Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 3 Key Concepts and Issues Since 1991: Humanitarian Issues

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 3 Key Concepts and Issues Since 1991: Humanitarian Issues Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 3 Key Concepts and Issues Since 1991: Humanitarian Issues

1. (A) Complete the following statements by selecting the appropriate option.

Question 2.
Today the Indian approach to gender issues focuses on
(a) Education
(b) Welfare
(c) Development
(d) Empowerment
Answer:
(d) Empowerment

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 3 Key Concepts and Issues Since 1991: Humanitarian Issues

Question 3.
The first UN Conference on Human Environment was held in 1972 in
(a) Johannesburg
(b) Stockholm
(c) Rio
(d) New Delhi
Answer:
(b) Stockholm

(B) Identify the incorrect pair in every set and correct it.

Question 1.
(a) JGSY – Infrastructure development in rural areas
(b) PMKVY – Skill training to youth
(c) MGNREGA – Housing for everyone
Answer:
(c) MGNREGA – assured employment every year for every rural household

Question 2.
(a) National Commission for Women – 1992
(b) Planning Commission – 2015
(c) Rio+20 summit – 2012
Answer:
(b) Planning Commission – 1950

(C) Find the odd word in the given set.

Question 1.
National policy for empowerment of women, protection of women from domestic violence act, Muslim women (protection and right on marriage) Act, the secual harassment at workplace (prohibition prevention and readressal) Act.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 3 Key Concepts and Issues Since 1991: Humanitarian Issues

Question 2.
Climate change, waste management, water scarity, deforestation.

2. State whether the following statements are true or false with reason.

Question 1.
Planning Commission was created to promote agriculture in India.
Answer:
This statement is False.

  1. The Planning Commission was set up in 1950 to formulate a plan for the effective and balanced utilisation of the country’s resources.
  2. It’s function was to prepare Five Year Plans to tackle poverty, employment and promote the Welfare State. The Green Revolution was introduced to promote agriculture in India.

Question 2.
National Commission for Women was set up to protect rights for women in India.
Answer:
This statement is True.

  1. National Commission for Women was set up to facilitate the redressal of grievances of women.
  2. It aimed to safeguard the rights and legal entitlements of women and accelerate their socio¬economic development.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 3 Key Concepts and Issues Since 1991: Humanitarian Issues

3. Explain the correlation between the following.

Question 1.
Women Empowerment and Sustainable Development.
Answer:
Empowerment is a process by which any category of oppressed persons gain control over their own lives by developing self esteem and courage to fight against injustice. Sustainable development refers to development using resources in a way that allows for them to renew or to continue to exist for other e.g., recycling materials. This seems almost impossible without gender equality and women’s empowerment. Women are empowered when they are able to access opportunities without restrictions such as in education, career, etc.,

Women’s economic empowerment refers to the ability of women to enjoy their right to control and benefit from resources, income etc as well as the ability to improve their economic status and well-being. Political empowerment includes affirmative action policies to increase participation of women in parliamentary / government positions and policymaking. Thus, women’s empowerment is a key factor for sustainable economic growth, social development and environmental sustainability.

Question 2.
Poverty and Development
Answer:
Poverty refers to deprivation of the basic necessities such as food, clothing, health services, education, etc., that determine quality of life. In economic terms, it is expressed as the poverty line. Development means some measurable improvement in some particular area. Alleviation or even eradication of poverty is the most important aim of developmental work.

Poverty is related to other problems of underdevelopment such as unemployment and inequalities. It hinders economic development as well as leads to issues of health, sanitation and disease, housing, crime, etc. Poverty alleviation i.e., set of economic and humanitarian measures, such as good governance, economic growth, government support in health education etc., are important for development.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 3 Key Concepts and Issues Since 1991: Humanitarian Issues

4. Answer the following questions in 80 to 100 words.

Question 1.
Explain the traditional and non-traditional perception of poverty.

Question 2.
From 1960’s to 21 century what efforts has India taken to achieve development?

5. Answer the following question with reference to the given points.

Question 1.
Explain condition of women in India.
(a) Economic inequality
(b) Trafficking and exploitation
(c) Literacy rate
(d) Political representation
Answer:
All over the world, women have to face serious problems such as discrimination and violence, under-representation in economic and political decision-making, inequalities in education, health care, landholdings and workplaces and even in human rights.

Some of the important gender issues:
(a) Economic inequality – Participation of women in the labour market is about 28% only.
There is also income inequality due to wide gender wage gaps as well as inequality of opportunities to women e.g., unequal access to education and finance. In many countries, women are either not encouraged to work or employed in the informal sector. Women continue to be underrepresented in high-level, highly paid positions and experience gender discrimination and sexual harassment in the workplace. Women experience high levels of poverty, unemployment and other economic hardships.

(b) Trafficking and exploitation – Women are often exploited and denied basic rights. They are trafficked for purpose of sexual and economic exploitation particularly prostitution, ‘sold’ as brides, subjected to sexual crimes, forced labour, street begging, etc. Trafficking in women means that they are deceived or forced/sold, physically confined, abused with no access to protection or health care.

