movement began in the year ___________ (1983, 1973, 1992)
Answer:
1973

Question 10.
22nd April is celebrated as ___________ all over the world. (Child Labour Day, Earth Day, Environmental Day)
Answer:
Earth Day

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India

Question 11.
One of the prominent federations in the country which represents labour at a national level is the ___________ (Central Trade Union organisation, All Indian Kisan Sabha, Self-employed Women’s Association)
Answer:
Central trade union organisation

Question 12.
___________ is a major weapon in the hands of labour. (Strike, Dispute, Conciliation)
Answer:
Strike

Question 13.
___________ established the Women Indian Association in Madras. (Aruna Asaf Ali, Margaret Cousins, Sarala Devi)
Answer:
Margaret Cousins

Question 14.
___________ are the collective actions to change the existing Social System. (Social relationships, social pattern, Social Movement)
Answer:
Social Movement

Question 15.
The ___________ of 1947, allowed the usage of mechanisms like conciliation, arbitration, and adjudication to mitigate the conflict between workers and management. (Factories Act, Industrial Disputes Act, Trade Union)
Answer:
Industrial Disputes Act

Question 16.
The ___________ economy was primarily based on agriculture and forest produce. (mixed, subsistence, market)
Answer:
subsistence

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India

Question 17.
___________ led the struggle of poor farmers against the British government in Kheda. (Datta Samant, Mahatma Gandhi, Charan Singh)
Answer:
Mahatma Gandhi

Question 18.
___________ may imply rapid change in values, ideas and expectations in society. (Cultural diffusion, Cultural drift, Cultural lag)
Answer:
Cultural drift

Question 19.
The term Social Movement was introduced by the German Sociologist ___________ (Lorenz Von Stein, Auguste Comte, Durkheim)
Answer:
Lorenz Von Stein

Question 20.
Organised social movements for reform started since the ___________ century. (20th, 19th, 17th)
Answer:
19th

Question 21.
___________ strived for the progress of women and eradication of illiteracy. (Swami Dayanand Saraswati, Mahatma Gandhi, Raja Rammohan Roy)
Answer:
Swami Dayanand Saraswati

Question 22.
The Female Infanticide (Prevention) Act was enacted in ___________ (1856, 1891, 1870)
Answer:
1870

Question 23.
___________ worked for Women’s Suffrage. (Sarojini Naidu, Kasturba Gandhi, Vijayalakshmi Pandit)
Answer:
Sarojini Naidu

Question 24.
The ‘Bombay Mill Hands Association’ was started under the guidance of ___________ (Narayan Meghaji Lokhande, Shapurji Bengalee, Shripad Amrut Dange)
Answer:
Narayan Meghaji Lokhande

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India

Question 25.
The ‘Great Depression adversely affected the ___________ Movement in India. (Women’s, Worker’s, Tribals)
Answer:
Workers

Question 26.
The Indian National Trade Union Congress (INTUC) was formed in the year ___________ (1948, 1947, 1950)
Answer:
1947

Question 27.
Chipko Movement was started by ___________ (Amrita Devi, Medha Patkar, Sunderlal Bahuguna)
Answer:
Amrita Devi

Question 28.
In 1985, the Narmada Bachao Andolan emerged as one of the powerful movements under the leadership of ___________ (Medha Patkar, Amrita Devi, Sunderlal Bahuguna)
Answer:
Medha Patkar

1B. Correct the incorrect pair and rewrite it.

Question 1.
(a) The Sati Prohibition Act – 1817
(b) The Widow Remarriage Act – 1856
(c) The Female Infanticide (Prevention) Act – 1870
(d) The Age of Consent at Marriage Act – 1891
Answer:
(a) The Sati Prohibition Act – 1829

Question 2.
(a) Narmada Bachao Andolan – Medha Patkar
(b) Chipko Movement – Sunderlal Bahuguna
(c) The Indian Workers’ Movement – Narayan Meghaji Lokhande
(d) Farmers’ Movement in Punjab – Charan Singh
Answer:
(d) Farmers’ Movement in Punjab – Raja Mahendra Pratap

Question 3.
(a) The ‘Bombay Mill Hands Association’ – Meghaji Lokhande
(b) All India Trade Union Congress – Lala Lajpat Rai
(c) The Bombay Textile Labour Union – Charan Singh
(d) The Great Bombay Textile Act – Datta Samant
Answer:
(c) The Bombay Textile Labour Union – N. M. Joshi

