Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Political Science Solutions Chapter 1 The State Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
Maharashtra State Board Class 11 Political Science Solutions Chapter 1 The State
1A. Choose the appropriate alternative and complete the following statements.
The term Nation is derived from the Latin word ___________ (Nasci, Natio, Natalis, Nauto)
The origin of Liberal Nationalism is in the ___________ Revolution. (American, Russian, French, British)
1B. Identify the incorrect pair in every set, correct it and rewrite.
(a) Aristotle – German Thinker
(b) Jean Bodin – French Thinker
(c) Woodrow Wilson – American Thinker
(d) Harold Laski – British Thinker
(a) Aristotle – Greek Thinker
1C. State the appropriate concept for the given statements.
The force which holds the people to a sense of political loyalty to the country –
The area of the State within which it has the authority to govern –
2. State whether the following statements are true or false with reasons.
Progressive Nationalism can create differences amongst people.
This statement is False.
- Progressive nationalism is integral nationalism that can help people of a society to unite and to promote development towards the objective of national integration.
- Aggressive nationalism is destructive and can create differences amongst people.
Sovereignty means State has the freedom to take its own decision.
This statement is True.
- Sovereignty refers to the supreme power of the state internally as well as externally.
- The State is free from external control and also legally sovereign with its own independent constitution.
Palestine is a State.
This statement is False.
- The state has four essential elements i.e. population, territory, government, and sovereignty. Palestine does not have a sovereign government. Its territory is under Israeli jurisdiction.
- Hence, Palestine is a nation, not a State although more than 100 members of the UNO have given recognition to Palestine as a State.
Expansionist Nationalism is a type of Aggressive Nationalism.
This statement is True.
- In the expansionist form of nationalism, countries become aggressive, imperialist, and colonialist, and create empires for national glory.
- This has been noticed in Nazi Germany Fascist Italy.
3. Express your opinion of the following.
India is a State.
I agree with the above statement.
In Political Science, the term ‘State’ is used to describe a sovereign country. Anti-colonial nationalism led to the freedom struggle in India and subsequent independence from British Rule in 1947.
Any state has the following elements:
- Sovereignty: India achieved the status of a Sovereign Republic on 26th January 1950 when its constitution came into effect.
- Government: As a British colony, there was a government but it was not a sovereign government However, after political independence, a Sovereign, Parliamentary, Federal government was constituted in India.
- Territory: India is defined by its geographical boundaries. Its jurisdiction extends all over its compact territory, now comprising of 29 states and 7 union territories.
- Population: India has a vast population, exhibiting great diversity in terms of ethnicity/race, region and language, culture, religion, and so on. Thus, we can conclude that India is a nation-state.
4. Answer the following questions.
What are the features of a Nation?
The word ‘nation’ is derived from the Latin word ‘Nasci’ meaning ‘to be born’. Thus, the literal meaning of a nation is a people having a common race/ethnicity or cultural linkages. Earnest Barker defines a nation as a body of men, inhabiting a definite territory, who normally are drawn from different races but possess a common stock of thoughts and feelings acquired and transmitted during the course of common history.
A nation refers to a large group of people, united in common bonds of geography, race, history, religion, language, sharing common objectives.
Features of a Nation:
- Population: A nation must have a population that has a sense of ethnic, historical, and cultural oneness.
- Feeling of community: The emotional dimension of a nation is a perception held by the population of psychological oneness i.e., they are a community.
- Desire to be politically separate: A feeling of unity and of being a nation is a product of the urge for ‘self-determination’. This can lead to a demand for self-governance. This signifies that people who feel united should have the right to decide the type of government that they prefer.
What is Nationalism? Explain its types.
Nationalism is a force that binds the people to a sense of integrity and loyalty to their country. It is a spirit of oneness or common consciousness that binds a community together. Nationalism is a sense of political identity and emotional attachment to one’s ‘homeland’.
The forms of Nationalism from a political perspective are:
- Liberal Nationalism: Its origins are in the ideals of the French Revolution. President Woodrow Wilson linked the concept of a nation to the right to self-determination and sovereignty.
- Conservative Nationalism: It views a nation as a closely linked society with great importance to patriotism and the concept of ‘motherland’.
- Expansionist Nationalism: It is aggressive nationalism, which leads to imperialism, conquest, and colonialism. It has been seen in European imperialism by countries like England, Italy, Spain, France, etc.
- Anticolonial Nationalism: It refers to liberation struggles for independence from colonial rule, e.g., Indonesian freedom struggle from Dutch colonial rule.
5. Answer the following question in detail with reference to the given points.
Explain the following elements of the State.
(a) Sovereignty: It signifies the supreme power of the State internally as well as externally. It means an independent nation with its own constitution.
(b) Government: This refers to the agency through which the will of the state is expressed. Modern governments have three organs viz. legislature, executive, and judiciary. Government must be independent. Institutions of the State are ‘public’ institutions and have the legitimacy to act on behalf of the State. These institutions are responsible for making and implementing laws to promote the general welfare of the people. There are various kinds of government based on their creation or style of function for e.g., democracy or dictatorship, republic or monarchy, presidential or parliamentary system, etc.
(c) Population: A State is an association of human beings. The progress of a State depends on the quality of the population. Some states viz. China, India, etc., have a large population while some States have a small population viz. Monaco, Belgium, etc. The population may be homogeneous e.g., Israel or diverse e.g. erstwhile USSR comprised of many nationalities like Russians, Ukrainians, Latvians, etc. Thus a ‘State’ may comprise of many ‘nations’.
(d) Territory: A State is recognized by its territory. This includes the land area within its boundaries, the airspace above the area, and surrounding territorial waters (up to 12 nautical miles). The area within which the State has the authority to govern is called its jurisdiction. Some states have a small territory e.g., Sri Lanka, Bhutan, Maldives, etc., while other States e.g., Brazil, Russia, India, and Australia have a large territory. Most States have compact territory e.g., India, while some states which exist as islands have scattered territory e.g., Indonesia.
Activity (Text Book Page No.8)
Identify the States with the smallest territory and largest territory on the world map.
States having the largest territory: Russia, Canada, USA, China, Brazil, Australia, India, Argentina, Kazakhstan, Algeria, etc.
States with the smallest territory: Vatican City, Monaco, Nauru, San Marino, Maldives, Singapore, Mauritius, Fiji, etc.