(c) Literacy rate – low literacy among women is acute in India. As per 2011 census report, female literacy rate is only 65.46% while for males it is 82.14%. The reasons for the low female literacy are-

  1. traditional patriarchal notions that do not consider female education as economically advantageous
  2. Schools in rural areas are not easily accessible and travel may not safe or easy.
  3. Benefits of schemes like R.T.E have not reached many rural females.
  4. Social evils like child marriage, female foeticide, dowry, etc.

(d) Political Representation – Poor political representation of women is a significant gender concern in India. The First Lok Sabha had only 24 women of total 489 members i.e., 5% and the 17th Lok Sabha (2019) has 78 women (14%). This is the highest representation of women in Lok Sabha till date. The Women’s Reservation Bill which proposes to reserve 33% of all seats in Lok Sabha and in State Assemblies for women is pending in the Lok Sabha. However, there exists 33% reservation for women in rural and urban local bodies.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 3 Key Concepts and Issues Since 1991: Humanitarian Issues

Activity

Question 1.
Find out information on international agreements on environmental balance. (Text Book Page No. 34)
Answer:
1. Stockholm conference (Declaration of UN Conference on Human Environment, 1972) led to a 109 point Environmental Action Plan and establishment of the UN Environmental programme (UNEP).

2. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Faura (CITES) (1973) – grouped almost 30,000 plant and animal species into three levels of protection depending on the degree of regulation required.

3. Montreal Protocol (1987) – For protection of the ozone layer. It phases out production and use of ozone depleting chemicals.

4. Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) (1992) – The aim was to promote conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.

5. Kyoto Protocol (1997) – It supplements the 1992 UN Framework Convention on Climate change (UNFCCC) to limit six greenhouse gas emissions. It involved 37 countries and the UN.

6. Paris Agreement (2016) – It is an agreement within the UNFCCC, dealing with greenhouse gas emissions and strengthening global response to the threat of climate change.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 3 Key Concepts and Issues Since 1991: Humanitarian Issues

Question 2.
Find out percentage of handicapped voters in 17th Lok Sabha suggest measures to increase their percentage.

Class 12 Political Science Chapter 3 Key Concepts and Issues Since 1991: Humanitarian Issues Intext Questions and Answers

ACTIVITY (Text Book Page No.26)

Question 1.
What are the different initiatives taken by the Indian Government to protect the environment?
Answer:
1. Swachh Bharat Abhiyan was launched on October 2, 2014 to achieve the mission of a clean India in both rural and urban areas. It was implemented by the Ministry of Drinking water and sanitation and the Ministry of Urban Development respectively. Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) aims to make India Open Defecation Free (ODF) For Urban Areas, it includes elimination of ODF, eradication of manual scavenging and proper solid waste management.

2. Namami Gange Programme (Clean Ganga Project) is implemented by the National Mission for Clean Ganga to conserve and rejuvenate the river Ganga. The centre allocated a total of Rs 20000 crore for the project. The key achievements include sewerage treatment capacity, river front development and surface cleaning of the river.

3. Green Skill Development Programme was launched in June 2017 by the MoEF and CC. It refers to skills that contribute to preserve and restore the environment, thus enabling youth to be employed or self-employment. Green skills include Pollution Monitoring, Waste Management, Forest and Wildlife Management, etc.

4. Constitutional Provisions – Article 48 (DPSP) says the State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment. Article 51-A States that it shall be the duty of every citizen of India to protect and improve the natural environment.

5. Legislation – (i) Indian Wild Life Protection Act (1972) Forest Conservation Act (1980) and Environment (Protection) Act (1986)
(ii) National Environmental Policy (2006) Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate change (MoEF and CC) along with Pollution Control Boards administer and enforce environmental laws. There is also the National Green Tribunal.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 3 Key Concepts and Issues Since 1991: Humanitarian Issues

Question 2.
Salient Features of National Policy for Women (2016). (Text Book Page No.33)
Answer:
National Policy for Women was unveiled by Union WCD Minister, Smt Maneka Gandhi on 17th May 2016. It will replace National Policy for Empowerment of Women (2001). It shifts the focus from entitlements to rights and from mere empowerment to creating an enabling environment for women. It seeks to create conducive socio-cultural, economic and political environment to enable women to enjoy fundamental rights and realize their full potential. It’s priority areas include health, food security and nutrition, education, involving women in governance and decision making, encouraging entrepreneurship, facilitating women in the workplace and dealing with violence against women.

Question 3.
Find out information on international agreements on environmental balance. (Text Book Page No. 34)
Answer:
1. Stockholm conference (Declaration of UN Conference on Human Environment, 1972) led to a 109 point Environmental Action Plan and establishment of the UN Environmental programme (UNEP).

2. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Faura (CITES) (1973) – grouped almost 30,000 plant and animal species into three levels of protection depending on the degree of regulation required.

3. Montreal Protocol (1987) – For the protection of the ozone layer. It phases out production and use of ozone-depleting chemicals.

4. Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) (1992) – The aim was to promote conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.

5. Kyoto Protocol (1997) – It supplements the 1992 UN Framework Convention on Climate change (UNFCCC) to limit six greenhouse gas emissions. It involved 37 countries and the UN.

6. Paris Agreement (2016) – It is an agreement within the UNFCCC, dealing with greenhouse gas emissions and strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change.

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