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India

Question 4.
(a) The threats to ecological balance – Environmental Movement
(b) The practice of discriminatory customs – Women’s Movement
(c) The exploitation of workers – Tribal Movement
(d) The unrest and of peasant – Farmers’ Movement
Answer:
(c) The exploitation of workers – Workers’ Movement

Question 5.
(a) The Brahmo Samaj – Raja Rammohan Roy
(b) The Arya Samaj – Maharshi Karve
(c) The Satya Shodhak Samaj – Jyotirao Phule
(d) The Depressed Classes Education Society – Dr. B. R. Ambedkar
Answer:
(b) The Arya Samaj – Swami Dayanand Saraswati

Question 6.
(a) “Educate, organise, and agitate” – Dr. B. R. Ambedkar
(b) The SNDT Women’s University – Rajarshi Shahu Maharaj
(c) The abolition of Sati 1929 – Raja Rammohan Roy
(d) Swaraj (self-rule) – Mahatma Gandhi
Answer:
(b) The SNDT Women’s University – Maharshi Karve

1C. Identify the appropriate term from the given options in the box and rewrite it against the given statement.

S. A. Dange, Sarala Devi, Medha Patkar, Greater depression, Forest conservation, Women Movement, Raja Mahendra Pratap, Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh, Charansingh, Datta Samant, Mahatma Gandhi, Cultural drift, Vishaka Guidelines, Chipko Movement.

Question 1.
A rapid change in values, ideas, and expectations in society.
Answer:
Cultural Drift

Question 2.
It ensures a safe and healthy work environment for women.
Answer:
Vishaka Guidelines

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India

Question 3.
Shapurji Bengaleeis recongnised as the Father of the Indian Workers’ Movement.
Answer:
Meghaji Lokhande

Question 4.
It is marked by the Gandhian principle of non-violence.
Answer:
Chipko Movement

Question 5.
The Great Bombay Textile Strike 1982 under the leadership.
Answer:
Datta Samant

Question 6.
The world economic crisis is known as.
Answer:
Great Depression

Question 7.
Participated in the non-violence movement.
Answer:
Sarala Devi

Question 8.
The movement that thrives to achieve equality for women.
Answer:
Women’s Movement

Question 9.
The farmer’s movement in Punjab was under the leadership of.
Answer:
Raja Mahendra Pratap

Question 10.
Answer:
Forest Conservation

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India

Question 11.
The largest trade union in India.
Answer:
Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh

Question 12.
Gram Swarajya was based on the principles of
Answer:
Mahatma Gandhi

Question 13.
The leader opposed industrialisation and championed low capital investment in agriculture.
Answer:
Charan Singh

1D. Correct underlined words and complete the statement.

Question 1.
Chipko stands for chop the trees.
Answer:
Chipko stands for Hug the trees.

Question 2.
Radical Marxism views environmental degradation as rooted in the equalities in society.
Answer:
Radical Marxism views environmental degradation as rooted in the inequalities in society.

Question 3.
The Blue Movement in Germany north America plays an important role in the proceeding and preserving the Earth.
Answer:
The Green Movement in Germany north America plays an important role in the proceeding and preserving the Earth.

Question 4
Maharshi Karve’s mission was to end untouchability and achieve swaraj.
Answer:
Mahatma Gandhi’s mission was to end untouchability and achieve swaraj.

Question 5.
All India Women’s Conference was established in the year 1936.
Answer:
All India Women’s Conference was established in the year 1926.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India

Question 6.
Mahatma Gandhi referred to dams as ‘Temples of Modern India’.
Answer:
Jawaharlal Nehru referred to dams as ‘Temples of Modern India’.

Question 7.
The historical Great Bombay Textile Strike started in August 1960.
Answer:
The historical Great Bombay Textile Strike started in January 1982.

Question 8.
A social movement is individual in nature.
Answer:
A social movement is collective in nature.

2. Write short notes.

Question 1.
Factors or Causes of Social Movements
Answer:
There are various factors of social unrest that lead to a social movement, they are as follows:
Cultural drift: A cultural drift may imply a rapid change in values, ideas, and expectations in society. When the gap between what is expected and what is accepted widens beyond the permissible range in a given society, conflict emerges, resulting in the possibility of a social movement. In the course of cultural drift, the people develop new ideas. To get these ideas operative in society they organize movements.
Example: Development of democratic society, the emancipation of women, removal of the caste system.

Social disorganisation: A changing society is to some extent disorganised because changes in different parts of society don’t take place simultaneously. One part changes and the other is left behind. Industrialisation and urbanisation brought uneven and inequitable growth in society which in turn caused a number of social problems in the already existing norms. New norms clash with the already established norms, which brings confusion and uncertainty.

Perceived social injustice: When a group of people develops a sense of dissatisfaction and discontent towards certain decisions taken by the authority, they feel frustrated and unhappy. Such a feeling can result in a sense of social injustice, eventually developing into a movement. Frustration and alienation can result in social movement, e.g., workers’ movement.

Rigidity in the normative structure: Social norms are set behaviour pattern that is seen every society to maintain order and stability. However, in certain cases, these norms lose their flexibility and thus do not match the expectations of the masses. Behaviour Patterns have to match with the normative structure of the society. Rigidity in the normative structure demands transformation in the social system, thus social movements arise where ever there is discontent and social unrest in the society.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India

Question 2.
Chipko Movement
Answer:
It was started by Amrita Devi, marked by the Gandhian principle of non-violence, and is known for the active participation of women in it. Chipko stands for ‘hug-the-tree’. The movement was started in 1973, in Chamoli district, under the leadership of Sunderlal Bahuguna.

It is said that the villagers hugged or embraced or stuck to the trees in the forest to prevent them from being cut by the contractors. The livelihood of inhabitants residing there is closely linked to the forests. However, demographic and economic factors led to indiscriminate use of forests resulting in deforestation.

Processes of industrialisation and development led to improvement in the means of transport and communication. People involved in developmental projects challenged the established claim of local people on forests. Loss of means of livelihood affected and angered people leading to the emergence of the movement.

In April 1973, when the contractors along with the workers reached Mandal village to cut trees and to clear jungles spaces allotted to them by the State government, the inhabitants resisted this action of the government, and to mark their protest they hugged the trees. The action happened at a mass level, as a result of which the authorities had to retreat. The women of the village also participated in the protest. This incident boosted the morale of several other groups facing similar problems to get together and to protest against deforestation.

Later on, the government set up a committee to look into the matter which eventually ruled in favour of the villagers, here Chipko Movement became a turning point in the history of eco-development struggles in the region and around the world.

Question 3.
Workers’ Movement in India
Answer:
With the advent of the factory system, there emerged two classes in society namely, the industrialists and the labourers. Since modern industry thrives on profit maximisation, the exploitation of workers in terms of extraction of work, minimisation of wages, long hours of work, delays in promotion, reduced wages, poor work conditions, became a feature of industrialising societies. Such situations prompted workers to get together to protest against the system in India.

The course of the industrial working-class movement can broadly be divided into four phases.
(i) Emergence of the Workers’ Movement (1850 to 1918)
The first phase of protests was by groups of workers without prior planning and organisation.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India

In March 1875 Shapurji Bengalee revolted against the bad conditions of labour, which resulted in the enactment of the First Factories Act in 1881.

The first workers’ organisation in India, the ‘Bombay Mill Hands Association’ was started on 23rd September 1884 under the guidance of Narayan Meghaji Lokhande who is recognised as the Father of the Indian Workers’ Movement.

He organised a conference of mill workers in the Bombay Presidency to consolidate the demands and problems of workers and passed resolutions to improve the conditions.

The second phase was marked by a conscious understanding of the issues and problems faced by workers which led to the formation of Trade Unions. According to many scholars, it was more like a movement for workers, than a movement by workers

(ii) Rise of Pressure Groups (1918 to 1947)
After World War I, several changes in the economy and industry took place. However, the wages and work conditions for workers did not improve. This resulted in mass discontent and unrest.

Several strikes from the period 1918 to 1920 made workers’ dissatisfaction intense.

The emergence of Trade Unions as a pressure group can be said to be a very important development in the Workers’ movement. All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC) was established under the chairmanship of Lala Lajpat Rai. Inl926, the government passed the Indian Trade Union Act whereby all registered unions were granted constitutional recognition. The Bombay Textile Labour Union which operated under the leadership of N. M. Joshi was the first union to get its recognition under the Act in 1926.

The period also witnessed the emergence of the Leftist ideology with a prominent influence of Marxian thought in the Workers’ Movement. The world economic crisis is known as the ‘Great Depression’ adversely affected. The strikes increased and leaders like Muzaffer Ahmed and Shripad Amrut Dange played an important role in intensifying workers’ struggle. The Trade Unions diversified according to different ideological orientations. In order to bring in coordination, the National Trade Union Federation (NTUF) was established.

(iii) Role of INTUC (1948 to 1960)
In the year 1947, the Indian National Trade Union Congress (INTUC) was formed. In1948 a separate organisation, independent of political affiliation, to safeguard and promote the rights of workers was established. It was known as Hind Mazdoor Sabha (HMS). Those who did not agree with the principles of HMS consequently established a parallel body called United Trade Union Congress UTUC) in 1949. The Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh (BMS) was established in the yearl955. When Congress came to power inl947 the activities of Trade Unions were scrutinised and even criticised.

In the subsequent years strike continued to be used as a mechanism by workers, against industrialists. In thel960s the grievances among the workers were pertaining to wages, bonuses, overtime – which consequently changed to suspension from work, unfair dismissal, and workers’ rights. Every established political party developed its own Trade Union wing with the purpose of having an element of control on workers and expanding its vote bank.

Similarly, a split in a party resulted in the division of unions. For example, when the Communist wing split into CPI and CPM, the Union was taken over by CPI and the latter established a separate body called the Centre for Indian Trade Unions (CITU).

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India

(iv) Consolidation and Diversification of the Movement (after 1960)
The 1960s witnessed a lull in economic growth and expansion. The Industrial Disputes Act 1947, was passed to ensure industrial peace and harmony by providing a mechanism and procedure for the investigation and settlement of industrial disputes. The Workers’ Movement lost its momentum after the 1970s.

The historical Great Bombay Textile Strike started in January 1982, by the mill workers in Mumbai, under the Union leader Datta Samant. In all 65 textile mills, which implied 250,000 workers, stopped working. Along with the demand for a wage hike, Datta Samant also demanded scrapping of the Bombay Industrial Act of 1947. The then, the government firmly rejected the demand of the workers’ unions. The strike continued for years, resulting in a major loss for the industry and extreme pauperisation among workers.

As per the Report of Labour Bureau of the Ministry of Labour, Government of India, 2012, there were approximately 16,154 Trade Unions in India. Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh continues to be the largest Trade Union in India Certain prominent Central Trade Union Organisations recognized by the Ministry of Labour, Government of India are AITUC (All India Trade Union Congress), INTUC (Indian National Trade Union Congress), and SEWA (Self Employed Women’s Association). The trade unions are often affiliated with larger federations.

Question 4.
Significant Environmental Movements in India
Answer:
The environmental movement surrounds issues related to ecology, health, human rights, tribal rights eco-feminism, etc. Harsh Sethi has presented five prominent categories of struggles associated with environmentalism, namely

  • forest and forest resources
  • land use
  • water
  • anti-dam
  • against different types of pollution and marine resources.

Some significant environmental movements are mentioned below:
(i) Chipko Movement
It was started by Amrita Devi, marked by the Gandhian principle of non-violence, and is known for the active participation of women in it. Chipko stands for ‘hug-the-tree’. The movement was started in 1973 in Chamoli district, under the leadership of Sunderlal Bahuguna.

The livelihood of inhabitants residing there is closely linked to the forests. However, demographic and economic factors led to indiscriminate use of forests resulting in deforestation.

Processes of industrialisation and development led to improvement in the means of transport and communication.

People involved in developmental projects challenged the established claim of local people on forests. Loss of means of livelihood affected and angered people leading to the emergence of the movement.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India

In April 1973, when the contractors along with the workers reached Mandal village to cut trees and to clear jungles spaces allotted to them by the State government, the inhabitants resisted this action of the government, and to mark their protest they hugged the trees. The action happened at a mass level, as a result of which the authorities had to retreat. The women of the village also participated in the protest. This incident boosted the morale of several other groups facing similar problems to get together and to protest against deforestation.

(ii) Narmada Bachao Andolan
In the post-Independence period, several large-scale dam projects were sanctioned. The impact of building dams in most cases is displacement, which leads to loss of livelihood for tribal and local people.

Narmada is the largest West-flowing river supporting the habitat, which includes tribal and rural pockets also. The construction of the Sardar Sarovar Dam on the river Narmada would have generated huge revenue for the government. The supporters claimed that it would have been a source of power and drinking water to the neighbouring settlement, villages, and towns.

When it was realised that the building of a dam would deprive local inhabitants of their livelihood and displace them, the need to mobilise and protest against such a venture was felt. In 1985, the Narmada Bachao Andolan (NBA) emerged as one of the powerful resistance movements under the leadership of Medha Patkar.

It became an international movement and thousands of_ activists from India and abroad joined hands against the construction of this dam. In October 1994, Medha Patkar went on an indefinite dharna to pressurise the three State governments.

The movement suggested the use of alternative methods for the generation of electricity and adequate rehabilitation of the displaced.

The Narmada Bachao Andolan has brought issues of sustainable development to the forefront. It has questioned the validity of policy decisions about development and the utility of the same.

3. Write differences.

Question 1.
Social change and Social movement
Answer:

Social change Social movement
(i) Meaning: A social change is a change in social structure and social relationships. (i) Meaning: A social movement is a collectivity or a collective enterprise to establish a new order of life.
(ii) Feature: Social change is a continuous and ongoing process. (ii) Feature: Social movements are directed towards some specific goals.
(iii) Direction: Social change does not follow any sequence. (iii) Direction: A social movement has a life cycle – it emerges, operates for the specified cause, and declines.
(iv) Planned/Unplanned: Social change is embedded in society, it may not always be a deliberate and conscious struggle. (iv) Planned/Unplanned: A social movement is an organized and planned activity.
(v) Universality: Social change is universal and inevitable in society. (v) Universality: Social movements cannot be said that they are universally present all the time in all societies.
(vi) Effects: Social change effects are seen in all social, economic, political, and cultural aspects of society. (vi) Effects: Social movement’s effects are seen in certain specific aspects of society.

4. Explain the following concepts with examples.

Question 1.
Women’s Empowerment
Answer:

  • Women’s Empowerment includes the action of raising the status of women through education, raising awareness, literacy, and training.
  • Women’s empowerment is equipping and allowing women to make life-determining decisions through the different problems in society.
  • The basic objectives of women’s empowerment is equal rights for women elimination of discriminatory practices, realisation, and actualisation of women’s potential to empower themselves.
  • Example – Women from different professions like journalism, academics, medicines, and corporates have enthusiastically joined in the mission of empowering women.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India

5A. Complete the concept map.

Question 1.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India 5A Q1
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India 5A Q1.1

Question 2.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India 5A Q2
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India 5A Q2.1

Question 3.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India 5A Q3
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India 5A Q3.1

Question 4.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India 5A Q4
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India 5A Q4.1

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India

Question 5.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India 5A Q5
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India 5A Q5.1

5B. State whether the following statements are True or False with reasons.

Question 1.
Social movements are individual actions.
Answer:
This statement is False.

Social movements are not an individual action it involves collective action. Social movements take place when a large group of people comes together to achieve a common goal to promote or resist change in society.

A single individual cannot demonstrate or struggle alone to change the social system. It is a type of group, of action that involves the collective action of individuals or organisation.

When a group of people develops a sense of dissatisfaction and discontent towards certain decisions taken by the authority, they feel frustrated and unhappy. Such a feeling can result in a sense of social injustice, eventually culminating in a movement.

For example, the roots of the Women’s Movement can roughly be traced to the beginning of the 19th century, when small groups of women and a few enlightened (progressive) men addressed the issue of the unequal status of women in India. Thus, a social movement is a collective effort.

Question 2.
A social movement is oriented toward bringing about social change.
Answer:
This statement is True.

Social movements and social change are interconnected. This implies that every social movement aims to alter society and thus is instrumental in bringing about change.

The social movement demands change. Social movements when takes place it aims to alter society.

The social change may be to establish a new order of life or it resists change initiated by authorities thus social movement’s promises to bring about social change. It takes decades to bring about change in the way things have always been done or sometimes to prevent such a change from coming about.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India

The Women’s Movement started in the British period with social reforms, brought about changes for women The Workers’ Movement focuses on sees the emergence of trade unions to protect the rights of the workers in an industrializing society.

These are examples of social movements establishing a new order of life. The Environmental Movement has concentrated on the various issues affecting the environment is an example of resisting change.

Question 3.
The national movement witnessed decreased participation of women.
Answer:
This statement is False.

The Nationalist Movement witnessed increased participation of women. The impact of Gandhiji on the thought and participation of women was manifold. Women became aware of their rights and mobilised to fight for political independence. Women participated in large numbers in protests and agitations during the independence struggle. When men freedom fighters were imprisoned their women counterparts handled the difficult and challenging circumstances.

Women activities participated in the national movement, women leaders like Kasturba Gandhi, Yijayalakshmi Pandit, Annie Besant, and Sarojini Naidu and many more participated in various movements like Civil Disobedience Movement, Women Suffrage, (right to vote) Home Rule Movement, etc. In addition, Muthulaxmi Reddy, Rajkumari Amrit Kaur, Sarala Devi, Sucheta Kriplani, Aruna Asaf Ali participated in the Non-violence Movement. The Quit India Resolution passed in the year 1942, addressed women as ‘Disciplined Soldiers of Indian Freedom.

Mahatma Gandhi was an instrumental force in bringing women into the fold of the national movement. His thoughts influenced women to fight for political independence thus participation of women in various freedom struggles made them speak up for their rights and the importance of living life as conscious human beings.

Question 4.
The scope of the environmental movement is limited in bringing about changes in society.
Answer:
This statement is False.

The scope of the movement is wide and inclusive in the sense it has incorporated within its folds, categories that are marginalized for different reasons, like tribal, farmers, and women. The movement has utilized non-violent yet, assertive means to present its agenda of preservation of the environment.

Environmentalism is a broad philosophy. It is centered on a genuine concern for the conservation and improvement of the habitat around us, more specifically the environment and civilization. Several direct and indirect threats to the well-being of human life are perceived as an inevitable consequence of modernisation and industrialisation.

Thus, the scope of environmental movements is not limited, as it covers a wide range of issues.
The Movement stressed on protection of the environment, save forest life, ecology, health, and human rights issues, etc.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India

This movement inspired many activists from different backgrounds and villagers. They came together to fight for their rights and save the environment.

The spatial scope of various environmental movements ranges from being local to almost global level bringing about drastic changes in the society.

Question 5.
Several revolts by peasants and farmers took place during the early part of British rule.
Answer:
This statement is True.

The early part of British rule was marked by an exploitative revenue system. The farmers and peasants had to rely on money-lenders to pay Lagaan (Taxes) to the British authorities. During this phase, the Zamindari system became prevalent, through which landlords could snatch away land from poor farmers when the farmers were unable to pay taxes.

Many small cultivators lost their rights over their hereditary land and resources. The problem was further compounded by famines and natural calamities during this period. Indebtedness increased and exploitation multiplied.

This led to massive discontent among farmers. Several revolts took place during this period. To name a few, the Deccan riots against money lenders, the upsurge by Bengal tenants against Zamindari, the Punjab Kisan struggles against money lenders, etc. During 1917-18 two peasant struggles led by the National Congress are important, namely, the Champaran Struggle in Bihar against indigo planters and the Satyagraha Movement of the peasants in Kaira against the collection of land revenue in a situation of crop failure. The Congress formed Peasant Committees to take note of the unrest and demands of peasant grievances.

Question 6.
The Post-Independence period witnessed a slowing down of the Women’s Movement.
Answer:
This statement is True.

The Post- Independence period witnessed a slowing down of the Women’s Movement because political independence overshadowed its focus and purpose. The Constitution of India incorporated several clauses highlighting equality and justice to the Indian citizens, men, and women alike.

Several issues like tribal unrest, economic crisis, and student agitation led to collective struggles and protests, thus taking away the singular focus of the women’s movement.

A committee was formed to study the status ‘Towards Equality’ addressed issues of invisibility of women, patriarchy, and violence against women.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India

The committee published its report in the year 1974. The findings of the report proved to be of pivotal importance because they brought to the forefront the discriminatory and exploitative practices against women in Post-Independent India.

This phase of the Women’s Movement focused more on violence against women, sex stereotyping, and further legislative demands for the equality of women.

6. Answer the following question in detail in about 150 words.

Question 1.
“Farmers continue to suffer in India”.
With reference to this statement, Discuss the Farmers’ struggle in India is documented with reference to the following important phases and comment on how the movement has affected them
(i) Emergence of Kisan Sabhas
(ii) Post-Independence period
Answer:
India is predominantly an agricultural country. A majority of the Indian population follows agriculture-related occupations. Farmers are a geographically scattered category.

Unequal distribution of land, the uncertainty of rainfall, shortage of quality seeds, pesticides, etc., lead to less yield and is the root cause of farmers’ poor situation, it seems due to industrialisation, urbanisation, and globalisation primary sector is neglected and farmers are forced to commit suicide. However, instances of the consolidation of their power as a response to unrest and suppression are documented in Indian history.

(i) Emergence of Kisan Sabhas (1922 to 1946)
The initiative by the Congress party to support the interests of landlords and Zamindars triggered a protest among the farmers. The Congress supporting the capitalists did not go down well with a section of struggling farmers.

In 1926-27 many Kisan Sabhas were organised in Bengal, Punjab, and Uttar Pradesh with revolutionary plans in mind. The Kisan Sabha movement started in Bihar under the leadership of Swami Sahajanand Saraswati, with the purpose of -raising voices against the Zamindari system. The representatives of the Kisan Sabhas from Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, presented a memorandum in the All-Party Conference, covering the major demands.

Two struggles of the peasantry of Bardoli district (Gujarat) broke out in succession; the first in 1928-29 and the second in 1930-31. The movement gathered momentum in the 1930s. In 1935, the first Kisan Congress was held which was successful in putting forth the unrest and agony of farmers. This resulted in the formation of the All India Kisan Sabha.

The struggle spread to the other parts of India as well. In Punjab, the farmers’ movement erupted under the leadership of Raja Mahendra Pratap. The Ghadar party played a very important role in mobilising farmers and peasants of Punjab together. In Gujarat, Mahatma Gandhi led the struggle of poor farmers against the British government in Kheda. In the Southern belt (e.g. in Andhra Pradesh), the struggle erupted against the Forest Law. This phase is also characterised by the worsening of peasant position, consequently culminating in a series of revolts and rebellious actions.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India

(ii) Post-Independence period
Political independence did not translate into the improvement of the conditions for peasants and farmers. The emergence of the farmers’ movement in the Post-Independence era can be located somewhere in the 1970s. Understandably the unrest was felt in the States that was agriculturally, commercially developed States, in their economic orientation. E.g. Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu. New Ideological perspectives influenced the course of the movement in the Post¬Independence era.

In the 1960s and 70s, the movement became more organised. Charan Singh became a very important name in the farmers’ struggle. He opposed heavy mechanisation and industrialisation; and championed low capital investment in agriculture. He formed the Bharatiya Kranti Dal (BKD) and the Bhartiya Lok Dal (BLD) in 1974.

By the 1970s farmers started forming their groups, without the backing of any political organisation. In 1973 a convention of farmers was held in New Delhi; it was followed by yet another convention in 1978. It presented a 20-point charter of demands to the government. Demands like representation of farmers on decision-making bodies, bridging the imbalance between agriculture and industry, etc., were included during this time.

Tamil Nadu and Punjab witnessed the emergence of strong farmers’ organizations. In 1980, the formation of the Shetkari Sangatana under the leadership of Sharad Joshi a d Karnataka Rajya Ryot Sangh under the leadership of M. D. Nanjundaswamy are milestones in the Farmers’ movement in India.

With the processes of industrialisation and globalisation, conditions have changed rapidly for farmers. With seasonal fluctuations apathy of the government and negligence by the masses, farmers continue to suffer in India. Farmer’s suicide has become a common affair. In March 2018 thousands of farmers from different parts of Maharashtra got together to march to Azad Maidan (Mumbai), to convey to the government their grievances and frustrations.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 5 Social Movements in India

For the first time ever, the term ‘Farmers’ Strike’ was used by media personnel, when farmers ignored the market in disgust, throwing agricultural produce on roads. A radically new chapter was added to the farmers’ movement in India.

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